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The Anthropocene
Anthropocene
is a proposed epoch dating from the commencement of significant human impact on the Earth's geology and ecosystems,[1][2][3] including, but not limited to, anthropogenic climate change.[4] As of August 2016[update], neither the International Commission on Stratigraphy nor the International Union of Geological Sciences has yet officially approved the term as a recognized subdivision of geological time,[3][5][6] although the Working Group on the Anthropocene
Anthropocene
(WGA) voted to formally designate the epoch Anthropocene
Anthropocene
and presented the recommendation to the International Geological Congress on 29 August 2016.[7] Various different start dates for the Anthropocene
Anthropocene
have been proposed, ranging from the beginning of the Agricultural Revolution 12-15,000 years ago, to as recent as the Trinity test
Trinity test
in 1945. As of February 2018[update], the ratification process continues and thus a date remains to be decided definitively, but the latter date has been more favored than others.

Contents

1 General 2 Etymology 3 Nature of human effects

3.1 Homogenocene 3.2 Biodiversity 3.3 Biogeography 3.4 Climate 3.5 Geomorphology 3.6 Stratigraphy

3.6.1 Sedimentological record 3.6.2 Fossil record 3.6.3 Trace elements

4 Temporal limit

4.1 "Early anthropocene" model 4.2 Antiquity 4.3 Industrial Revolution 4.4 Anthropocene
Anthropocene
marker

5 In culture 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links

General[edit] An early concept for the Anthropocene
Anthropocene
was the Noosphere by Vladimir Vernadsky, in 1938 he wrote of “scientific thought as a geological force”.[8] Scientists in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
appear to have used the term "anthropocene" as early as the 1960s to refer to the Quaternary, the most recent geological period.[9] Ecologist Eugene F. Stoermer subsequently used "anthropocene" with a different sense in the 1980s[10] and the term was widely popularized in 2000 by atmospheric chemist Paul J. Crutzen,[11] who regards the influence of human behavior on Earth's atmosphere
Earth's atmosphere
in recent centuries as so significant as to constitute a new geological epoch. In 2008, the Stratigraphy Commission of the Geological Society of London considered a proposal to make the Anthropocene
Anthropocene
a formal unit of geological epoch divisions.[3][12] A majority of the commission decided the proposal had merit and should be examined further. Independent working groups of scientists from various geological societies have begun to determine whether the Anthropocene
Anthropocene
will be formally accepted into the Geological Time Scale.[13] The term "anthropocene" is informally used in scientific contexts.[14] The Geological Society of America
Geological Society of America
entitled its 2011 annual meeting: Archean
Archean
to Anthropocene: The past is the key to the future.[15] The new epoch has no agreed start-date, but one proposal, based on atmospheric evidence, is to fix the start with the Industrial Revolution c. 1780, with the invention of the steam engine.[12][16] Other scientists link the new term to earlier events, such as the rise of agriculture and the Neolithic Revolution
Neolithic Revolution
(around 12,000 years BP). Evidence of relative human impact - such as the growing human influence on land use, ecosystems, biodiversity, and species extinction - is substantial; scientists think that human impact has significantly changed (or halted) the growth of biodiversity.[17][18] Those arguing for earlier dates posit that the proposed Anthropocene may have begun as early as 14,000 to 15,000 years before present, based on geologic evidence; this has led other scientists to suggest that "the onset of the Anthropocene
Anthropocene
should be extended back many thousand years";[19]:1 this would be closely synchronous with the current term, Holocene.

The Trinity test
Trinity test
in 1945 has been proposed as the start of the Anthropocene.

In January 2015, 26 of the 38 members of the International Anthropocene
Anthropocene
Working Group published a paper suggesting the Trinity test on 16 July 1945 as the starting point of the proposed new epoch.[20] However, a significant minority supports one of several alternative dates.[20] A March 2015 report suggested either 1610 or 1964 as the beginning of Anthropocene.[21] Other scholars point to the diachronous character of the physical strata of the Anthropocene, arguing that onset and impact are spread out over time, not reducible to a single instant or date of start.[22] A January 2016 report on the climatic, biological, and geochemical signatures of human activity in sediments and ice cores suggested the era since the mid-20th century should be recognised as a distinct geological epoch from the Holocene.[23] The Anthropocene
Anthropocene
Working Group met in Oslo in April 2016 to consolidate evidence supporting the argument for the Anthropocene
Anthropocene
as a true geologic epoch.[24] Evidence was evaluated and the group voted to recommend "Anthropocene" as the new geological age in August 2016.[7] Should the International Commission on Stratigraphy approve the recommendation, the proposal to adopt the term will have to be ratified by the International Union of Geological Sciences before its formal adoption as part of the geologic time scale.[6] Etymology[edit]

