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Environmental Disaster
An environmental disaster or ecological disaster is defined as a catastrophic event regarding the natural environment that is due to human activity.Jared M. Diamond, '' Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed'', 2005 This point distinguishes environmental disasters from other disturbances such as natural disasters and intentional acts of war such as nuclear bombings. Environmental disasters show how the impact of humans' alteration of the land has led to widespread and/or long-lasting consequences. These disasters have included deaths of wildlife, humans and plants, or severe disruption of human life or health, possibly requiring migration. Environmental disasters Environmental disasters historically have affected agriculture, biodiversity including wildlife, the economy and human health. The most common causes include pollution that seeps into groundwater or a body of water, emissions into the atmosphere and depletion of natural resources, industrial activity or a ...
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Pollution
Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change. Pollution can take the form of any substance (solid, liquid, or gas) or energy (such as radioactivity, heat, sound, or light). Pollutants, the components of pollution, can be either foreign substances/energies or naturally occurring contaminants. Although environmental pollution can be caused by natural events, the word pollution generally implies that the contaminants have an anthropogenic source – that is, a source created by human activities. Pollution is often classed as point source or nonpoint source pollution. In 2015, pollution killed nine million people worldwide (one in six deaths). This remained unchanged in 2019, with little real progress against pollution being identifiable. Air pollution accounted for of these earlier deaths. Major forms of pollution include air pollution, light pollution, litter, noise pollution, plastic pollution, soil contamination, ...
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Chemical Waste
Chemical waste is any excess, unusable, or unwanted chemical, especially those that cause damage to human health or the environment. Chemical waste may be classified as hazardous waste, non-hazardous waste, universal waste, and household hazardous waste. Hazardous waste is a material that displays one or more of four characteristics: ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, and toxicity. This information, along with disposal requirements, is typically available on the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). Chemical waste that is radioactive, radioactive waste, requires special means of handling and disposal. Biohazardous waste, although often chemical, falls into four categories and is handled differently. Laboratory chemical waste in the US The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) prohibits disposing of certain materials down drains. Therefore, when hazardous chemical waste is generated in a laboratory setting, it is usually stored on-site in an appropriate waste c ...
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Dioxin
Dioxin may refer to: * 1,2-Dioxin or 1,4-Dioxin, two unsaturated heterocyclic 6-membered rings where two carbon atoms have been replaced by oxygen atoms, giving the molecular formula C4H4O2 * Dibenzo-1,4-dioxin, the parent compound also known as dibenzodioxin or dibenzo-''p''-dioxin (molecular formula C12H8O2), in which two benzene rings are connected through two oxygen atoms * Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds, a diverse range of chemical compounds which are known to exhibit "dioxin-like" toxicity * 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD), the prototypical example of the above class, often referred to simply as "dioxin" See also *1,4-Dioxane, the saturated analog *Agent orange, of which TCDD is a marginal component *Digoxin * Dioxin affair, a 1999 crisis in Belgium *Seveso disaster Seveso (; lmo, label= Lombard, Séves ) is a town and '' comune'' in the Province of Monza and Brianza, in the Region of Lombardy. The economy of the town has traditionally been based on the ...
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Chlorobenzenes
Chlorobenzene is an aromatic organic compound with the chemical formula C6H5Cl. This colorless, flammable liquid is a common solvent and a widely used intermediate in the manufacture of other chemicals. Uses Historical The major use of chlorobenzene is as an intermediate in the production of herbicides, dyestuffs, and rubber. Chlorobenzene is also used as a high-boiling solvent in industrial applications as well as in the laboratory. Chlorobenzene is nitrated on a large scale to give a mixture of 2-nitrochlorobenzene and 4-nitrochlorobenzene, which are separated. These mononitrochlorobenzenes are converted to related 2-nitrophenol, 2-nitroanisole, bis(2-nitrophenyl)disulfide, and 2-nitroaniline by nucleophilic displacement of the chloride, with respectively sodium hydroxide, sodium methoxide, sodium disulfide, and ammonia. The conversions of the 4-nitro derivative are similar. Chlorobenzene once was used in the manufacture of pesticides, most notably DDT, by reaction wi ...
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Halogenated Organics
Halocarbon compounds are chemicals in which one or more carbon atoms are linked by covalent bonds with one or more halogen atoms (fluorine, chlorine, bromine or iodine – ) resulting in the formation of organofluorine compounds, organochlorine compounds, organobromine compounds, and organoiodine compounds. Chlorine halocarbons are the most common and are called organochlorides. Many synthetic organic compounds such as plastic polymers, and a few natural ones, contain halogen atoms; they are known as ''halogenated'' compounds or ''organohalogens''. Organochlorides are the most common industrially used organohalides, although the other organohalides are used commonly in organic synthesis. Except for extremely rare cases, organohalides are not produced biologically, but many pharmaceuticals are organohalides. Notably, many pharmaceuticals such as Prozac have trifluoromethyl groups. For information on inorganic halide chemistry, see halide. Chemical families Halocar ...
