HOME
The Info List - Antarctic Press


--- Advertisement ---



The Antarctic
Antarctic
(US English /æntˈɑːrktɪk/, UK English /ænˈtɑːrktɪk/ or /æntˈɑːrtɪk/ and /ænˈtɑːrtɪk/ or /ænˈɑːrtɪk/)[Note 1] is a polar region around the Earth's South Pole, opposite the Arctic
Arctic
region around the North Pole. The Antarctic comprises the continent of Antarctica
Antarctica
and the island territories located on the Antarctic
Antarctic
Plate. The Antarctic
Antarctic
region include the ice shelves, waters, and island territories in the Southern Ocean
Southern Ocean
situated south of the Antarctic
Antarctic
Convergence, a zone approximately 32 to 48 km (20 to 30 mi) wide varying in latitude seasonally.[4] The region covers some 20 percent of the Southern Hemisphere, of which 5.5 percent (14 million km2) is the surface area of the Antarctic continent itself. All of the land and ice shelves south of 60°S latitude are administered under the Antarctic Treaty
Antarctic Treaty
System. Biogeographically, the Antarctic ecozone
Antarctic ecozone
is one of eight ecozones of the Earth's land surface.

Contents

1 Geography 2 Wildlife 3 People 4 Conservation 5 Time zones 6 Offshore Islands 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

Geography[edit] The maritime part of the region constitutes the area of application of the international Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic
Antarctic
Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR), where for technical reasons the Convention uses an approximation of the Convergence line by means of a line joining specified points along parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude.[5] The implementation of the Convention is managed through an international Commission headquartered in Hobart, Australia, by an efficient system of annual fishing quotas, licenses and international inspectors on the fishing vessels, as well as satellite surveillance. Most of the Antarctic
Antarctic
region is situated south of 60°S latitude parallel, and is governed in accordance with the international legal regime of the Antarctic Treaty
Antarctic Treaty
System.[6] The Treaty area covers the continent itself and its immediately adjacent islands, as well as the archipelagos of the South Orkney Islands, South Shetland Islands, Peter I Island, Scott Island
Island
and Balleny Islands. The islands situated between 60°S latitude parallel to the south and the Antarctic Convergence
Antarctic Convergence
to the north, and their respective 200-nautical-mile (370 km) exclusive economic zones fall under the national jurisdiction of the countries that possess them: South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
South Sandwich Islands
(United Kingdom; also an EU Overseas territory), Bouvet Island
Island
(Norway), and Heard and McDonald Islands (Australia). Kerguelen Islands
Kerguelen Islands
(France; also an EU Overseas territory) are situated in the Antarctic Convergence
Antarctic Convergence
area, while the Falkland Islands, Isla de los Estados, Hornos Island
Island
with Cape Horn, Diego Ramírez Islands, Campbell Island, Macquarie Island, Amsterdam and Saint Paul Islands, Crozet Islands, Prince Edward Islands, and Gough Island
Island
and Tristan da Cunha group remain north of the Convergence and thus outside the Antarctic
Antarctic
region. Wildlife[edit] See also: Antarctic
Antarctic
ecozone, Antarctic
Antarctic
microorganism, and Wildlife of Antarctica A variety of animals live in Antarctica
Antarctica
for at least some of the year, including:[7][8]

Seals Penguins South Georgia pipits Albatrosses Antarctic
Antarctic
petrels Whales Fish, such as Antarctic
Antarctic
icefish, Antarctic
Antarctic
toothfish Squid, including the colossal squid Antarctic
Antarctic
krill