Human
Human
timeline

view • discuss • edit

-10 — – -9 — – -8 — – -7 — – -6 — – -5 — – -4 — – -3 — – -2 — – -1 — – 0 —

Human-like apes

Nakalipithecus

Ouranopithecus

Sahelanthropus

Orrorin

Ardipithecus

Australopithecus

Homo habilis

Homo erectus

Neanderthal

Homo sapiens

Earlier apes

LCA-Gorilla separation

Possibly bipedal

LCA-Chimpanzee separation

Earliest bipedal

Earliest stone tools

Earliest exit from Africa

Earliest fire use

Earliest in Europe

Earliest cooking

Earliest clothes

Modern speech

Modern humans

P l e i s t o c e n e

P l i o c e n e

M i o c e n e

H

o

m

i

n

i

d

s

Axis scale: million years Also see: Life timeline and Nature timeline

Life timeline

view • discuss • edit

-4500 — – -4000 — – -3500 — – -3000 — – -2500 — – -2000 — – -1500 — – -1000 — – -500 — – 0 —

water

Single-celled life

photosynthesis

Eukaryotes

Multicellular life

Land life

Dinosaurs    

Mammals

Flowers

 

Earliest Earth
Earth
(−4540)

Earliest water

Earliest life

LHB meteorites

Earliest oxygen

Atmospheric oxygen

Oxygen crisis

Earliest sexual reproduction

Ediacara biota

Cambrian
Cambrian
explosion

Earliest humans

P h a n e r o z o i c

P r o t e r o z o i c

A r c h e a n

H a d e a n

Pongola

Huronian

Cryogenian

Andean

Karoo

Quaternary

Axis scale: million years Orange labels: ice ages. Also see: Human
Human
timeline and Nature timeline

