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Antibes (, also , ; oc, label= Provençal, Antíbol) is a coastal city in the
Alpes-Maritimes Alpes-Maritimes (; oc, Aups Maritims; it, Alpi Marittime, "Maritime Alps") is a department of France located in the country's southeast corner, on the Italian border and Mediterranean coast. Part of the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region ...
department of southeastern
France France (), officially the French Republic ( ), is a country primarily located in Western Europe. It also comprises of Overseas France, overseas regions and territories in the Americas and the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic, Pacific Ocean, Pac ...

France
, on the
Côte d'Azur The French Riviera (known in French language, French as the ; oc, Còsta d'Azur ; literal translation "Azure (color), Azure Coast") is the Mediterranean Sea, Mediterranean coastline of the southeast corner of France. There is no official bou ...

Côte d'Azur
between
Cannes Cannes ( , , ; oc, Canas) is a city located on the French Riviera. It is a communes of France, commune located in the Alpes-Maritimes departments of France, department, and host city of the annual Cannes Film Festival, Midem, and Cannes Lions I ...

Cannes
and
Nice Nice ( , ; Niçard dialect, Niçard: , classical norm, or , nonstandard, ; it, Nizza ; lij, Nissa; grc, Νίκαια; la, Nicaea) is the prefecture of the Alpes-Maritimes departments of France, department in France. The Nice urban unit, agg ...

Nice
. The town of
Juan-les-Pins Juan-les-Pins (; oc, Joan dei Pins) is a town in the Communes of France, commune of Antibes in the Alpes-Maritimes Departments of France, department in Southeastern France. Located on the French Riviera, it is situated between Nice and Cannes, to ...

Juan-les-Pins
is in the commune of Antibes and the
Sophia Antipolis
Sophia Antipolis
technology park is northwest of it.


History


Origins

Traces of occupation dating back to the early
Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory and protohistory of humanity. It was preceded by the Stone Age (Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic) and the Bronze Age (Chalcolithic). The concept has been mostly appl ...
have been foundPatrice Arcelin, Antibes (A.-M.). Chapelle du Saint-Esprit. In : Guyon (J.), Heijmans (M.) éd. – ''D’un monde à l’autre. Naissance d’une Chrétienté en Provence (IVe-VIe siècle)''. Arles, 2001, (catalogue d’exposition du musée de l’Arles antique) in the areas of the
castle A castle is a type of fortified structure built during the Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted approximately from the late 5th to the late 15th centuries, similar to the Post-classical, ...
and
cathedral A cathedral is a church (building), church that contains the ''cathedra'' () of a bishop, thus serving as the central church of a diocese, Annual conferences within Methodism, conference, or episcopate. Churches with the function of "cathedral ...
. Remains beneath the Holy Spirit Chapel show there was an indigenous community with ties with Mediterranean populations, including the Etruscans, as evidenced by the presence of numerous underwater amphorae and wrecks off Antibes. However, most trade was with the Greek world, via the Phocaeans of Marseille.


Greek colony of Marseille

Antibes was founded as a
Greek colony Greek colonization was an organised colonial expansion by the Archaic Greeks into the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed b ...
by Phocaeans from
Massalia Massalia (Ancient Greek, Greek: Μασσαλία; Latin: Massilia; modern Marseille) was an ancient Greek colony founded ca. 600 BC on the Mediterranean Sea, Mediterranean coast of present-day France, east of the river Rhône, by Ionian Greeks, ...
. They named it Antipolis (
Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece, a country in Southern Europe: *Greeks, an ethnic group. *Greek language, a branch of the Indo-European language family. **Proto-Greek language, the assumed last common ancestor ...
: ',  "Opposite-City") from its position on the opposite side of the Var estuary from
Nice Nice ( , ; Niçard dialect, Niçard: , classical norm, or , nonstandard, ; it, Nizza ; lij, Nissa; grc, Νίκαια; la, Nicaea) is the prefecture of the Alpes-Maritimes departments of France, department in France. The Nice urban unit, agg ...

Nice
(
Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece, a country in Southern Europe: *Greeks, an ethnic group. *Greek language, a branch of the Indo-European language family. **Proto-Greek language, the assumed last common ancestor ...
: '). Current research suggests that Antipolis was founded relatively late in classical Greek period (4th century BC), to benefit from the protection of Marseille with its trade routes along the coast and strongholds like Olbia at
Hyères Hyères (), Provençal dialect, Provençal Occitan language, Occitan: ''Ieras'' in classical norm, or ''Iero'' in Mistralian norm) is a Communes of France, commune in the Var (département), Var Departments of France, department in the Provence-Al ...
, and trading posts such as Antipolis itself and later Nikaia; it is mentioned by
Strabo Strabo''Strabo'' (meaning "squinty", as in strabismus) was a term employed by the Romans for anyone whose eyes were distorted or deformed. The father of Pompey was called "Pompeius Strabo". A native of Sicily so clear-sighted that he could see ...
. The exact location of the Greek city is not well known. Given Greek colonial practices, it is likely that it was set at the foot of the rock of Antibes, in today's old city. Traces of occupation in the Hellenistic period have been identified around the castle and the church (former cathedral). The goods unearthed during these excavations show the dominance of imported products of the Marseilles region, associated with Campanian and indigenous ceramics. Early in the second century BC the Ligurian Deceates and Oxybiens tribes launched repeated attacks against Nikaia and Antipolis. The Greeks of Marseille appealed to Rome as they had already done a few years earlier against the federation of Salyens. In 154 BC the consul Quintus Opimius defeated the Décéates and Oxybiens and took Aegythna from the Décéates.