Most of the Antarctic
Antarctic
continent is permanently covered by ice and snow, leaving less than 1 percent of the land exposed. There are only two species of flowering plant, Antarctic hair grass
Antarctic hair grass
and Antarctic pearlwort, but a range of mosses, liverworts, lichens and macrofungi.[9] People[edit] The first Antarctic
Antarctic
land discovered was the island of South Georgia, visited by the English merchant Anthony de la Roché
Anthony de la Roché
in 1675. Although myths and speculation about a Terra Australis
Terra Australis
("Southern Land") date back to antiquity, the first confirmed sighting of the continent of Antarctica
Antarctica
is commonly accepted to have occurred in 1820 by the Russian expedition of Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen
Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen
and Mikhail Lazarev on Vostok and Mirny. The first human born in the Antarctic
Antarctic
was Solveig Gunbjørg Jacobsen
Solveig Gunbjørg Jacobsen
born on 8 October 1913 in Grytviken, South Georgia. The Antarctic
Antarctic
region had no indigenous population when first discovered, and its present inhabitants comprise a few thousand transient scientific and other personnel working on tours of duty at the several dozen research stations maintained by various countries. However, the region is visited by more than 40,000[10] tourists annually, the most popular destinations being the Antarctic
Antarctic
Peninsula area (especially the South Shetland Islands) and South Georgia Island. In December 2009, the growth of tourism, with consequences for both the ecology and the safety of the travellers in its great and remote wilderness, was noted at a conference in New Zealand
New Zealand
by experts from signatories to the Antarctic
Antarctic
Treaty. The definitive results of the conference was presented at the Antarctic Treaty
Antarctic Treaty
states' meeting in Uruguay in May 2010.[11] Conservation[edit] The Antarctic
Antarctic
hosts the world's largest protected area comprising 1.07 million km2, the South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Marine Protection Area created in 2012.[12] The latter exceeds the surface area of another vast protected territory, the Greenland National Park’s 972,000 km2.[13] (While the Ross Sea
Ross Sea
Marine Protection Area established in 2016 is still larger at 1.55 million km2,[14] its protection is set to expire in 35 years.[15]) Time zones[edit] Main article: Time in Antarctica Because Antarctica
Antarctica
surrounds the South Pole, it is theoretically located in all time zones. For practical purposes, time zones are usually based on territorial claims or the time zone of a station's owner country or supply base. Offshore Islands[edit]

South Georgia Islands Shag Rocks South Sandwich Islands Bouvet Island Kerguelen Islands Heard Island McDonald Islands Balleny Islands Scott Island Peter I Island South Shetland Islands South Orkney Islands

See also[edit]

Antarctic
Antarctic
Circle History of Antarctica Women in Antarctica

Norwegian Cruise Ship at Petermann Island, with the Kiev Peninsula
Kiev Peninsula
of Graham Land
Graham Land
in the background.

Notes[edit]

^ The word was originally pronounced without the first /k/, but the spelling pronunciation has become common and is often considered more correct. The pronunciation without the first k sound and the first t sound is however widespread and a typical phenomenon of English in many other similar words too.[1] The "c" was added to the spelling for etymological reasons and then began to be pronounced, but (as with other spelling pronunciations) at first only by less educated people.[2][3]

References[edit]