The name Anthropocene
Anthropocene
is a combination of anthropo- from anthropos (Ancient Greek: ἄνθρωπος) meaning "human" and -cene from kainos (Ancient Greek: καινός) meaning "new" or "recent."[25][26] As early as 1873, the Italian geologist Antonio Stoppani
Antonio Stoppani
acknowledged the increasing power and effect of humanity on the Earth's systems and referred to an 'anthropozoic era'.[27] Although the biologist Eugene Stoermer is often credited with coining the term "anthropocene", it was in informal use in the mid-1970s. Paul Crutzen is credited with independently re-inventing and popularizing it. Stoermer wrote, "I began using the term 'anthropocene' in the 1980s, but never formalized it until Paul contacted me".[28] Crutzen has explained, "I was at a conference where someone said something about the Holocene. I suddenly thought this was wrong. The world has changed too much. So I said: 'No, we are in the Anthropocene.' I just made up the word on the spur of the moment. Everyone was shocked. But it seems to have stuck."[29]:21 In 2008, Zalasiewicz suggested in GSA Today that an anthropocene epoch is now appropriate.[12] Nature of human effects[edit] Main article: Human
Human
impact on the environment Homogenocene[edit] Homogenocene (from old Greek: homo-, same geno-, kind, kainos-, new and -cene, period) is a more specific term used to define our current geological epoch, in which biodiversity is diminishing and biogeography and ecosystems around the globe seem more and more similar to one another mainly due to invasive species that have been introduced around the globe either on purpose (crops, livestock) or inadvertently. The term Homogenocene was first used by Michael Samways in his editorial article in the Journal of Insect Conservation from 1999 titled Translocating fauna to foreign lands: here comes the Homogenocene.[30] The term was used again by John L. Curnutt in the year 2000 in Ecology, in a short list titled A Guide to the Homogenocene [31] which reviewed Alien species in North America and Hawaii: impacts on natural ecosystems by George Cox. Charles C. Mann, in his acclaimed book 1493: Uncovering the New World Columbus Created gives a bird's eye view of the mechanisms and ongoing implications of the homogenocene. Biodiversity[edit] Main articles: Holocene
Holocene
extinction and biodiversity loss The human impact on biodiversity forms one of the primary attributes of the Anthropocene. Humankind has entered what is sometimes called the Earth's sixth major extinction.[32][33] Most experts agree that human activities have accelerated the rate of species extinction. The exact rate remains controversial – perhaps 100 to 1000 times the normal background rate of extinction.[34] A 2010 study found that "marine phytoplankton – the vast range of tiny algae species accounting for roughly half of Earth's total photosynthetic biomass – had declined substantially in the world's oceans over the past century. From 1950 alone, algal biomass decreased by around 40%, probably in response to ocean warming – and that the decline had gathered pace in recent years.[35][need quotation to verify] Some authors have postulated that without human impacts the biodiversity of the planet would continue to grow at an exponential rate.[17] Increases in global rates of extinction have been elevated above background rates since at least 1500, and appear to have accelerated in the 19th century and further since.[2] A 13 July 2012 New York Times op-ed by ecologist Roger Bradbury predicted the end of biodiversity for the oceans, labelling coral reefs doomed: "Coral reefs will be the first, but certainly not the last, major ecosystem to succumb to the Anthropocene."[36] This op-ed quickly generated much discussion among conservationists; The Nature Conservancy
The Nature Conservancy
rebutted Bradbury on its website, defending its position of protecting coral reefs despite continued human impacts causing reef declines.[37] In a pair of studies published in 2015, extrapolation from observed extinction of Hawaiian snails led to the conclusion that "the biodiversity crisis is real", and that 7% of all species on Earth
Earth
may have disappeared already.[38][39] Human
Human
predation was noted as being unique in the history of life on Earth
Earth
as being a globally distributed 'superpredator', with predation of the adults of other apex predators and with widespread impacts on food webs worldwide.[40] A study published in May 2017 in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences posited that a “biological annihilation” akin to a sixth mass extinction event is underway as a result of anthropogenic causes, such as human overpopulation, continued population growth and overconsumption, particularly by the wealthy. The study suggested that as much as 50% of the number of animal individuals that once lived on Earth
Earth
were already extinct, threatening the basis for human existence too.[41][42] Biogeography[edit] Main article: Biogeography Permanent changes in the distribution of organisms from human influence will become identifiable in the geologic record. Researchers have documented the movement of many species into regions formerly too cold for them, often at rates faster than initially expected.[43] This has occurred in part as a result of changing climate, but also in response to farming and fishing, and to the accidental introduction of non-native species to new areas through global travel.[2] The ecosystem of the entire Black Sea
Black Sea
may have changed during the last 2000 years as a result of nutrient- and silica-input from eroding deforested lands along the Danube River.[44] Climate[edit] Main article: Anthropogenic climate change Main article: Anthropocene
Anthropocene
extinction One geological symptom resulting from human activity is increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) content. During the glacial–interglacial cycles of the past million years, natural processes have varied CO2 by approximately 100 ppm (from 180 ppm to 280 ppm). As of 2013[update], anthropogenic net emissions of CO2 increased atmospheric concentration by a comparable amount from 280 ppm ( Holocene
Holocene
or pre-industrial "equilibrium") to approximately 400 ppm,[45] with 2015–16 monthly monitoring data of CO2 displaying a rising trend above 400 ppm.[46] This signal in the Earth's climate system is especially significant because it is occurring much faster,[47] and to a greater extent, than previous, similar changes. Most of this increase is due to the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and gas, although smaller fractions are the result of cement production and land-use changes (e.g. deforestation). Geomorphology[edit] Changes in drainage patterns traceable to human activity will persist over geologic time in large parts of the continents where the geologic regime is erosional. This includes the paths of roads and highways defined by their grading and drainage control. Direct changes to the form of the Earth's surface by human activities (e.g., quarrying, landscaping) also record human impacts. It has been suggested the deposition of calthemite formations are one example of a natural process which has not previously occurred prior to the human modification of the Earth's surface, and therefore represents a unique process of the Anthropocene.[48] Calthemite
Calthemite
is a secondary deposit, derived from concrete, lime, mortar or other calcareous material outside the cave environment.[49][50] Calthemites grow on or under, man-made structures (including mines and tunnels) and mimic the shapes and forms of cave speleothems, such as stalactites, stalagmites, flowstone etc. Stratigraphy[edit] Sedimentological record[edit] Human
Human
activities like deforestation and road construction are believed to have elevated average total sediment fluxes across the Earth's surface.[2] However, construction of dams on many rivers around the world means the rates of sediment deposition in any given place do not always appear to increase in the Anthropocene. For instance, many river deltas around the world are actually currently starved of sediment by such dams, and are subsiding and failing to keep up with sea level rise, rather than growing.[2][51] Fossil record[edit] Increases in erosion due to farming and other operations will be reflected by changes in sediment composition and increases in deposition rates elsewhere. In land areas with a depositional regime, engineered structures will tend to be buried and preserved, along with litter and debris. Litter and debris thrown from boats or carried by rivers and creeks will accumulate in the marine environment, particularly in coastal areas. Such manmade artifacts preserved in stratigraphy are known as "technofossils".[2][52] Changes in biodiversity will also be reflected in the fossil record, as will species introductions. An example cited is the domestic chicken, originally the red junglefowl Gallus gallus, native to south-east Asia but has since become the world's most common bird through human breeding and consumption, with over 60 billion consumed a year and whose bones would become fossilized in landfill sites.[53] Trace elements[edit] In terms of trace elements, there are distinct signatures left by modern societies. For example, in the Upper Fremont Glacier