Roman Antipolis

Rome gradually increased its hold over the Mediterranean coast. In 43 BC, Antipolis was officially incorporated in the
propraetor In ancient Rome In modern historiography, ancient Rome refers to Roman civilisation from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD. It encompasses the Roman ...
ial (
senatorial
senatorial
from 27 BC)
province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or sovereign state, state. The term derives from the ancient Roman ''Roman province, provincia'', which was the major territorial and administrative unit of the Roman Empire ...
of Narbonesian Gaul, in which it remained for the next 500 years. Antipolis grew into the largest town in the region and a main entry point into Gaul. Roman artifacts such as aqueducts, fortified walls, and amphoræ can still be seen today. Excavations in the old town have discovered well-preserved houses showing some luxury. Among them, the most monumental are those in the rectory garden of rue Clemenceau. These show a comparable level to that of the Gallo-Roman
domus In Ancient Rome In modern historiography, ancient Rome refers to Roman civilisation from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD. It encompasses the Roma ...

domus
such as those of Saint-Romain-en-Gal. Large parts of the floor mosaic are organised around a courtyard with a marble fountain. The building dates from the late third century, although parts date from the end of the Hellenistic era or the end of the Roman Republic. Another house paved with porphyry and green stone was excavated between rue des Palmiers and the rue de la Blancherie. The finds at the Antibes Museum of Archaeology suggests the main occupation between the 2nd and 4th century. Finds from the end of the Hellenistic era and the end of the Roman Republic is present on both sites.


Aqueducts

The city was supplied with water by two aqueducts. The Fontvieille aqueduct rises in Biot, and eventually joins the coast below the RN7 and the railway track at the Fort Carré. It was rediscovered and restored in the 18th century by the Chevalier d'Aguillon to supply the modern city. The aqueduct called the Bouillide or Clausonnes rises near the town of Valbonne. Monumental remains of aqueduct bridges are located in the neighbourhood of Fugaret, in the forest of Valmasque and near the town of Vallauris.


Theatre and amphitheatre

Like most Roman towns, Antipolis possessed buildings for shows and entertainment. A Roman theatre is attested by the tombstone of the child "Septentrion". The inscription says "he danced and was popular on the stage of the theatre". The theatre was located, like the amphitheatre, between Rue de la République and Rue de Fersen, near the Porte Royale. The back wall is positioned substantially next to Rue Fourmillère. A radial wall was found on the right side of the bus station. A plan of the theatre made in the 16th century is in the Marciana National Library of Venice. The remains of the amphitheatre were still visible at the end of the 17th century during the restructuring of the fortifications of the city. A concentric oval was still visible in many plans of the seventeenth century and in a map of Antibes from the early nineteenth century. These remains are now covered by the Fersen middle school.


Late Antiquity

The Bishopric of Antibes was established c.450 by
Pope Leo I Pope Leo I ( 400 – 10 November 461), also known as Leo the Great, was bishop of Rome from 29 September 440 until his death. Pope Benedict XVI said that Leo's papacy "was undoubtedly one of the most important in the Church's history." Leo was ...

Pope Leo I
, the first two bishops being Armentarius and Agroecius. Shortly after the bishopric was established the
Western Roman Empire The Western Roman Empire comprised the western provinces of the Roman Empire at any time during which they were administered by a separate independent Imperial court; in particular, this term is used in historiography to describe the period fr ...

Western Roman Empire
collapsed, and by the end of the century the Antibes region had become part of the
Kingdom of the Franks Francia, also called the Kingdom of the Franks ( la, Regnum Francorum), Frankish Kingdom, Frankland or Frankish Empire ( la, Imperium Francorum), was the largest History of the Roman Empire, post-Roman barbarian kingdom in Western Europe. It ...

Kingdom of the Franks
, which later grew into the
Carolingian Empire The Carolingian Empire (800–888) was a large Franks, Frankish-dominated empire in western and central Europe during the Early Middle Ages. It was ruled by the Carolingian dynasty, which had ruled as kings of the Franks since 751 and as kings of ...
. The Frankish empire provided three centuries of stability but then fell apart itself in the mid-ninth century, leading to a further period of upheaval.


Middle Ages

The dust eventually settled to leave Antibes within the territory of the
County of Provence The land of Provence has a history quite separate from that of any of the larger nations of Europe. Its independent existence has its origins in the frontier nature of the dukedom in Merovingian Gaul Gaul ( la, Gallia) was a region of Wes ...