^ American Heritage Dictionary Archived 2015-12-08 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Crystal, David (2006). The Fight for English. Oxford University Press. p. 172. ISBN 978-0-19-920764-0.  ^ Harper, Douglas. "Antarctic". Online Etymology Dictionary. Archived from the original on 11 January 2012. Retrieved 16 November 2011.  ^ "Scientific Committee on Antarctic
Antarctic
Research website". SCAR. Archived from the original on 2013-12-14.  ^ Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic
Antarctic
Marine Living Resources Archived 2010-05-05 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Antarctic Treaty
Antarctic Treaty
Archived 2012-01-17 at the Wayback Machine. ^ " Antarctic
Antarctic
Wildlife". Natural Environment Research Council - British Antarctic
Antarctic
Survey. Archived from the original on 2012-10-05. Retrieved 2012-11-20.  ^ Vanessa Woods (2011-10-14). " Antarctic
Antarctic
wildlife". Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation. Archived from the original on 2013-12-14. Retrieved 2012-11-20.  ^ "Plants of Antarctica". Natural Environment Research Council - British Antarctic
Antarctic
Survey. Archived from the original on 2011-06-07. Retrieved 2012-11-20.  ^ IAATO tourist statistics 2007/08 ^ Antarctic
Antarctic
Nations Considering New Controls On Ships Amid Tourism Explosion. Archived 2012-01-18 at the Wayback Machine. Ray Lilley, The Associated Press, December 8, 2009. ^ SGSSI Marine Protection Area (Management Plan). ^ Greenland
Greenland
in figures 2009. Statistics Greenland, 2009. ^ CCAMLR to create world's largest Marine Protected Area. CCAMLR Website ^ Slezak, Michael (26 October 2016). "World's largest marine park created in Ross Sea
Ross Sea
in Antarctica
Antarctica
in landmark deal". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 28 October 2016. Retrieved 28 October 2016. 

Further reading[edit]

Krupnik, Igor, Michael A. Lang, and Scott E. Miller, eds. Smithsonian at the Poles: Contributions to International Polar Year
International Polar Year
Science. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press, 2009.

External links[edit]

British Services Antarctic
Antarctic
Expedition 2012 Committee for Environmental Protection of Antarctica Secretariat of the Antarctic
Antarctic
Treaty CCAMLR Commission Antarctic
Antarctic
Heritage Trusts International Association of Antarctica
Antarctica
Tour Operators Map of the Antarctic
Antarctic
Convergence The South Atlantic and Subantarctic Islands

v t e

Antarctica

General

Antarctic Treaty
Antarctic Treaty
System Climate Colonization Demographics Economy Expeditions Field camps Flags Flora Geography Geology History Mammals Microorganisms Military activity Protected areas Religion Research stations Telecommunications Territorial claims Time Tourism Transport Volcanoes Wildlife

Geographic regions

Antarctic
Antarctic
Peninsula East Antarctica West Antarctica Ecozone Extreme points Floristic Kingdom Islands

Waterways

Lake Vostok List of rivers McMurdo Sound Ross Sea Southern Ocean Weddell Sea Lake CECs

Famous explorers

Roald Amundsen Richard E. Byrd Douglas Mawson James Clark Ross Robert Falcon Scott Ernest Shackleton more...

Category Commons Antarctica
Antarctica
portal Index

v t e

Regions of the world

v t e

Regions of Africa

Central Africa

Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Cape Lopez Mayombe Igboland

Mbaise

Maputaland Pool Malebo Congo Basin Chad Basin Congolese rainforests Ouaddaï highlands Ennedi Plateau

East Africa

African Great Lakes

Albertine Rift East African Rift Great Rift Valley Gregory Rift Rift Valley lakes Swahili coast Virunga Mountains Zanj

Horn of Africa

Afar Triangle Al-Habash Barbara Danakil Alps Danakil Desert Ethiopian Highlands Gulf of Aden Gulf of Tadjoura

Indian Ocean
Ocean
islands

Comoros Islands

North Africa

Maghreb

Barbary Coast Bashmur Ancient Libya Atlas Mountains

Nile Valley

Cataracts of the Nile Darfur Gulf of Aqaba Lower Egypt Lower Nubia Middle Egypt Nile Delta Nuba Mountains Nubia The Sudans Upper Egypt

Western Sahara

West Africa

Pepper Coast Gold Coast Slave Coast Ivory Coast Cape Palmas Cape Mesurado Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Niger Basin Guinean Forests of West Africa Niger Delta Inner Niger Delta

Southern Africa

Madagascar

Central Highlands (Madagascar) Northern Highlands

Rhodesia

North South

Thembuland Succulent Karoo Nama Karoo Bushveld Highveld Fynbos Cape Floristic Region Kalahari Desert Okavango Delta False Bay Hydra Bay