Upper Fremont Glacier
in Wyoming, there is a layer of chlorine present in ice cores from 1960s atomic weapon testing programs, as well as a layer of mercury associated with coal plants in the 1980s. From 1945 to 1951, nuclear fallout is found locally around atomic device test sites, whereas from 1952 to 1980, tests of thermonuclear devices have left a clear, global signal of excess 14C, 239Pu, and other artificial radionuclides. The highest global concentration of radionuclides was in 1965, one of the dates which has been proposed as a possible benchmark for the start of the formally defined Anthropocene.[54] Human
Human
burning of fossil fuels has also left distinctly elevated concentrations of black carbon, inorganic ash, and spherical carbonaceous particles in recent sediments across the world. Concentrations of these components increases markedly and almost simultaneously around the world beginning around 1950.[2] Temporal limit[edit] The Anthropocene
Anthropocene
Working Group voted on the "Base/beginning of the Anthropocene", and most members favored some time around 1950.[7][55] "Early anthropocene" model[edit] Main article: Early anthropocene While much of the environmental change occurring on Earth
Earth
is suspected to be a direct consequence of the Industrial Revolution, William Ruddiman has argued that the proposed Anthropocene
Anthropocene
began approximately 8,000 years ago with the development of farming and sedentary cultures. At this point, humans were dispersed across all of the continents (except Antarctica), and the Neolithic Revolution
Neolithic Revolution
was ongoing. During this period, humans developed agriculture and animal husbandry to supplement or replace hunter-gatherer subsistence. Such innovations were followed by a wave of extinctions, beginning with large mammals and land birds. This wave was driven by both the direct activity of humans (e.g. hunting) and the indirect consequences of land-use change for agriculture. From the past to present, some authors consider the Anthropocene
Anthropocene
and the Holocene
Holocene
to be the same or coeval geologic time span,[56][57] others that the onset of the Anthropocene
Anthropocene
was just a bit more recent.[58] Ruddiman claims that the Anthropocene, as defined by significant human impact on greenhouse gas emissions, began not in the industrial era, but 8,000 years ago, as ancient farmers cleared forests to grow crops.[59][60][61] Ruddiman's work has, in turn, been challenged on the grounds that comparison with an earlier interglaciation ("Stage 11", approximately 400,000 years ago) suggests that 16,000 more years must elapse before the current Holocene interglaciation comes to an end, and that thus the early anthropogenic hypothesis is invalid.[citation needed] Ruddiman argues in rebuttal that this results from an invalid alignment of recent insolation maxima with insolation minima from the past, among other irregularities, which invalidate the criticism. Furthermore, the argument that "something" is needed to explain the differences in the Holocene
Holocene
is challenged by more recent research showing that all interglacials differ.[62] Although 8,000 years ago the planet sustained a few million people and was still fundamentally pristine,[63] this is the basis for an assertion that an early date for the proposed Anthropocene
Anthropocene
term does account for a substantial human footprint on Earth.[64] Antiquity[edit] A plausible starting point of the Anthropocene
Anthropocene
could be at c. 2,000 years ago[citation needed], which roughly coincides with the start of the final phase of Holocene, the Subatlantic.[65] At this time, the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
encompassed large portions of Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa. In China
China
the classical dynasties were flowering. The Middle kingdoms of India
Middle kingdoms of India
had already the largest economy of the ancient and medieval world. The Napata/Meroitic kingdom extended over the current Sudan
Sudan
and Ethiopia. The Olmecs controlled central Mexico
Mexico
and Guatemala, and the pre-Incan Chavín people managed areas of northern Peru. Although often apart from each other and intermixed with buffering ecosystems, the areas directly impacted by these civilizations and others were large. Additionally, some activities, such as mining, implied much more widespread perturbation of natural conditions.[66] Over the last 11,500 years or so humans have spread around Earth, increased in number, and profoundly altered the material world. They have taken advantage of global environmental conditions not of their own making.The end of the last glacial period – when as much as 30% of Earth’s surface was ice-bound – led to a warmer world with more water ( H2O). Although humans existed in the previous Pleistocene
Pleistocene
epoch, it is only in the recent Holocene period that they have flourished. Today there are more humans alive than at any previous point in Earth’s history.[67] Industrial Revolution[edit] Crutzen proposed the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
as the start of Anthropocene.[27] Lovelock proposes that the Anthropocene
Anthropocene
began with the first application of the Newcomen atmospheric engine
Newcomen atmospheric engine
in 1712. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
takes the pre-industrial era (chosen as the year 1750) as the baseline related to changes in long-lived, well mixed greenhouse gases.[68] Although it is apparent that the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
ushered in an unprecedented global human impact on the planet,[69] much of Earth’s landscape already had been profoundly modified by human activities.[70] The human impact on Earth
Earth
has grown progressively, with few substantial slowdowns. Anthropocene
Anthropocene
marker[edit] A marker that accounts for a substantial global impact of humans on the total environment, comparable in scale to those associated with significant perturbations of the geological past, is needed in place of minor changes in atmosphere composition.[71][72] A useful candidate for this purpose is the pedosphere, which can retain information of its climatic and geochemical history with features lasting for centuries or millennia.[73] Human
Human
activity is now firmly established as the sixth factor of soil formation.[74] It affects pedogenesis either directly, by, for example, land levelling, trenching and embankment building for various purposes, organic matter enrichment from additions of manure or other waste, organic matter impoverishment due to continued cultivation, compaction from overgrazing or, indirectly, by drift of eroded materials or pollutants. Anthropogenic soils are those markedly affected by human activities, such as repeated ploughing, the addition of fertilizers, contamination, sealing, or enrichment with artefacts (in the World Reference Base for Soil Resources they are classified as Anthrosols and Technosols). They are recalcitrant repositories of artefacts and properties that testify to the dominance of the human impact, and hence appear to be reliable markers for the Anthropocene. Some anthropogenic soils may be viewed as the ‘golden spikes’ of geologists (Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point), which are locations where there are strata successions with clear evidences of a worldwide event, including the appearance of distinctive fossils.[65] Drilling for fossil fuels has also created holes and tubes which are expected to be detectable for millions of years.[75] In culture[edit] The concept of the Anthropocene
Anthropocene
has also been approached via humanities such as philosophy, literature and art. In the scholarly world, it has been the subject of increasing attention through special journal issues,[76] conferences,[77][78] and disciplinary reports.[79] The Anthropocene, its attendant timescale, and ecological implications prompts questions about death and the ends of civilization,[80] memory and archives,[81] the scope and methods of humanistic inquiry,[82] and emotional responses to the "end of nature".[83] It has been also criticized as an ideological construct.[84] Some environmentalists on the political left suggest that "Capitalocene" is a more historically appropriate term.[85][86] At the same time, others suggest that the Anthropocene
Anthropocene
is overly focused on the human species, while ignoring systematic inequalities, such as imperialism and racism, that have also shaped the world.[87] See also[edit]