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Carcinogen
A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis (the formation of cancer). This may be due to the ability to damage the genome or to the disruption of cellular metabolic processes. Several radioactive substances are considered carcinogens, but their carcinogenic activity is attributed to the radiation, for example gamma rays and alpha particles, which they emit. Common examples of non-radioactive carcinogens are inhaled asbestos, certain dioxins, and tobacco smoke. Although the public generally associates carcinogenicity with synthetic chemicals, it is equally likely to arise from both natural and synthetic substances. Carcinogens are not necessarily immediately toxic; thus, their effect can be insidious. Carcinogens, as mentioned, are agents in the environment capable of contributing to cancer growth. Carcinogens can be categorized into two different types: activation-dependent and activation-independent, and each nature impacts their ...
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Niagara Falls, New York
Niagara Falls is a city in Niagara County, New York, United States. As of the 2020 census, the city had a total population of 48,671. It is adjacent to the Niagara River, across from the city of Niagara Falls, Ontario, and named after the famed Niagara Falls which they share. The city is within the Buffalo–Niagara Falls metropolitan area and the Western New York region. While the city was formerly occupied by Native Americans, Europeans who migrated to the Niagara Falls in the mid-17th century began to open businesses and develop infrastructure. Later in the 18th and 19th centuries, scientists and businessmen began harnessing the power of the Niagara River for electricity and the city began to attract manufacturers and other businesses drawn by the promise of inexpensive hydroelectric power. After the 1960s, however, the city and region witnessed an economic decline, following an attempt at urban renewal under then Mayor Lackey. Consistent with the rest of the Rust Belt as ...
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Love Canal
Love Canal is a neighborhood in Niagara Falls, New York, United States, infamous as the location of a landfill that became the site of an enormous environmental disaster in the 1970s. Decades of dumping toxic chemicals harmed the health of hundreds of residents; the area was cleaned up over the course of 21 years in a Superfund operation. In 1890, Love Canal was created as a model planned community, but was only partially developed. In the 1920s, the canal became a dump site for municipal refuse for the city of Niagara Falls. During the 1940s, the canal was purchased by Hooker Chemical Company, which used the site to dump of chemical byproducts from the manufacturing of dyes, perfumes, and solvents for rubber and synthetic resins. Love Canal was sold to the local school district in 1953, after the threat of eminent domain. Over the next three decades, it attracted national attention for the public health problems originating from the former dumping of toxic waste on the gr ...
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Seveso Disaster
Seveso (; lmo, label= Lombard, Séves ) is a town and '' comune'' in the Province of Monza and Brianza, in the Region of Lombardy. The economy of the town has traditionally been based on the furniture industry. Its name comes from the river of the same name which crosses the '' comune'' in a north-south direction. Seveso received the honorary title of city with a presidential decree on 18 June 2003. Geography The town is situated to the north of Milan in the Brianza lowlands. The territory of the commume is highly urbanised, with the majority of inhabitants living in the town. Seveso lies on the national trunk road ''Statale dei Giovi'', which connects Milan to Como and on the Milan-Meda motorway. Seveso railway station is located on the Milan–Asso railway, while Seveso-Baruccana railway station is located on the Saronno–Seregno railway. Neighbouring communes are Meda, Seregno, Barlassina, Cogliate, Cesano Maderno. History Seveso's origins date back to about ...
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Fukushima I By Digital Globe
may refer to: Japan * Fukushima Prefecture, Japanese prefecture **Fukushima, Fukushima, capital city of Fukushima Prefecture, Japan ***Fukushima University, national university in Japan ***Fukushima Station (Fukushima) in Fukushima, Fukushima **Fukushima Airport, airport serving northern and central Fukushima Prefecture, Japan **Fukushima Daini Nuclear Power Plant, another nuclear power plant in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. Now being decommissioned **Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, a disabled nuclear power plant in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan *** Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, 2011 nuclear disaster at the Fukushima nuclear power plant, Japan *** Fukushima disaster cleanup, clean-up activities following the nuclear accidents, Fukushima, Japan ** 2016 Fukushima earthquake ** 2021 Fukushima earthquake Hokkaido *Fukushima, Hokkaido Osaka *Fukushima-ku, Osaka, ward * Fukushima Station Nagano Prefecture * Kiso-Fukushima Station * Fukushima-juku, former post town ...
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Depletion Of Natural Resources
Resource depletion is the consumption of a resource faster than it can be replenished. Natural resources are commonly divided between renewable resources and non-renewable resources (see also mineral resource classification). Use of either of these forms of resources beyond their rate of replacement is considered to be resource depletion. The value of a resource is a direct result of its availability in nature and the cost of extracting the resource, the more a resource is depleted the more the value of the resource increases. There are several types of resource depletion, the most known being: Aquifer depletion, deforestation, mining for fossil fuels and minerals, pollution or contamination of resources, slash-and-burn agricultural practices, soil erosion, and overconsumption, excessive or unnecessary use of resources. Resource depletion is most commonly used in reference to farming, fishing, mining, water usage, and consumption of fossil fuels. Depletion of wildlife populat ...
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