Macro-regions

Aethiopia Arab world Commonwealth realm East African montane forests Eastern Desert Equatorial Africa Françafrique Gibraltar Arc Greater Middle East Islands of Africa List of countries where Arabic is an official language Mediterranean Basin MENA MENASA Middle East Mittelafrika Negroland Northeast Africa Portuguese-speaking African countries Sahara Sahel Sub-Saharan Africa Sudan (region) Sudanian Savanna Tibesti Mountains Tropical Africa

v t e

Regions of Asia

Central

Greater Middle East Aral Sea

Aralkum Desert Caspian Sea Dead Sea Sea of Galilee

Transoxiana

Turan

Greater Khorasan Ariana Khwarezm Sistan Kazakhstania Eurasian Steppe

Asian Steppe Kazakh Steppe Pontic–Caspian steppe

Mongolian-Manchurian grassland Wild Fields

Yedisan Muravsky Trail

Ural

Ural Mountains

Volga region Idel-Ural Kolyma Transbaikal Pryazovia Bjarmaland Kuban Zalesye Ingria Novorossiya Gornaya Shoriya Tulgas Iranian Plateau Altai Mountains Pamir Mountains Tian Shan Badakhshan Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass Mount Imeon Mongolian Plateau Western Regions Taklamakan Desert Karakoram

Trans- Karakoram
Karakoram
Tract

Siachen Glacier

North

Inner Asia Northeast Far East

Russian Far East Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga

Extreme North Siberia

Baikalia
Baikalia
(Lake Baikal) Transbaikal Khatanga Gulf Baraba steppe

Kamchatka Peninsula Amur Basin Yenisei Gulf Yenisei Basin Beringia Sikhote-Alin

East

Japanese archipelago

Northeastern Japan Arc Sakhalin Island
Island
Arc

Korean Peninsula Gobi Desert Taklamakan Desert Greater Khingan Mongolian Plateau Inner Asia Inner Mongolia Outer Mongolia China proper Manchuria

Outer Manchuria Inner Manchuria Northeast China Plain Mongolian-Manchurian grassland

North China Plain

Yan Mountains

Kunlun Mountains Liaodong Peninsula Himalayas Tibetan Plateau

Tibet

Tarim Basin Northern Silk Road Hexi Corridor Nanzhong Lingnan Liangguang Jiangnan Jianghuai Guanzhong Huizhou Wu Jiaozhou Zhongyuan Shaannan Ordos Loop

Loess Plateau Shaanbei

Hamgyong Mountains Central Mountain Range Japanese Alps Suzuka Mountains Leizhou Peninsula Gulf of Tonkin Yangtze River Delta Pearl River Delta Yenisei Basin Altai Mountains Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass

West

Greater Middle East

MENA MENASA Middle East

Red Sea Caspian Sea Mediterranean Sea Zagros Mountains Persian Gulf

Pirate Coast Strait of Hormuz Greater and Lesser Tunbs

Al-Faw Peninsula Gulf of Oman Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Aden Balochistan Arabian Peninsula

Najd Hejaz Tihamah Eastern Arabia South Arabia

Hadhramaut Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
coastal fog desert

Tigris–Euphrates Mesopotamia

Upper Mesopotamia Lower Mesopotamia Sawad Nineveh plains Akkad (region) Babylonia

Canaan Aram Eber-Nari Suhum Eastern Mediterranean Mashriq Kurdistan Levant

Southern Levant Transjordan Jordan Rift Valley

Israel Levantine Sea Golan Heights Hula Valley Galilee Gilead Judea Samaria Arabah Anti-Lebanon Mountains Sinai Peninsula Arabian Desert Syrian Desert Fertile Crescent Azerbaijan Syria Palestine Iranian Plateau Armenian Highlands Caucasus

Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains

Greater Caucasus Lesser Caucasus

North Caucasus South Caucasus

Kur-Araz Lowland Lankaran Lowland Alborz Absheron Peninsula

Anatolia Cilicia Cappadocia Alpide belt

South

Greater India Indian subcontinent Himalayas Hindu Kush Western Ghats Eastern Ghats Ganges Basin Ganges Delta Pashtunistan Punjab Balochistan Kashmir

Kashmir
Kashmir
Valley Pir Panjal Range

Thar Desert Indus Valley Indus River
Indus River
Delta Indus Valley Desert Indo-Gangetic Plain Eastern coastal plains Western Coastal Plains Meghalaya subtropical forests MENASA Lower Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows Doab Bagar tract Great Rann of Kutch Little Rann of Kutch Deccan Plateau Coromandel Coast Konkan False Divi Point Hindi Belt Ladakh Aksai Chin Gilgit-Baltistan

Baltistan Shigar Valley

Karakoram

Saltoro Mountains

Siachen Glacier Bay of Bengal Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Mannar Trans- Karakoram
Karakoram
Tract Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass Lakshadweep Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Andaman Islands Nicobar Islands

Maldive Islands Alpide belt

Southeast

Mainland

Indochina Malay Peninsula

Maritime

Peninsular Malaysia Sunda Islands Greater Sunda Islands Lesser Sunda Islands

Indonesian Archipelago Timor New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

Philippine Archipelago

Luzon Visayas Mindanao

Leyte Gulf Gulf of Thailand East Indies Nanyang Alpide belt

Asia-Pacific Tropical Asia Ring of Fire

v t e

Regions of Europe

North

Nordic Northwestern Scandinavia Scandinavian Peninsula Fennoscandia Baltoscandia Sápmi West Nordic Baltic Baltic Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Iceland Faroe Islands

East

Danubian countries Prussia Galicia Volhynia Donbass Sloboda Ukraine Sambia Peninsula

Amber Coast

Curonian Spit Izyum Trail Lithuania Minor Nemunas Delta Baltic Baltic Sea Vyborg Bay Karelia

East Karelia Karelian Isthmus

Lokhaniemi Southeastern

Balkans Aegean Islands Gulf of Chania North Caucasus Greater Caucasus Kabardia European Russia

Southern Russia

Central

Baltic Baltic Sea Alpine states Alpide belt Mitteleuropa Visegrád Group

West

Benelux Low Countries Northwest British Isles English Channel Channel Islands Cotentin Peninsula Normandy Brittany Gulf of Lion Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Pyrenees Alpide belt

South

Italian Peninsula Insular Italy Tuscan Archipelago Aegadian Islands Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Gibraltar Arc Southeastern Mediterranean Crimea Alpide belt

Germanic Celtic Slavic countries Uralic European Plain Eurasian Steppe Pontic–Caspian steppe Wild Fields Pannonian Basin

Great Hungarian Plain Little Hungarian Plain Eastern Slovak Lowland

v t e

Regions of North America

Northern

Eastern Canada Western Canada Canadian Prairies Central Canada Northern Canada Atlantic Canada The Maritimes French Canada English Canada Acadia

Acadian Peninsula

Quebec City–Windsor Corridor Peace River Country Cypress Hills Palliser's Triangle Canadian Shield Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Newfoundland (island) Vancouver Island Gulf Islands Strait of Georgia Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Labrador Peninsula Gaspé Peninsula Avalon Peninsula

Bay de Verde Peninsula

Brodeur Peninsula Melville Peninsula Bruce Peninsula Banks Peninsula (Nunavut) Cook Peninsula Gulf of Boothia Georgian Bay Hudson Bay James Bay Greenland Pacific Northwest Inland Northwest Northeast

New England Mid-Atlantic Commonwealth

West

Midwest Upper Midwest Mountain States Intermountain West Basin and Range Province

Oregon Trail Mormon Corridor Calumet Region Southwest

Old Southwest

Llano Estacado Central United States

Tallgrass prairie

South

South Central Deep South Upland South

Four Corners East Coast West Coast Gulf Coast Third Coast Coastal states Eastern United States

