1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers >
1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population
without double counting : residents of multiple communes (e.g.,
students and military personnel) only counted once.
ANTIBES (/ɒnˈtiːb/ , French: ; Provençal
Occitan : Antíbol) is
a Mediterranean resort in the
Alpes-Maritimes department of
southeastern France, on the Côte d\'Azur between
The town of
Juan-les-Pins is in the commune of
Antibes and the Sophia
Antipolis technology park is northwest of it.
* 1 History
* 1.1 Origins
* 1.2 Colony of Marseille
* 1.3 Roman Antipolis
* 1.3.1 Aqueducts
* 1.3.2 Theatre and amphitheatre
* 1.3.3 Town houses or Villas
* 1.4 Antipolis in late antiquity
* 2 In the modern era
* 3 Culture
* 3.1 Conservation
* 3.2 Sports
* 3.3 Music
* 4 Sights
* 4.1 Beaches
* 4.2 Museums
* 4.3 Parks and gardens
* 4.4 Garoupe Lighthouse
* 4.5 Church of the Immaculate Conception
* 4.6 Hôtel du Cap-Eden Roc
* 4.7 Ports
* 4.8 Theatre and music
* 4.9 Festivals
* 5 Climate
* 6 Shopping
* 7 Transport
* 8 Personalities
* 9 International relations
* 9.1 Twin towns – sister cities
* 10 See also
* 11 Notes
* 12 References
* 13 External links
Greeks in pre-Roman Gaul
Traces of occupation dating back to the early Iron Age have been
found in the areas of the castle and cathedral. Remains beneath the
Holy Spirit Chapel show there was an indigenous community with ties
with Mediterranean populations, including the Etruscans, as evidenced
by the presence of numerous underwater amphorae and wrecks off
Antibes. However, most trade was with the Greek world, via the
Phocaeans of Marseille.
COLONY OF MARSEILLE
Antibes was founded by Phocaeans from Massilia . As a Greek colony
(and Roman ) settlement, it was known as ANTIPOLIS
(Ἀντίπολις, Antípolis, lit. "Cross-City") from its position
Nice (anc. Nikaia).
Current research suggests that Antipolis was founded relatively late
(4th century BC), to benefit from the protection of Marseille with its
trade routes along the coast and strongholds like Olbia at
and trading posts such as Antipolis itself and later Nikaia; it is
mentioned by Strabo .
The exact location of the Greek city is not well known. Given Greek
colonial practices, it is likely that it was set at the foot of the
Antibes in today's old city. Traces of occupation in the
Hellenistic period have been identified around the castle and the
church (former cathedral). The goods unearthed during these
excavations show the dominance of imported products of the Marseilles
region, associated with Campanian and indigenous ceramics.
Early in the second century BC the Ligurian Deceates and Oxybiens
tribes launched repeated attacks against Nikaia and Antipolis. The
Greeks of Marseille appealed to Rome as they had already done a few
years earlier against the federation of
Salyens . In 154 BC the consul
Quintus Opimius defeated the Décéates and Oxybiens and took Aegythna
from the Décéates.
Rome gradually increased its hold over the Mediterranean coast. In 43
BC, Antipolis was officially incorporated in the propraetorial
(senatorial from 27 BC) province of Narbonesian Gaul , in which it
remained for the next 500 years. Antipolis grew into the largest town
in the region and a main entry point into Gaul. Roman artifacts such
as aqueducts , fortified walls, and amphoræ can still be seen today.
Fontveille Aqueduct; section of underground vault
The city was supplied with water by two aqueducts. The FONTVIEILLE
aqueduct rises in Biot and eventually joins the coast below the RN7
and the railway track at the Fort Carré. It was discovered and
restored in the 18th century by the Chevalier d'Aguillon for supplying
the modern city.
The aqueduct called the BOUILLIDE or Clausonnes rises near the town
of Valbonne. Monumental remains of aqueduct bridges are located in the
neighbourhood of Fugaret, in the forest of Valmasque and near the town
of Vallauris. Bouillide Aqueduct
Theatre And Amphitheatre
Like most Roman towns Antipolis possessed these buildings for shows
and entertainment. A Roman theatre is attested by the tombstone of the
child "Septentrion". The inscription says "he danced and was popular
on the stage of the theatre" . The theatre was located, like the
amphitheatre, between Rue de la République and Rue de Fersen, near
the Porte Royale. The back wall is positioned substantially next to
Rue Fourmillère. A radial wall was found on the right side of the bus
station. A plan of the theatre made in the 16th century is in the
Marciana National Library of Venice.
The remains of the amphitheatre were still visible at the end of the
17th century during the restructuring of the fortifications of the
city. A concentric oval was still visible in many plans of the
seventeenth century and in a map of
Antibes from the early nineteenth
century. These remains are now covered by the College of Fersen.