County of Provence
, itself part of the
Kingdom of Burgundy-Arles The Kingdom of Burgundy, known from the 12th century as the Kingdom of Arles, also referred to in various context as Arelat, the Kingdom of Arles and Vienne, or Kingdom of Burgundy-Provence, was a realm established in 933 by the merger of the king ...
and from 1033 the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire was a Polity, political entity in Western Europe, Western, Central Europe, Central, and Southern Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its Dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire, dissolution i ...
. In the tenth century the coastal areas of Provence were menaced by '
Saracen file:Erhard Reuwich Sarazenen 1486.png, upright 1.5, Late 15th-century Germany in the Middle Ages, German woodcut depicting Saracens Saracen ( ) was a term used in the early centuries, both in Greek language, Greek and Latin writings, to refer ...
' raiders from
Muslim Spain Al-Andalus DIN 31635, translit. ; an, al-Andalus; ast, al-Ándalus; eu, al-Andalus; ber, ⴰⵏⴷⴰⵍⵓⵙ, label=Berber languages, Berber, translit=Andalus; ca, al-Àndalus; gl, al-Andalus; oc, Al Andalús; pt, al-Ândalus; es, ...

Muslim Spain
, who were finally driven out when Count William I of Provence captured their stronghold at
Fraxinetum Fraxinetum or Fraxinet ( ar, فرخشنيط, translit=Farakhshanīt or , from Latin language, Latin ''fraxinus'': "fraxinus, ash tree", ''fraxinetum'': "ash forest") was the site of a Muslim fortress in Provence between about 887 and 972. It ...
in 975. William rewarded the knights who had fought for him in this campaign by enfeoffing them with the liberated lands in southern Provence. One of these knights was a certain Rodoald, who became Lord of Antibes. Rodoald's great-grandson Raimbaud appears to have relocated inland to
Grasse Grasse (; Provençal dialect, Provençal oc, Grassa in classical norm or in Mistralian norm ; traditional it, Grassa) is the only Subprefectures in France, subprefecture of the Alpes-Maritimes Departments of France, department in the Provence- ...

Grasse
around 1050, and sold the Lordship of Antibes to the bishopric during the episcopate of Bishop Bertrand (fl.1166-76). During this period Antibes was still being raided periodically by Saracen pirates, and in 1124 they burned down Antibes Cathedral. The marauders continued to prey on the town over the following century, and in 1244 the Prince-Bishops of Antibes moved to Grasse to escape their depredations. They remained there for the next five centuries, despite an attempt to lure them back to Antibes by rebuilding the cathedral in 1250. When the
Western Schism The Western Schism, also known as the Papal Schism, the Vatican Standoff, the Great Occidental Schism, or the Schism of 1378 (), was a split within the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, i ...
began in 1378, splitting the Catholic world between two rival popes, the Bishop of Grasse backed
Pope Urban VI Pope Urban VI ( la, Urbanus VI; it, Urbano VI; c. 1318 – 15 October 1389), born Bartolomeo Prignano (), was head of the Catholic Church from 8 April 1378 to his death in October 1389. He was the most recent pope to be elected from outside the ...

Pope Urban VI
even though Marie de Blois, mother of and regent to the infant , was a supporter of Urban's enemy
Antipope Clement VII Robert of Geneva, (french: Robert de Genève; 1342 – 16 September 1394) elected to the papacy as Clement VII (french: Clément VII) by the cardinal (Catholicism), cardinals who opposed Pope Urban VI, was the first antipope residing in Avignon, ...
. In 1383 Marie therefore confiscated the Lordship of Antibes from the Bishops of Grasse and two years later awarded it to the brothers Marc and Luc Grimaldi, of the Genoese
House of Grimaldi The House of Grimaldi ( , also , , ) is the current Dynasty, reigning house of the Monaco, Principality of Monaco. The house was founded in 1160 by Grimaldo Canella in Genoa and became the ruling house of Monaco when François Grimaldi, Frances ...

House of Grimaldi
. The new Grimaldi lords built the Château Grimaldi as their residence in the town. After the deaths of the Grimaldi brothers (Marc in 1398 and Luc in 1409), control of the Lordship of Antibes passed to five co-heirs. As a result of this fragmentation of power, the actions of individual local lords became increasingly irrelevant to the town's history, with the higher authority of the Count of Provence assuming greater significance instead.


Early Modern era

With the death in 1481 of Count Charles III, Provence was inherited by and thereby annexed to
France France (), officially the French Republic ( ), is a country primarily located in Western Europe. It also comprises of Overseas France, overseas regions and territories in the Americas and the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic, Pacific Ocean, Pac ...
. As Antibes was in the far southeast of the County of Provence it therefore became the border town at France's southeastern extremity, guarding the frontier with the
County of Nice The County of Nice (french: Comté de Nice / Pays Niçois, it, Contea di Nizza/Paese Nizzardo, Niçard dialect, Niçard oc, Contèa de Niça/País Niçard) is a historical region of France located around the southeastern city of Nice and roug ...

County of Nice
, which was part of the
Savoyard state The Savoyard state is a term of art used by historians to denote collectively all of the states ruled by the counts and dukes of Savoy from the Middle Ages to the formation of the Kingdom of Italy. At the end of the 17th century, its population w ...
. As such it was on the front line during the
Italian Wars The Italian Wars, also known as the Habsburg–Valois Wars, were a series of conflicts covering the period 1494 to 1559, fought mostly in the Italian peninsula, but later expanding into Flanders, the Rhineland and the Mediterranean Sea. The pri ...
waged by France against
Emperor Charles V Charles V, french: Charles Quint, it, Carlo V, nl, Karel V, ca, Carles V, la, Carolus V (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was Holy Roman Emperor and Archduke of Austria from 1519 to 1556, King of Spain (Crown of Castile, Castil ...