Appalachia

Trans-Mississippi Great North Woods Great Plains Interior Plains Great Lakes Great Basin

Great Basin
Great Basin
Desert

Acadia Ozarks Ark-La-Tex Waxhaws Siouxland Twin Tiers Driftless Area Palouse Piedmont Atlantic coastal plain Outer Lands Black Dirt Region Blackstone Valley Piney Woods Rocky Mountains Mojave Desert The Dakotas The Carolinas Shawnee Hills San Fernando Valley Tornado Alley North Coast Lost Coast Emerald Triangle San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area

San Francisco Bay North Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) East Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) Silicon Valley

Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Gulf of Mexico Lower Colorado River Valley Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta Colville Delta Arkansas Delta Mobile–Tensaw River Delta Mississippi Delta Mississippi River Delta Columbia River Estuary Great Basin High Desert Monterey Peninsula Upper Peninsula of Michigan Lower Peninsula of Michigan Virginia Peninsula Keweenaw Peninsula Middle Peninsula Delmarva Peninsula Alaska Peninsula Kenai Peninsula Niagara Peninsula Beringia Belt regions

Bible Belt Black Belt Corn Belt Cotton Belt Frost Belt Rice Belt Rust Belt Sun Belt Snow Belt

Latin

Northern Mexico Baja California Peninsula Gulf of California

Colorado River Delta

Gulf of Mexico Soconusco Tierra Caliente La Mixteca La Huasteca Bajío Valley of Mexico Mezquital Valley Sierra Madre de Oaxaca Yucatán Peninsula Basin and Range Province Western Caribbean Zone Isthmus of Panama Gulf of Panama

Pearl Islands

Azuero Peninsula Mosquito Coast West Indies Antilles

Greater Antilles Lesser Antilles

Leeward Leeward Antilles Windward

Lucayan Archipelago Southern Caribbean

Aridoamerica Mesoamerica Oasisamerica Northern Middle Anglo Latin

French Hispanic

American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

v t e

Regions of Oceania

Australasia

Gulf of Carpentaria New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

New Zealand

South Island North Island

Coromandel Peninsula

Zealandia New Caledonia Solomon Islands (archipelago) Vanuatu

Kula Gulf

Australia Capital Country Eastern Australia Lake Eyre basin Murray–Darling basin Northern Australia Nullarbor Plain Outback Southern Australia

Maralinga

Sunraysia Great Victoria Desert Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf St Vincent Lefevre Peninsula Fleurieu Peninsula Yorke Peninsula Eyre Peninsula Mornington Peninsula Bellarine Peninsula Mount Henry Peninsula

Melanesia

Islands Region

Bismarck Archipelago Solomon Islands Archipelago

Fiji New Caledonia Papua New Guinea Vanuatu

Micronesia

Caroline Islands

Federated States of Micronesia Palau

Guam Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru Northern Mariana Islands Wake Island

Polynesia

Easter Island Hawaiian Islands Cook Islands French Polynesia

Austral Islands Gambier Islands Marquesas Islands Society Islands Tuamotu

Kermadec Islands Mangareva Islands Samoa Tokelau Tonga Tuvalu

Ring of Fire

v t e

Regions of South America

East

Amazon basin Atlantic Forest Caatinga Cerrado

North

Caribbean South America West Indies Los Llanos The Guianas Amazon basin

Amazon rainforest

Gulf of Paria Paria Peninsula Paraguaná Peninsula Orinoco Delta

South

Tierra del Fuego Patagonia Pampas Pantanal Gran Chaco Chiquitano dry forests Valdes Peninsula

West

Andes

Tropical Andes Wet Andes Dry Andes Pariacaca mountain range

Altiplano Atacama Desert

Latin Hispanic American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

v t e

Polar regions

Antarctic

Antarctic
Antarctic
Peninsula East Antarctica West Antarctica Eklund Islands Ecozone Extreme points Islands