Anthropocentrism Anthropogenic biomes Climate engineering Control of fire by early humans Defaunation Ecocriticism Effects of global warming Geobiology Great Transition Holocene
Holocene
extinction Human
Human
overpopulation International Geosphere- Biosphere
Biosphere
Programme Novel ecosystem Planetary boundaries Plastic pollution Power Down: Options and Actions for a Post-Carbon World The Sixth Extinction: An Unnatural History (2014 book) World Scientists' Warning to Humanity

References[edit]

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Anthropocene
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Holocene
as Anthropocene". Science. 349: 246. doi:10.1126/science.349.6245.246-a.  ^ a b Certini, G. & Scalenghe, R. (2011). "Anthropogenic soils are the golden spikes for the Anthropocene". The Holocene. 21 (8): 1269–74. Bibcode:2011Holoc..21.1269C. doi:10.1177/0959683611408454.  ^ Hong, S.; Candelone, J-P.; Patterson, C. C. & Boutron C. F. (1994). "Greenland ice evidence of hemispheric lead pollution two millennia ago by Greek and Roman civilizations". Science. 265 (5180): 1841–1843. Bibcode:1994Sci...265.1841H. doi:10.1126/science.265.5180.1841. PMID 17797222.  ^ Castree, Noel (2015). "The anthropocene : a primer for geographers" (PDF). geography. 100: 66.  ^ Laboratory, US Department of Commerce, NOAA, Earth
Earth
System Research. "NOAA/ESRL Global Monitoring Division - THE NOAA ANNUAL GREENHOUSE GAS INDEX (AGGI)". www.esrl.noaa.gov. Retrieved 2017-05-17.  ^ Douglas, I.; Hodgson, R. & Lawson, N. (2002). "Industry, environment and health through 200 years in Manchester". Ecological Economics. 41 (2): 235–55. doi:10.1016/S0921-8009(02)00029-0.  ^ Kirch, P. V. (2005). "The Holocene
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record". Annual Review of Environment and Resources. 30 (1): 409–40. doi:10.1146/annurev.energy.29.102403.140700.  ^ Zalasiewicz, J.; Williams, M.; Steffen, W. & Crutzen, P. J. (2010). "Response to "The Anthropocene
Anthropocene
forces us to reconsider adaptationist models of human-environment interactions"". Environmental Science & Technology. 44 (16): 6008. Bibcode:2010EnST...44.6008Z. doi:10.1021/es102062w.  ^ Zalasiewicz, J.; et al. (2011). "Stratigraphy of the Anthropocene". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A. 369 (1938): 1036–55. Bibcode:2011RSPTA.369.1036Z. doi:10.1098/rsta.2010.0315.  ^ Richter, D. deB. (2007). "Humanity's transformation of Earth's soil: pedology's new frontier". Soil Science. 172 (12): 957–67. doi:10.1097/ss.0b013e3181586bb7.  ^ Amundson, R. & Jenny, H. (1991). "The place of humans in the state factor theory of ecosystems and their soils". Soil Science. 151 (1): 99–109. doi:10.1097/00010694-199101000-00012.  ^ "The Advent of the Anthropocene: Was That the Big Story of the 20th Century?". worldofideas. Retrieved 28 November 2015.  ^ Timothy Clark, ed. (2012-12-01). " Special
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Issue: Deconstruction in the Anthropocene". Oxford Literary Review. 34 (2): v–vi. doi:10.3366/olr.2012.0039. Retrieved 2014-07-21.  ^ Humanities Research Centre, Australian National University (2012-06-13). Anthropocene
Anthropocene
Humanities: The 2012 Annual Meeting of the Consortium of Humanities Centers and Institutes. Canberra, Australia. Archived from the original on 2014-08-31. Retrieved 2014-07-21.  ^ Rachel Carson Center for Environment and Society at LMU-Munich; Alexander von Humboldt Transatlantic Network in the Environmental Humanities (2013-06-14). Culture and the Anthropocene. Munich, Germany. Retrieved 2014-07-21.  ^ Wenzel, Jennifer (2014-03-14). "Climate Change". State of the Discipline Report: Ideas of the Decade. American Comparative Literature Association. Retrieved 2014-07-21.  ^ Scranton, Roy (2013-11-10). "Learning How to Die in the Anthropocene". New York Times: Opinionator. Retrieved 2014-07-17.  ^ Colebrook, Claire (2014-01-27). "The Anthropocene
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and the Archive". The Memory Network: Exchanges. Retrieved 2014-07-21.  ^ Nowviskie, Bethany (2014-07-10). "digital humanities in the anthropocene". nowviskie.org. Retrieved 2014-07-10.  ^ Ronda, Margaret (2013-06-10). "Mourning and Melancholia in the Anthropocene". Post45. Retrieved 2014-07-21.  ^ Andreas Malm. The Anthropocene
Anthropocene
Myth. Jacobin. March 2015. ^ Moore, Jason W., editor, (2016). Anthropocene
Anthropocene
or Capitalocene? Nature, History, and the Crisis of Capitalism. Oakland: PM Press. ISBN 1629631485.  ^ Davies, Jeremy (2016). The Birth of the Anthropocene. Oakland, CA, USA: University of California Press. pp. 94–95. ISBN 9780520289970.  ^ Ross Anderson. "Nature Has Lost Its Meaning." The Atlantic. November 30, 2015.