Town Houses Or Villas
Excavations in the old town have discovered well-preserved houses
showing some luxury. Among them, the most monumental are those in the
rectory garden of rue Clemenceau. These show a comparable level to
that of the Gallo-Roman domus such as those of
Large parts of the floor mosaic are organised around a courtyard with
a marble fountain. The building dates from the late third century,
although parts date from the end of the Hellenistic era or the end of
the Roman Republic. Another house paved with porphyry and green stone
was excavated between rue des Palmiers and the rue de la Blancherie.
The finds at the
Antibes Museum of Archaeology suggests the main
occupation between the 2nd and 4th century. Finds from the end of the
Hellenistic era and the end of the Roman Republic is present on both
ANTIPOLIS IN LATE ANTIQUITY
Antipolis became the seat of a bishopric in the 5th century. After
the disintegration of the Western
Roman Empire , various barbarian
tribes seized Antibes. This resulted in destruction and a long period
of instability. In the 10th century,
Antibes found a protector in
Seigneur Rodoart, who built extensive fortified walls around the town
and a castle in which to live. For the next 200 years, the town
experienced a period of renewal. Prosperity was short-lived, as the
whole region fell into disarray for several centuries. The inhabitants
Antibes stayed behind their strong city walls as a succession of
wars and epidemics ravaged the countryside. In the 1244, Antibes's
bishop moved his see to
Grasse . By the end of the 15th century, the
region was under the protection and control of King
Louis XI of
France. Relative stability returned, but the small port of Antibes
fell into obscurity.
IN THE MODERN ERA
Aerial view of Antibes, 2012
From around the middle of the 19th century the
Antibes area regained
its popularity, as wealthy people from around Europe discovered its
natural beauty and built luxurious homes there. It was transferred
from its former department of Var to the new one of
Alpes Maritimes in
1860. The harbor was again used for a "considerable" fishing industry
and the area exported dried fruit , salt fish , and oil .
First World War
First World War , it had been connected by rail with
most of its fortifications had been demolished to make way for new
residential districts. In 1926, the old Château Grimaldi in Antibes
was bought by the local municipality and later restored for use as a
Pablo Picasso came to the town in 1946, having visited his
friend and fellow painter Gerald Murphy and his wife Sara there in
1923, and was invited to stay in the castle. During his six-month
stay, Picasso painted and drew, as well as crafting ceramics and
tapestries. When he departed, Picasso left a number of his works to
the municipality. The castle has since become the Picasso Museum .
The On 25 May 1999 the town was the first in the départment to sign
the State Environment Charter, which pledges to actively conserve the
Sport is an important part of the local culture; the town hosts the
National Training Centre for basketball. The Jean Bunoz Sports Hall
hosted several games of the FIBA
EuroBasket 1999 . The city is home to
Olympique Antibes , a professional basketball team of France's top
LNB Pro A , which plays its home games at the Azur Arena
There is a jazz Festival,
Jazz à Juan , in July.
Plage de la Gravette, as seen from the city's walls The
rocky beaches of
Antibes Aerial view Penguins at
There are 48 beaches along the 25 km (16 miles) of coastline that
Antibes and Juan les Pins.
Archaeology Museum This museum sits atop the Promenade Amiral de
Grasse in the old Bastion St Andre, a 17th-century fortress. The
museum's collection focuses on the classical history of Antibes. Many
artifacts, sculptures and amphorae found in local digs and shipwrecks
from the harbour are displayed here. The views of the sea and
mountains from the promenade are spectacular. Naval Museum of Napoleon
Housed in a 17th-century stone fort and tower, this museum presents a
collection of Napoleonic memorabilia, paintings and naval models.
Several wall paintings show historic moments in Napoleon's reign and
there are also pieces of his clothing including one of the hats he
wore. Picasso Museum This museum houses one of the world's greatest
Picasso collections: 24 paintings, 44 drawings, 32 lithographs, 11
oils on paper, 80 pieces of ceramics, two sculptures and five
tapestries. La Tour Museum This small museum in the centre of town
brings the contemporary history of
Antibes to life through its exhibit
of costumes, tools, photographs and other objects used by the local
Absinthe Museum The
Absinthe Museum is located in a basement
in the Roman foundations of Old Antibes. It is dedicated to the
manufacture and appreciation of this green liqueur.
PARKS AND GARDENS
The Exflora Park The Exflora Park is a five-hectare (12 acres)
garden open to the public. Next to the large olive grove, there are
different styles of Mediterranean gardens, from ancient Rome to the
exuberant Riviera of the 19th century. Fountains and ponds stretch
along the terrace, making a waterway 500 metres (1,600 ft) long.