Arctic

Arctic
Arctic
Alaska British Arctic
Arctic
Territories Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Finnmark Greenland Northern Canada Northwest Territories Nunavik Nunavut Russian Arctic Sakha Sápmi Yukon North American Arctic

v t e

Earth's oceans and seas

Arctic
Arctic
Ocean

Amundsen Gulf Barents Sea Beaufort Sea Chukchi Sea East Siberian Sea Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Boothia Kara Sea Laptev Sea Lincoln Sea Prince Gustav Adolf Sea Pechora Sea Queen Victoria Sea Wandel Sea White Sea

Atlantic Ocean

Adriatic Sea Aegean Sea Alboran Sea Archipelago
Archipelago
Sea Argentine Sea Baffin Bay Balearic Sea Baltic Sea Bay of Biscay Bay of Bothnia Bay of Campeche Bay of Fundy Black Sea Bothnian Sea Caribbean Sea Celtic Sea English Channel Foxe Basin Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Gulf of Lion Gulf of Guinea Gulf of Maine Gulf of Mexico Gulf of Saint Lawrence Gulf of Sidra Gulf of Venezuela Hudson Bay Ionian Sea Irish Sea Irminger Sea James Bay Labrador Sea Levantine Sea Libyan Sea Ligurian Sea Marmara Sea Mediterranean Sea Myrtoan Sea North Sea Norwegian Sea Sargasso Sea Sea of Åland Sea of Azov Sea of Crete Sea of the Hebrides Thracian Sea Tyrrhenian Sea Wadden Sea

Indian Ocean

Andaman Sea Arabian Sea Bali Sea Bay of Bengal Flores Sea Great Australian Bight Gulf of Aden Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Oman Gulf of Suez Java Sea Laccadive Sea Mozambique Channel Persian Gulf Red Sea Timor
Timor
Sea

Pacific Ocean

Arafura Sea Banda Sea Bering Sea Bismarck Sea Bohai Sea Bohol Sea Camotes Sea Celebes Sea Ceram Sea Chilean Sea Coral Sea East China Sea Gulf of Alaska Gulf of Anadyr Gulf of California Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf of Fonseca Gulf of Panama Gulf of Thailand Gulf of Tonkin Halmahera Sea Koro Sea Mar de Grau Molucca Sea Moro Gulf Philippine Sea Salish Sea Savu Sea Sea of Japan Sea of Okhotsk Seto Inland Sea Shantar Sea Sibuyan Sea Solomon Sea South China Sea Sulu Sea Tasman Sea Visayan Sea Yellow Sea

Southern Ocean

Amundsen Sea Bellingshausen Sea Cooperation Sea Cosmonauts Sea Davis Sea D'Urville Sea King Haakon VII Sea Lazarev Sea Mawson Sea Riiser-Larsen Sea Ross Sea Scotia Sea Somov Sea Weddell Sea

Landlocked seas

Aral Sea Caspian Sea Dead Sea Salton Sea

  Book   Category

v t e

Peri- Antarctic
Antarctic
countries and overseas territories

Argentina Australia

Heard Island
Island
and McDonald Islands Macquarie Island

Bouvet Island Chile Falkland Islands French Southern and Antarctic
Antarctic
Lands

Kerguelen Islands

New Zealand

New Zealand
New Zealand
Subantarctic Islands

South Africa

Prince Edward Islands

South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands

"Peri-Antarctic" (meaning "close to the Antarctic") does not include territorial claims in Antarctica
Antarctica
itself.

v t e

Territories of Antarctica

Territorial claims

Adélie Land
Adélie Land
(France) Argentine Antarctica Australian Antarctic
Antarctic
Territory British Antarctic
Antarctic
Territory Chilean Antarctic
Antarctic
Territory Peter I Island
Island
(Norway) Queen Maud Land
Queen Maud Land
(Norway) Ross Dependency
Ross Dependency
(New Zealand)