Further reading[edit]

Davies, Jeremy (2016). The Birth of the Anthropocene. Oakland, CA, USA: University of California Press. ISBN 9780520289970.  Dirzo, Rodolfo; Hillary S. Young; Mauro Galetti; Gerardo Ceballos; Nick J. B. Isaac; Ben Collen (2014). " Defaunation
Defaunation
in the Anthropocene" (PDF). Science. 345 (6195): 401–406. Bibcode:2014Sci...345..401D. doi:10.1126/science.1251817.  Dixon, Simon J; Viles, Heather A; Garrett, Bradley L. "Ozymandias in the Anthropocene: the city as an emerging landform". Area: n/a–n/a. doi:10.1111/area.12358. ISSN 1475-4762.  Ellis, Erle C.; Fuller, Dorian Q.; Kaplan, Jed O.; Lutters, Wayne G. (2013). "Dating the Anthropocene: Towards an empirical global history of human transformation of the terrestrial biosphere". Elementa. 1: 000018. doi:10.12952/journal.elementa.000018.  Hamilton, Clive (2017). Defiant Earth: The Fate of Humans in the Anthropocene. Polity. ISBN 978-1509519750.  Ialenti, Vincent. 2016. "Generation (Lexicon for An Anthropocene
Anthropocene
Yet Unseen)". Cultural Anthropology: Theorizing the Contemporary.  Kim, Rakhyun E.; Klaus Bosselmann (2013). "International Environmental Law in the Anthropocene: Towards a Purposive System of Multilateral Environmental Agreements". Transnational Environmental Law. 2: 285–309. doi:10.1017/S2047102513000149.  Ripple WJ, Wolf C, Newsome TM, Galetti M, Alamgir M, Crist E, Mahmoud MI, Laurance WF (2017). "World Scientists' Warning to Humanity: A Second Notice". BioScience. doi:10.1093/biosci/bix125.  Ruddiman, William F. (December 2003). "The anthropogenic greenhouse era began thousands of years ago". Climatic Change. 61 (3): 261–293. doi:10.1023/B:CLIM.0000004577.17928.fa.  Ruddiman, William F.; Stephen J. Vavrus & John E. Kutzbach (2005). "A test of the overdue-glaciation hypothesis" (PDF). Quaternary Science Reviews. 24: 11. Bibcode:2005QSRv...24....1R. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2004.07.010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-10-03.  Ruddiman, William F. (2005). Plows, Plagues, and Petroleum: How Humans Took Control of Climate. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-12164-8.  Schmidt, G. A.; D. T. Shindel & S. Harder (2004). "A note on the relationship between ice core methane concentrations and insolation". Geophysical Research Letters. 31 (23): L23206. Bibcode:2004GeoRL..3123206S. doi:10.1029/2004GL021083.  Schneider-Mayerson, Matthew. "Some Islands Will Rise: Singapore in the Anthropocene". Resilience: A Journal of the Environmental Humanities 4.2 (2017): 166-184. Visconti, Guido (2014). "Anthropocene: another academic invention?" (PDF). Rend. Fis. Acc. Lincei. 25 (3): 381–392. doi:10.1007/s12210-014-0317-x.  "Human-Driven Planet: Time to Make It Official?". Science Now. January 2008.  Grinspoon, David (December 2016). "Welcome to Terra Sapiens". Aeon.  Kasprak, Alex. A newspaper clipping from 1912 that anticipates the global warming potential of burning coal is authentic and consistent with the history of climate science (18 October 2016) Klinkenborg, Verlyn (December 2016). What’s Happening to the Bees and Butterflies? New York Review of Books Vanishing: The Sixth Mass Extinction, and How to stop the sixth mass extinction (December 2016), CNN. Williams, Mark; Zalasiewicz, Jan; Haff, P. K.; Schwägerl, Christian; Barnosky, Anthony D.; Ellis, Erle C. (2015). "The Anthropocene Biosphere". The Anthropocene
Anthropocene
Review. 2 (3): 196–219. doi:10.1177/2053019615591020.  'Ozymandias in the Anthropocene: the city as an emerging landform', Dixon S., et al. (2017) AREA, Royal Geographical Society issn=1475-4762