Emperor Charles V
, and was sacked in 1536 by
Andrea Doria Andrea Doria, Prince of Melfi (; lij, Drîa Döia ; 30 November 146625 November 1560) was a Genoese statesman, ', and admiral, who played a key role in the Republic of Genoa during his lifetime. As the ruler of Genoa, Doria reformed the Repu ...

Andrea Doria
, a Genoese admiral in imperial service.
Henry II of France Henry II (french: Henri II; 31 March 1519 – 10 July 1559) was List of French monarchs#House of Valois-Angoulême (1515–1589), King of France from 31 March 1547 until his death in 1559. The second son of Francis I of France, Francis I and Cla ...
therefore ordered the construction of Fort Carré in 1550 to guard the town against any future attacks, and the citadel was later reinforced by the renowned French military engineer . In December 1746, during the
War of the Austrian Succession The War of the Austrian Succession () was a European conflict that took place between 1740 and 1748. Fought primarily in Central Europe, the Austrian Netherlands, Italy, the Atlantic and Mediterranean, related conflicts included King George's W ...
, an - Savoyard army under the command of Maximilian Ulysses Browne invaded France and besieged Antibes, subjecting the town to a heavy bombardment. The arrival of French reinforcements, and a revolt against the Austrian garrison at
Genoa Genoa ( ; it, Genova ; lij, Zêna ). is the capital of the Regions of Italy, Italian region of Liguria and the List of cities in Italy, sixth-largest city in Italy. In 2015, 594,733 people lived within the city's administrative limits. As of t ...

Genoa
, obliged Browne to lift the siege on 1 February 1747, but by that point his guns had levelled 350 houses and also destroyed the cathedral again. The latter was subsequently rebuilt by
Louis XV of France Louis XV (15 February 1710 – 10 May 1774), known as Louis the Beloved (french: le Bien-Aimé), was King of France from 1 September 1715 until his death in 1774. He succeeded his great-grandfather Louis XIV at the age of five. Until he reached ...

Louis XV of France
, and this version of the building is the one that has survived to the present day.


Modern era

On March 1, 1815,
Napoléon Bonaparte Napoleon Bonaparte ; it, Napoleone Bonaparte, ; co, Napulione Buonaparte. (born Napoleone Buonaparte; 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821), later known by his regnal name Napoleon I, was a French military commander and political leader who ...
landed on the beach at Golfe-Juan, 5 km southwest of Antibes, having escaped exile on the island of
Elba Elba ( it, isola d'Elba, ; la, Ilva) is a Mediterranean Sea, Mediterranean island in Tuscany, Italy, from the coastal town of Piombino on the Italian mainland, and the largest island of the Tuscan Archipelago. It is also part of the Arcipelag ...

Elba
. He hoped for a warm welcome in Antibes, which had been supportive of his regime, but the townspeople closed their gates to him and he was therefore obliged to move on northward without stopping. He successfully reached
Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,165,423 residents in 2019 in an area of more than 105 km² (41 sq mi), ma ...

Paris
and seized power again, only to be conclusively defeated at the
Battle of Waterloo The Battle of Waterloo was fought on Sunday 18 June 1815, near Waterloo, Belgium, Waterloo (at that time in the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, now in Belgium). A French army under the command of Napoleon was defeated by two of the armie ...

Battle of Waterloo
. Today Golfe-Juan marks the beginning of the Route Napoléon, which traces the path taken by the emperor on his return from exile. Under the
Treaty of Turin (1860) The Treaty of Turin ( it, Trattato di Torino; french: Traité de Turin) concluded between France and Kingdom of Sardinia, Piedmont-Sardinia on 24 March 1860 is the instrument by which the region of Savoy and the County of Nice were annexed to Fra ...
, Nice was ceded to France by the new
Kingdom of Italy The Kingdom of Italy ( it, Regno d'Italia) was a state that existed from 1861, when Victor Emmanuel II of Kingdom of Sardinia, Sardinia was proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy, proclaimed King of Italy, until 1946, when civil discontent led to ...
, and Antibes therefore ceased to be a border town as the frontier moved 50 km eastward to
Menton Menton (; , written ''Menton'' in classical norm or ''Mentan'' in Mistralian norm; it, Mentone ) is a Commune in France, commune in the Alpes-Maritimes Departments of France, department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Regions of France, regio ...

Menton
. From around the middle of the 19th century the Antibes area regained its popularity, as wealthy people from around Europe discovered its natural environment and built luxurious homes there. It was transferred from its former department of Var to the new one of Alpes Maritimes in 1860. The harbor was again used for a "considerable" fishing industry and the area exported
dried fruit Dried fruit is fruit from which the majority of the original water content has been removed either naturally, through sun drying (food), drying, or through the use of specialized dryers or food dehydrator, dehydrators. Dried fruit has a long tra ...

dried fruit
, salt fish, and
oil An oil is any nonpolar In chemistry, polarity is a separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or its chemical groups having an electric dipole moment, with a negatively charged end and a positively charged end. Polar molecules m ...
. By the
First World War World War I (28 July 1914 11 November 1918), often abbreviated as WWI, was List of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll, one of the deadliest global conflicts in history. Belligerents included much of Europe, the Russian Empire, ...
, it had been connected by rail with Nice and most of its fortifications had been demolished to make way for new residential districts. In 1926, the old Château Grimaldi was bought by the local municipality and later restored for use as a museum.
Pablo Picasso Pablo Ruiz Picasso (25 October 1881 – 8 April 1973) was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist and Scenic design, theatre designer who spent most of his adult life in France. One of the most influential artists of the 20th ce ...