Antibes is renowned for rose production, and rose bushes line the path
leading to the sea. The luxuriance of the exotic garden and palm grove
is reminiscent of the belle époque , when English gardeners succeeded
in planting flowers that bloom in winter, the season when the
aristocracy visited the Côte d\'Azur . A little further on is the
Théâtre de Verdure, inspired by Italian gardens, and a panoramic
viewpoint with a view of the sea and the Iles des Lerins. In the style
of Provençal gardens of the 18th century, there is a maze with
sculpted hedges. Further on, Islamic gardens are featured, with an
orange grove where the ground is patterned with terracotta irrigation
pipes similar to those in the celebrated
Seville Cathedral in Spain.
The vegetable gardens and orchards in the Arsat are planted in hollows
Morocco to protect them from the sun and maximise shadow and
humidity. A representation of a Moroccan house pays homage to the
painter Majorelle, creator of the blue garden in
Marrakesh . In
another area, the winter garden contains plants that flower in winter,
such as mimosa and camellias . The Eilenroc Gardens Villa Eilenroc
was built on a rock in the middle of a virtual desert. The area was
transformed into a garden through the patience and talent of Jacques
Greber , landscape architect and consultant to the Great Exhibition in
New York City
New York City in 1939. He was commissioned by Mr Beaumont to create
this luxuriant park of 11 hectares (27 acres). The gardens with all
their luxuriant vegetation lie thirty metres above the sea with a view
across the bay of the Cap. Planted with traditional Mediterranean
species such as marine and parasol pines, Alep and Canary pines,
cypress , oaks , olive trees, arbutus , lavender , thyme , rosemary ,
eucalyptus , ficus etc., as well as three kilometres (1.9 miles) of
pittosporum hedges, a whole part of the park has been created with
plants found in the
Antibes area in 1920. Thuret Park In 1857,
Gustave Thuret discovered the Cap d'
Antibes and bought five hectares
(12 acres) of land where he built a villa and began the creation of a
park. Bequeathed to the state by his heirs, the Jardin botanique de la
Villa Thuret is now managed by the INRA (National Institute of
Agronomic Research). The collection of trees and exotic plants, and
the rich earth, provide many opportunities for learning, and the
cross-fertilisation of plant species that grow on the Mediterranean
coast. Marineland In 1970, Roland de la Poype created this animal
exhibition park in Antibes. First, it was a small oceanarium with a
few pools and animals, but now it is one of the biggest in the world
and receives more than 1,200,000 visitors per year. It is the only
French sea park featuring two cetacean species: killer whales and
The old lighthouse of
Antibes provides one of the best views in the
region from its lofty hilltop. To get here, you must walk about one
kilometre up the Chemin de Calvaire from the Plage de la Salis. It
makes for a nice half-day stroll.
CHURCH OF THE IMMACULATE CONCEPTION
Church of the Immaculate Conception.
The central church in
Antibes was first built in the 11th century
with stones used from earlier Roman structures. Its current façade
was constructed in the 18th century and blends Latin classical
symmetry and religious fantasy. The interior houses some impressive
pieces such as a Baroque altarpiece and life-sized wooden carving of
Christ's death from 1447.
HôTEL DU CAP-EDEN ROC
This villa, set in "a forest" at the tip of the Cap d'Antibes
peninsula, re-creates a nineteenth-century château. Since 1870 the
Hotel du Cap on the
French Riviera has been one
of the most storied and luxurious resorts in the world. Guests who
flocked there included
Marlene Dietrich , the Duke and Duchess of
Winston Churchill .
Elizabeth Taylor and Richard Burton
conducted an affair and honeymooned there.
There are many yachting harbours which provide moorings for a range
of ships ranging from fishing vessels to full sized yachts.
* Port Vauban: The largest yachting harbour in Europe, with more
than 2,000 moorings, can accommodate craft of more than 100 metres.
This old port was the heart of the ancient Greek city of Antipolis and
has a long and colourful history which includes Ligurians, Romans and
Crusaders on their way to the Holy Land. Today, it is the largest
marina in Europe, serving both local fishing boats and luxury yachts.
* Port Galice: 542 moorings
* Port de la Salis: 233 moorings
* Port du Croûton: 390 moorings
* Port de l'Olivette: Situated in the sheltered cove of the same
name, this is a harbour for sailors and their wooden fishing boats who
enjoy the old marine, provencal traditions.
The view of
Antibes The view of the Gulf of
THEATRE AND MUSIC
The Théâtre Antibea, Théâtre des Heures Bleues and Café
Théâtre la Scène sur Mer all offer a variety of performances from
orchestra music to dramatic plays. Music of all types, from live jazz
to DJs spinning techno, can be found in the bars and nightclubs and
there are a number of festivals and special outdoor concerts during
the summer. Jazz is still the speciality around here, and the Juan les
Pins Jazz Festival is one of the best in the world.