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Anthropocene

Look up Anthropocene
Anthropocene
in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

External video

Welcome to the Anthropocene
Anthropocene
on YouTube

100,000,000 Years From Now on YouTube

(2014) Noam Chomsky: The Anthropocene
Anthropocene
Period and its Challenges on YouTube

Working Group on The 'Anthropocene', International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS) "Anthropocene", Encyclopedia of Earth Welcome to the Anthropocene
Anthropocene
Website Aarhus University Research on The Anthropocene
Anthropocene
(AURA) The Anthropocene
Anthropocene
Project at Haus der Kulturen der Welt, Berlin The Advent of the Anthropocene: Was That the Big Story of the 20th Century? (audio lecture) Equation: Human
Human
Impact on Climate Change (2017) & Yale University Era of ‘Biological Annihilation’ Is Underway, Scientists Warn (July 2017), The New York Times

v t e

Geologic history of Earth

Cenozoic
Cenozoic
era¹ (present–66.0 Mya)

Quaternary
Quaternary
(present–2.588 Mya)

Holocene
Holocene
(present–11.784 kya) Pleistocene
Pleistocene
(11.784 kya–2.588 Mya)

Neogene
Neogene
(2.588–23.03 Mya)

Pliocene
Pliocene
(2.588–5.333 Mya) Miocene
Miocene
(5.333–23.03 Mya)

Paleogene (23.03–66.0 Mya)

Oligocene
Oligocene
(23.03–33.9 Mya) Eocene
Eocene
(33.9–56.0 Mya) Paleocene
Paleocene
(56.0–66.0 Mya)

Mesozoic
Mesozoic
era¹ (66.0–251.902 Mya)

Cretaceous
Cretaceous
(66.0–145.0 Mya)

Late (66.0–100.5 Mya) Early (100.5–145.0 Mya)

Jurassic
Jurassic
(145.0–201.3 Mya)

Late (145.0–163.5 Mya) Middle (163.5–174.1 Mya) Early (174.1–201.3 Mya)

Triassic
Triassic
(201.3–251.902 Mya)

Late (201.3–237 Mya) Middle (237–247.2 Mya) Early (247.2–251.902 Mya)

Paleozoic
Paleozoic
era¹ (251.902–541.0 Mya)

Permian
Permian
(251.902–298.9 Mya)

Lopingian
Lopingian
(251.902–259.8 Mya) Guadalupian
Guadalupian
(259.8–272.3 Mya) Cisuralian
Cisuralian
(272.3–298.9 Mya)

Carboniferous
Carboniferous
(298.9–358.9 Mya)

Pennsylvanian (298.9–323.2 Mya) Mississippian (323.2–358.9 Mya)

Devonian
Devonian
(358.9–419.2 Mya)

Late (358.9–382.7 Mya) Middle (382.7–393.3 Mya) Early (393.3–419.2 Mya)

Silurian
Silurian
(419.2–443.8 Mya)

Pridoli (419.2–423.0 Mya) Ludlow (423.0–427.4 Mya) Wenlock (427.4–433.4 Mya) Llandovery (433.4–443.8 Mya)

Ordovician
Ordovician
(443.8–485.4 Mya)

Late (443.8–458.4 Mya) Middle (458.4–470.0 Mya) Early (470.0–485.4 Mya)

Cambrian
Cambrian
(485.4–541.0 Mya)

Furongian (485.4–497 Mya) Series 3 (497–509 Mya) Series 2 (509–521 Mya) Terreneuvian
Terreneuvian
(521–541.0 Mya)

Proterozoic
Proterozoic
eon² (541.0 Mya–2.5 Gya)

Neoproterozoic era (541.0 Mya–1 Gya)

Ediacaran
Ediacaran
(541.0-~635 Mya) Cryogenian (~635-~720 Mya) Tonian (~720 Mya-1 Gya)

Mesoproterozoic era (1–1.6 Gya)

Stenian (1-1.2 Gya) Ectasian (1.2-1.4 Gya) Calymmian (1.4-1.6 Gya)