Pablo Picasso
came to the town in 1946, having visited his friend and fellow painter Gerald Murphy and his wife Sara there in 1923, and was invited to stay in the castle. During his six-month stay, Picasso painted and drew, as well as crafting ceramics and tapestries. When he departed, Picasso left a number of his works to the municipality. The castle has since become the Picasso Museum.


Culture


Conservation

On 25 May 1999, the town was the first in the départment to sign the State Environment Charter, which pledges to actively conserve the natural environment.


Sports

Sport is an important part of the local culture; the town hosts the National Training Centre for basketball. The now demolished
Jean Bunoz Sports Hall The Jean Bunoz Sports Hall was an indoor arena that was located in Antibes, France. The arena was primarily used to host basketball games, however it could also be used to host numerous other events, such as: acrobatic gymnastics, boxing, circus ...
hosted several games of the 1999 FIBA EuroBasket. The city is home to Olympique Antibes, a professional basketball team of France's top division
LNB Pro A The LNB Pro A, currently known for sponsorship reasons as Betclic Élite, is the French basketball league system, top-tier men's professional basketball league in France. The competition has existed since 1921. Since 1987, the Ligue Nationale de ...
, which plays its home games at the Azur Arena Antibes. The local
football Football is a family of team sports that involve, to varying degrees, Kick (football), kicking a Football (ball), ball to score a Goal (sport), goal. Unqualified, Football (word), the word ''football'' normally means the form of football tha ...
team is FC Antibes, who play at the Stade du Fort Carré, best known for when it hosted one game of the 1938 World Cup, between
Sweden Sweden, formally the Kingdom of Sweden,The United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names states that the country's formal name is the Kingdom of SwedenUNGEGN World Geographical Names, Sweden./ref> is a Nordic countries, Nordic c ...
and
Cuba Cuba ( , ), officially the Republic of Cuba ( es, República de Cuba, links=no ), is an island country comprising the island of Cuba, as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called ...
. The town is also home to the Antibes 6 Day Race and the Antibes Yacht Show.


Music

There is a jazz festival, , in July.


Population


Politics


Presidential elections second round


Sights


Beaches

There are 48 beaches along the of coastline that surround Antibes and Juan les Pins.


Museums

; Archaeology Museum: This museum sits atop the Promenade Amiral de Grasse in the old Bastion St Andre, a 17th-century fortress. The museum's collection focuses on the classical history of Antibes. Many artifacts, sculptures and
amphora An amphora (; grc, , }; English ) is a type of container with a pointed bottom and characteristic shape and size which fit tightly (and therefore safely) against each other in storage rooms and packages, tied together with rope and delivered ...
e found in local digs and shipwrecks from the harbour are displayed here. ; Naval Museum of Napoleon: Housed in a 17th-century stone fort and tower, this museum presents a collection of Napoleonic memorabilia, paintings and naval models. Several wall paintings show historic moments in Napoleon's reign and there are also pieces of his clothing including one of the hats he wore. ; Picasso Museum: This museum houses one of the world's greatest Picasso collections: 24 paintings, 44 drawings, 32 lithographs, 11 oils on paper, 80 pieces of ceramics, two sculptures and five tapestries. ; La Tour Museum: This small museum in the centre of town brings the contemporary history of Antibes to life through its exhibit of costumes, tools, photographs and other objects used by the local people. ; Absinthe Museum: The
Absinthe Absinthe (, ) is an anise-flavoured spirit derived from several plants, including the flowers and leaves of ''Artemisia absinthium'' ("grand wormwood"), together with green anise, sweet fennel, and other medicinal and culinary herbs. Historical ...

Absinthe
Museum is located in a basement in the Roman foundations of Old Antibes. It is dedicated to the manufacture and appreciation of this green liqueur.


Parks and gardens

; The Exflora Park: The Exflora Park is a five-hectare () garden open to the public. Next to the large olive grove, there are different styles of Mediterranean gardens, from ancient Rome to the exuberant Riviera of the 19th century. Fountains and ponds stretch along the terrace, making a waterway long. Antibes is renowned for rose production, and rose bushes line the path leading to the sea. The exotic garden and palm grove is reminiscent of the belle époque, when English gardeners succeeded in planting flowers that bloom in winter, the season when the aristocracy visited the
Côte d'Azur The French Riviera (known in French language, French as the ; oc, Còsta d'Azur ; literal translation "Azure (color), Azure Coast") is the Mediterranean Sea, Mediterranean coastline of the southeast corner of France. There is no official bou ...
. : A little further on is the Théâtre de Verdure, inspired by Italian gardens, and a panoramic viewpoint with a view of the sea and the Iles des Lerins. In the style of Provençal gardens of the 18th century, there is a maze with sculpted hedges. Further on, Islamic gardens are featured, with an orange grove where the ground is patterned with terracotta irrigation pipes similar to those in the celebrated
Seville Cathedral The Cathedral of Saint Mary of the See ( es, Catedral de Santa María de la Sede), better known as Seville Cathedral, is a Roman Catholic cathedral in Seville, Andalusia, Spain. It was registered in 1987 by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site, along ...