M83 (an electronic band) hails from Antibes.
Le Nomade, by Jaume Plensa, Bastion St-Jaume,
Antibes and Juan les Pins host a number of festivals, mainly during
the summer months. There's not much in the way of traditional cultural
festivals in Antibes; most of the festivals focus on music and
* JAZZ à JUAN remains one of the top jazz festivals in the world.
Since its inception in 1960, it has attracted many famous Jazz artists
each year to play outdoors. (July).
* ANTIBES YACHT SHOW
* THE ANTIQUE SHOW OF ANTIBES attracts thousands of collectors for
two weeks in April. It's one of the largest shows of its kind in
* VOILES D\'ANTIBES is one of the world's biggest gatherings of old
teak and brass sailing vessels. They converge on the port for one of
the most regal regattas in the Mediterranean (June).
* THE FESTIVAL OF SAINT PETER is the annual celebration of the
patron saint of fishermen. A colourful procession through the town is
followed by all the local fishermen adorning their boats and floating
along the coast (June).
* THE FESTIVAL OF SACRED MUSIC takes place in
which has renowned acoustics. Sacred music is the theme of this
popular festival, which attracts huge crowds each year (January).
Antibes enjoys a
Mediterranean climate .
CLIMATE DATA FOR ANTIBES (FRANCE)
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES)
Alpes Maritimes General Council
* Marché Provençal
The Gare d\'
Antibes is the railway station serving the town, offering
connections to Nice, Cannes, Marseille, Paris and several other
destinations. This railway station is in the centre of town. There is
an another railway station, Juan les Pis. The nearest airport is Nice
Côte d\'Azur Airportand
Mike Cumberlege , Royal Navy officer
Flocke and Rasputin (aka Flocon et Rasputine), polar bears living
Graham Greene lived in a small apartment in
Antibes in his later
Gloria Guinness then Princess Fakhry married Thomas "Loel"
Guinness in April 1951
Nikos Kazantzakis , writer of the novel
Zorba the Greek , owned a
villa in Old Town
* M83 , electronic artist
Gerald and Sara Murphy wealthy Americans credited with
French Riviera as a summer resort
Guillaume Musso , writer
Pablo Picasso , painter
Gabriel Guevrekian , architect
Halima Soussi , basketball player
Nicolas de Staël , painter
Luc-Arthur Vebobe , basketball player
Duke of Windsor
Duke of Windsor ,
Aristotle Onassis and
Stavros Niarchos , at
different times, lived in
Château de la Croë
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in
TWIN TOWNS – SISTER CITIES
Antibes is twinned with:
Desenzano del Garda ,
Newport Beach, California ,
Schwäbisch Gmünd ,
* Krasnogorsk ,
* Communes of the
* Stade du
* ^ Patrice Arcelin,
Antibes (A.-M.). Chapelle du Saint-Esprit. In
: Guyon (J.), Heijmans (M.) éd. – D’un monde à l’autre.
Naissance d’une Chrétienté en Provence (IVe-VIe siècle). Arles,
2001, p. 179 (catalogue d’exposition du musée de l’Arles antique)
* ^ Les Étrusques en mer : épaves d'
Antibes à Marseille / sous
la dir. de Luc Long, Patrice Pomey, Jean-Christophe Sourisseau. -
Marseille : Musées de Marseille ; Aix-en-Provence : Edisud, 2002. p
* ^ A B C EB (1878) .
* ^ Freely, John, The western shores of Turkey: discovering the
Aegean and Mediterranean coasts, p. 91 .
* ^ A B One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text
from a publication now in the public domain : Coolidge, William
Augustus Brevoort (1911). "Antibes". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia
Britannica . 2 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 120–121.
* ^ Voyage en Massalie. 100 ans d'archéologie en Gaule du Sud.
Marseille/Aix-en-Provence, musées de Marseille/Edisud, 1990, p.
142-143 (catalogue d'exposition, Marseille).
* ^ A B Chisholm 1911 .
* ^ "Climate Normals 1993–2000".
Alpes Maritimes General Council.
Retrieved 18 Feb 2011.
* ^ Goldberg, Lina (24 February 2013). "10 of the world\'s best
fresh markets". CNN Travel. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
* ^ "Aalborg Twin Towns". Europeprize.net/. Archived from the
original on 7 September 2013. Retrieved 19 August 2013.
* Baynes, T.S., ed. (1878), "Antibes",
Encyclopædia Britannica , 2
(9th ed.), New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, p. 124
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Antibes travel guide