Paleoproterozoic era (1.6–2.5 Gya)

Statherian (1.6-1.8 Gya) Orosirian
Orosirian
(1.8-2.05 Gya) Rhyacian (2.05-2.3 Gya) Siderian
Siderian
(2.3-2.5 Gya)

Archean
Archean
eon² (2.5–4 Gya)

Eras

Neoarchean (2.5–2.8 Gya) Mesoarchean (2.8–3.2 Gya) Paleoarchean
Paleoarchean
(3.2–3.6 Gya) Eoarchean
Eoarchean
(3.6–4 Gya)

Hadean
Hadean
eon² (4–4.6 Gya)

 

 

kya = thousands years ago. Mya = millions years ago. Gya = billions years ago.¹ = Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
eon. ² = Precambrian
Precambrian
supereon. Source: (2017/02). International Commission on Stratigraphy. Retrieved 13 July 2015. Divisions of Geologic Time—Major Chronostratigraphic and Geochronologic Units USGS Retrieved 10 March 2013.

v t e

Human
Human
impact on the environment

General

Anthropocene Environmental issues

List of issues

Human
Human
impact Impact assessment Planetary boundaries

Causes

Agriculture

fishing irrigation meat production palm oil

Energy industry

biofuels biodiesel coal electricity generation nuclear power oil shale petroleum reservoirs wind power

Genetic pollution Industrialization Land use Manufacturing

cleaning agents concrete plastics nanotechnology paint paper pesticides pharmaceuticals and personal care

Mining Overdrafting Overexploitation Overpopulation Particulates Pollution Quarrying Reservoirs Tourism Transport

aviation roads shipping

Urbanization

urban sprawl

war

Effects

Biodiversity
Biodiversity
threats

Biodiversity
Biodiversity
loss

Climate change

Global warming Runaway climate change

Coral reefs Deforestation Defaunation Desertification Ecocide Erosion Environmental degradation Freshwater cycle Habitat destruction Holocene
Holocene
extinction Nitrogen cycle Land degradation Land surface effects on climate Loss of green belts Phosphorus cycle Ocean acidification Ozone depletion Resource depletion Water
Water
degradation Water
Water
scarcity

Mitigation

Birth control Cleaner production Climate change
Climate change
mitigation Climate engineering Ecological engineering Environmental engineering Environmental mitigation Industrial ecology Mitigation banking Organic farming Reforestation

urban

Restoration ecology Sustainable consumption Waste minimization

  Commons   Category by country assessment mitigation

v t e

Sustainability

Principles

Anthropocene Earth
Earth
system governance Ecological modernization Environmental governance Environmentalism Global catastrophic risk Human
Human
impact on the environment Planetary boundaries Social sustainability Stewardship Sustainable development

Consumption

Anthropization Anti-consumerism Earth
Earth
Overshoot Day Ecological footprint Ethical Over-consumption Simple living Sustainability
Sustainability
advertising Sustainability
Sustainability
brand Sustainability
Sustainability
marketing myopia Sustainable Systemic change resistance Tragedy of the commons

Population

Birth control Family planning Control Overpopulation Zero growth

Technology

Appropriate Environmental Sustainable

Biodiversity

Biosecurity Biosphere Conservation biology Deep ecology Endangered species Holocene
Holocene
extinction Invasive species

Energy

Carbon footprint Climate change
Climate change
mitigation Conservation Descent Efficiency Emissions trading Fossil-fuel phase-out Peak oil Renewable Energy poverty

Food

Forest gardening Local Permaculture Security Sustainable agriculture Sustainable fishery Urban horticulture

Water

Conservation Crisis Efficiency Footprint Reclaimed

Accountability

Sustainability
Sustainability
accounting Sustainability
Sustainability
measurement Sustainability
Sustainability
metrics and indices Sustainability
Sustainability
reporting Standards and certification Sustainable yield

Applications

Advertising Architecture Art Business City College programs Community Design Ecovillage Education for Sustainable Development Fashion Gardening Geopark Green marketing Industries Landscape architecture Living Low-impact development Sustainable market Organizations Packaging Practices Procurement Tourism Transport Urban drainage systems Urban infrastructure Urbanism

Management

Environmental Fisheries Forest Materials Natural resource Planetary Waste

Agreements

UN Conference on the Human
Human
Environment (Stockholm 1972) Brundtlandt Commission Report (1983) Our Common Future
Our Common Future
(1987) Earth
Earth
Summit (1992) Rio Declaration on Environment and Development Agenda 21
Agenda 21
(1992) Convention on Biological Diversity
Convention on Biological Diversity
(1992) ICPD Programme of Action (1994) Earth
Earth
Charter Lisbon Principles UN Millennium Declaration (2000) Earth
Earth
Summit 2002 (Rio+10, Johannesburg) United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development
United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development
(Rio+20, 2012) Sustainable Development Goals

Category Lists Outline Portal Scien

.