Seville Cathedral
in Spain. The vegetable gardens and orchards in the Arsat are planted in hollows as in
Morocco Morocco (),, ) officially the Kingdom of Morocco, is the westernmost country in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It overlooks the Mediterranean Sea to the north and the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and has land borders with Algeria to A ...

Morocco
to protect them from the sun and maximise shadow and humidity. A representation of a Moroccan house pays homage to the painter Majorelle, creator of the blue garden in
Marrakesh Marrakesh or Marrakech ( or ; ar, مراكش, murrākuš, ; ber, ⵎⵕⵕⴰⴽⵛ, translit=mṛṛakc}) is the fourth largest city in the Morocco, Kingdom of Morocco. It is one of the four Imperial cities of Morocco and is the capital of the ...

Marrakesh
. In another area, the winter garden contains plants that flower in winter, such as
mimosa ''Mimosa'' is a genus of about 590 species of herbs and shrubs, in the Mimosoideae, mimosoid clade of the legume family Fabaceae. The generic name is derived from the Greek language, Greek word (''mimos''), an "actor" or "mime", and the femini ...

mimosa
and
camellia ''Camellia'' (pronounced or ) is a genus of flowering plants in the family Theaceae. They are native plant, found in East Asia, eastern and South Asia, southern Asia, from the Himalayas east to Japan and Indonesia. There are more than 220 descr ...

camellia
s. ; The Eilenroc Gardens: Villa Eilenroc was built on a rock in the middle of a virtual desert. The area was transformed into a garden through the patience and talent of Jacques Greber, landscape architect and consultant to the Great Exhibition in
New York City New York, often called New York City or NYC, is the List of United States cities by population, most populous city in the United States. With a 2020 population of 8,804,190 distributed over , New York City is also the L ...

New York City
in 1939. He was commissioned by Mr Beaumont to create this park of . : The gardens lie thirty metres above the sea with a view across the bay of the Cap. Planted with traditional Mediterranean species such as marine and parasol pines, Alep and Canary pines,
cypress Cypress is a common name for various coniferous trees or shrubs of northern temperateness, temperate regions that belong to the family Cupressaceae. The word ''cypress'' is derived from Old French ''cipres'', which was imported from Latin ''cypre ...

cypress
,
oak An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus ''Quercus'' (; Latin "oak tree") of the beech family, Fagaceae. There are approximately 500 extant species of oaks. The common name "oak" also appears in the names of species in related genera, notably ''L ...

oak
s,
olive The olive, botanical name ''Olea europaea'', meaning 'European olive' in Latin, is a species of small tree or shrub in the family (biology), family Oleaceae, found traditionally in the Mediterranean Basin. When in shrub form, it is known as '' ...

olive
trees,
arbutus ''Arbutus'' is a genus Genus ( plural genera ) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of extant taxon, living and fossil organisms as well as Virus classification#ICTV classification, viruses. In the hierarchy of biologic ...
,
lavender ''Lavandula'' (common name lavender) is a genus of 47 known species of flowering plants in the mint family, Lamiaceae. It is native plant, native to the Old World and is found in Cape Verde and the Canary Islands, and from Europe across to nort ...

lavender
,
thyme Thyme () is the herb (dried aerial parts) of some members of the genus ''thymus (plant), Thymus'' of aromatic perennial evergreen herbs in the mint family Lamiaceae. Thymes are relatives of the oregano genus ''Origanum'', with both plants being m ...

thyme
,
rosemary ''Salvia rosmarinus'' (), commonly known as rosemary, is a shrub with fragrant, evergreen, needle-like leaves and white, pink, purple, or blue flowers, native plant, native to the Mediterranean Region, Mediterranean region. Until 2017, it was kn ...

rosemary
,
eucalyptus ''Eucalyptus'' () is a genus of over seven hundred species of Flowering plant, flowering trees, shrubs or Mallee (habit), mallees in the Myrtaceae, myrtle Family (biology), family, Myrtaceae. Along with several other genera in the Tribe (biology) ...

eucalyptus
,
ficus ''Ficus'' ( or ) is a genus of about 850 species of woody trees, shrubs, vines, epiphytes and hemiepiphytes in the family (biology), family Moraceae. Collectively known as fig trees or figs, they are native throughout the tropics with a few spe ...

ficus
etc., as well as three kilometres () of
pittosporum ''Pittosporum'' ( or ) is a genus of about 200 species of flowering plants in the family Pittosporaceae. The genus is probably Gondwanan in origin; its present range extends from Australasia, Oceania, eastern Asia and some parts of Africa. ''Cit ...

pittosporum
hedges, a whole part of the park has been created with plants found in the Antibes area in 1920. ; Thuret Park: In 1857, Gustave Thuret discovered the Cap d'Antibes and bought five hectares () of land where he built a villa and began the creation of a park. Bequeathed to the state by his heirs, the Jardin botanique de la Villa Thuret is now managed by the INRA (National Institute of Agronomic Research). The collection of trees and exotic plants, and the rich earth, provide many opportunities for learning, and the cross-fertilisation of plant species that grow on the Mediterranean coast. ; Marineland: In 1970, Roland de la Poype created this animal exhibition park in Antibes. First, it was a small oceanarium with a few pools and animals, but now it is one of the biggest in the world and receives more than 1,200,000 visitors per year. It is the only French sea park featuring two cetacean species: killer whales and dolphins.


Garoupe Lighthouse

The old lighthouse of Antibes provides views from its lofty hilltop. To get here, you must walk about one kilometre up the Chemin de Calvaire from the Plage de la Salis. It makes for a nice half-day stroll.


Church of the Immaculate Conception (Antibes Cathedral)

The cathedral in Antibes was first built by Bishop Armentarius in the fifth century. It was destroyed multiple times during its history, notably by Saracen pirates in 1124 and by Austrian bombardment during the 1746-7 Siege of Antibes. Its current façade dates to the rebuilding that followed the latter catastrophe, and blends Latin classical symmetry and religious fantasy. The interior houses some impressive pieces such as a Baroque altarpiece and life-sized wooden carving of Christ's death from 1447.


Hôtel du Cap-Eden Roc

This villa, set in "a forest" at the tip of the Cap d'Antibes peninsula, re-creates a nineteenth-century château. Since 1870 the glamorous white-walled Hotel du Cap on the French Riviera has been one of the most storied and luxurious resorts in the world. Guests who flocked there included
Marlene Dietrich Marie Magdalene "Marlene" DietrichBorn as Maria Magdalena, not Marie Magdalene, according to Dietrich's biography by her daughter, Maria Riva ; however Dietrich's biography by Charlotte Chandler cites "Marie Magdalene" as her birth name . (, ; ...

Marlene Dietrich
, the
Duke Duke is a male title either of a monarch ruling over a duchy, or of a member of royalty, or nobility Nobility is a social class found in many societies that have an aristocracy (class), aristocracy. It is normally ranked immediately ...
and
Duchess Duke is a male title either of a monarch ruling over a duchy, or of a member of Royal family, royalty, or nobility. As rulers, dukes are ranked below emperors, kings, grand princes, grand dukes, and sovereign princes. As royalty or nobility, t ...
of Windsor and
Winston Churchill Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British statesman, soldier, and writer who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom twice, from 1940 to 1945 Winston Churchill in the Second World War, dur ...

Winston Churchill
.
Elizabeth Taylor Dame Elizabeth Rosemond Taylor (February 27, 1932 – March 23, 2011) was a British-American actress. She began her career as a child actress in the early 1940s and was one of the most popular stars of classical Hollywood cinema in the 1950s. ...

Elizabeth Taylor
and
Richard Burton Richard Burton (; born Richard Walter Jenkins Jr.; 10 November 1925 – 5 August 1984) was a Welsh People, Welsh actor. Noted for his baritone voice, Burton established himself as a formidable Shakespearean actor in the 1950s, and he gave a ...

Richard Burton
conducted an affair and honeymooned there.


Ports

There are many yachting harbours which provide moorings for a range of ships ranging from fishing vessels to full sized yachts. * Port Vauban: The largest yachting harbour in Europe, with more than 2,000 moorings, can accommodate craft of more than 100 metres. This old port was the heart of the ancient Greek city of Antipolis and has a long and colourful history which includes Ligurians, Romans and Crusaders on their way to the Holy Land. Today, it is the largest marina in Europe, serving both local fishing boats and luxury yachts. * Port Galice: 542 moorings * Port de la Salis: 233 moorings * Port du Croûton: 390 moorings * Port de l'Olivette: Situated in the sheltered cove of the same name, this is a harbour for sailors and their wooden fishing boats who enjoy the old marine, provencal traditions.


Theatre and music

The Théâtre Antibea, Théâtre des Heures Bleues and Café Théâtre la Scène sur Mer all offer a variety of performances from orchestra music to dramatic plays. Music of all types, from live jazz to DJs spinning techno, can be found in the bars and nightclubs and there are a number of festivals and special outdoor concerts during the summer. Jazz is still the speciality around here, and the Juan les Pins Jazz Festival is one of the best in the world. M83 (an electronic band) hails from Antibes.


Festivals

Antibes and Juan les Pins host a number of festivals, mainly during the summer months. There's not much in the way of traditional cultural festivals in Antibes; most of the festivals focus on music and contemporary activities. * remains one of the top jazz festivals in the world. Since its inception in 1960, it has attracted many jazz artists each year to play outdoors. (July). * Antibes Yacht Show * The Antique Show of Antibes attracts thousands of collectors for two weeks in April. It's one of the largest shows of its kind in France (April). * Voiles d'Antibes is one of the world's biggest gatherings of old teak and brass sailing vessels. They converge on the port for one of the most regal regattas in the Mediterranean (June). * The Festival of Saint Peter is the annual celebration of the patron saint of fishermen. A colourful procession through the town is followed by all the local fishermen adorning their boats and floating along the coast (June). * The Festival of Notre Dame de Bon Port begins on the first Thursday of July and continues to the following Sunday, celebrating Notre Dame de Bon Port, the local manifestation of
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. At sunrise on the Thursday a mass is held in the chapel next to the Garoupe lighthouse and fishermen dressed in traditional subsequently carry the statue of Notre Dame de Bon Port from the chapel (where it resides for most of the year) down the Chemin de Calvaire to Antibes Cathedral at the head of a large procession. The statue remains in the cathedral for the remaining four days of the festival, which includes multiple masses, a torchlit procession through the town on the Saturday evening, and parties at which is traditionally eaten. * The Festival of Sacred Music takes place in Antibes Cathedral, which has renowned acoustics. Sacred music is the theme of this popular festival, which attracts huge crowds each year (January).


Climate

Antibes enjoys a
Mediterranean climate A Mediterranean climate (also called a dry summer temperate climate ''Cs'') is a temperate climate sub-type, generally characterized by warm, dry summers and mild, fairly wet winters; these weather conditions are typically experienced in the ...
.


Shopping

* Marché Provençal


Transport

The Antibes station is the railway station serving the town, offering connections to Nice, Cannes, Marseille, Grasse, St Raphael, Les Arcs, Milan, Ventimiliga, Paris and several other destinations. This railway station is in the centre of town. There is another railway station,
Juan-les-Pins Juan-les-Pins (; oc, Joan dei Pins) is a town in the Communes of France, commune of Antibes in the Alpes-Maritimes Departments of France, department in Southeastern France. Located on the French Riviera, it is situated between Nice and Cannes, to ...
. The nearest airports are
Nice Côte d'Azur Airport Nice Côte d'Azur Airport (french: link=no, Aéroport Nice Côte d'Azur) is an international airport located southwest of Nice, in the Alpes-Maritimes Departments of France, ''départment'' of France. It is the List of the busiest airports in ...
and Cannes Airport.


Notable people


Born in Antibes

*Honoré Tournély (1658–1729), Catholic theologian, a Catholic Church in France, Gallican opponent of Jansenism. *Charles Claude Ange Monneron (1735–1799), a businessman, banker and politician. *André Masséna (1758–1817), Napoleonic general and Marshal of the Empire. *Honoré Vial (1766–1813), military leader and diplomat in the French Revolutionary Wars. *Honoré Charles Reille (1775–1860), Marshal of France. *Ignazio Dracopoli (1887–1923), Anglo–French cartographer and explorer *Jacques Audiberti (1899–1965), playwright, poet and novelist, Theatre of the Absurd. *Marie-Louise Meilland (1920–1987), a French rose breeder *Judith Miller (philosopher), Judith Miller (1941–2017), a French psychoanalyst and philosopher *Halima Soussi (born 1965), basketball player *Christophe Gans (born 1961), film director, producer and screenwriter *Guillaume Musso (born 1974), a French novelist *Laurent Gagnier (born 1979), former footballer with over 250 club caps. *Luc-Arthur Vebobe (born 1980), basketball player *Coline-Marie Orliac (born 1989), a harpist * M83, electronic group formed in Antibes in 1999


Lived in Antibes

*
Pablo Picasso Pablo Ruiz Picasso (25 October 1881 – 8 April 1973) was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist and Scenic design, theatre designer who spent most of his adult life in France. One of the most influential artists of the 20th ce ...

Pablo Picasso
(1881–1973), Spanish painter *Nikos Kazantzakis (1883–1957), writer of Zorba the Greek, owned a villa in Old Town *Gerald and Sara Murphy (1888–1964) & (1883–1975), wealthy expatriate Americans credited with establishing the French Riviera as a summer resort *Duke of Windsor (1894-1972), former King Edward VIII *Graham Greene (1904–1991), lived in a small apartment in Antibes in his later years *Mike Cumberlege (1905–1945), Royal Navy officer *Aristotle Onassis (1906–1975), a Greek shipping magnate *Stavros Niarchos (1909–1996), a Greek billionaire shipping tycoon. *Gloria Guinness (1912–1980), a Mexican socialite and fashion and cultural icon *Ruth Madoff (born 1941), wife of Bernie Madoff


Died in Antibes

*Jean-Étienne Championnet (1762–1800), soldier in the French Revolutionary Wars. *Henry Wrenfordsley (1825–1908), Irish lawyer, judge in Australia and the Leeward Islands *Nicholas I of Montenegro (1841–1921), prince and king of Montenegro *Paul Arène (1843–1896), a Provençal poet and French writer. *George Sandys (politician), George Sandys (1875–1937), diplomat and Conservative politician. *Charlotte Ives (1886–1976), American silent film actress, lived in Antibes in her later years *Gabriel Guevrekian (1892-1970), an Armenian architect *Paul Gallico (1897–1976), American writer, lived his final years in Antibes *Robert Deloche (1909–1988), furrier, militant communist and mayor of Joinville-le-Pont. *Claude Autant-Lara (1901–2000), film director and later Member of the European Parliament. *Nicolas de Staël (1914–1955), a French painter of Russian origin *Georgette Cottin-Euziol (1926-2004), French Algerian architect *Jean Cottard (1926–2020), a French foil fencer


Twin towns – sister cities

Antibes is Sister city, twinned with: * Aalborg Municipality, Aalborg, Denmark * Desenzano del Garda, Italy * Eilat, Israel * Kinsale, Ireland * Krasnogorsk, Moscow Oblast, Krasnogorsk, Russia * Newport Beach, California, Newport Beach, United States * Olympia, Greece, Olympia, Greece * Schwäbisch Gmünd, Germany


See also

* Communes of the Alpes-Maritimes department * Route Napoléon * Stade du Fort Carré


Notes


References

*


External links

*
Antibes official website
{{Authority control Antibes, Archaeological sites in France Communes of Alpes-Maritimes French Riviera Massalian colonies Populated places established in the 6th century BC Roman towns and cities in Provence Vauban fortifications in France