Other territories

Brazilian Antarctica
Antarctica
(zone of Interest) Marie Byrd Land
Marie Byrd Land
(unclaimed) Uruguayan Antarctica
Antarctica
(proposed)

Former territories

New Swabia
New Swabia
(Germany) Yamato Yukihara
Yamato Yukihara
(Japan)

v t e

Polar exploration

Arctic

Ocean History Expeditions Research stations

Farthest North North Pole

Barentsz Hudson Marmaduke Carolus Parry North Magnetic Pole

J. Ross J. C. Ross Abernethy Kane Hayes

Polaris

Polaris C. F. Hall

British Arctic
Arctic
Expedition

HMS Alert Nares HMS Discovery Stephenson Markham

Lady Franklin Bay Expedition

Greely Lockwood Brainard

1st Fram
Fram
expedition

Fram Nansen Johansen Sverdrup

Jason

Amedeo

F. Cook Peary Sedov Byrd Airship Norge

Amundsen Nobile Wisting Riiser-Larsen Ellsworth

Airship Italia Nautilus

Wilkins

ANT-25

Chkalov Baydukov Belyakov

"North Pole" manned drifting ice stations NP-1

Papanin Shirshov E. Fyodorov Krenkel

NP-36 NP-37 Sedov

Badygin Wiese

USS Nautilus USS Skate Plaisted Herbert NS Arktika Barneo Arktika 2007

Mir submersibles Sagalevich Chilingarov

Iceland Greenland

Pytheas Brendan Papar Vikings Naddodd Svavarsson Arnarson Norse colonization of the Americas Ulfsson Galti Erik the Red Christian IV's expeditions

J. Hall Cunningham Lindenov C. Richardson

Danish colonization

Egede

Scoresby Jason

Nansen Sverdrup

Peary Rasmussen

Northwest Passage Northern Canada

Cabot G. Corte-Real M. Corte-Real Frobisher Gilbert Davis Hudson Discovery

Bylot Baffin

Munk I. Fyodorov Gvozdev HMS Resolution

J. Cook

HMS Discovery

Clerke

Mackenzie Kotzebue J. Ross HMS Griper

Parry

HMS Hecla

Lyon

HMS Fury

Hoppner

Crozier J. C. Ross Coppermine Expedition Franklin Back Dease Simpson HMS Blossom

Beechey

Franklin's lost expedition

HMS Erebus HMS Terror

Collinson Rae–Richardson Expedition

Rae J. Richardson

Austin McClure Expedition

HMS Investigator McClure HMS Resolute Kellett

Belcher Kennedy Bellot Isabel

Inglefield

2nd Grinnell Expedition

USS Advance Kane

Fox

McClintock

HMS Pandora

Young

Fram

Sverdrup

Gjøa

Amundsen

Rasmussen Karluk

Stefansson Bartlett

St. Roch

H. Larsen

Cowper

North East Passage Russian Arctic

Pomors Koch boats Willoughby Chancellor Barentsz Mangazeya Hudson Poole Siberian Cossacks Perfilyev Stadukhin Dezhnev Popov Ivanov Vagin Permyakov Great Northern Expedition

Bering Chirikov Malygin Ovtsyn Minin V. Pronchishchev M. Pronchishcheva Chelyuskin Kh. Laptev D. Laptev

Chichagov Lyakhov Billings Sannikov Gedenschtrom Wrangel Matyushkin Anjou Litke Lavrov Pakhtusov Tsivolko Middendorff Austro-Hungarian Expedition

Weyprecht Payer

Vega Expedition

A. E. Nordenskiöld Palander

USS Jeannette

De Long

Yermak

Makarov

Zarya

Toll Kolomeitsev Matisen Kolchak

Sedov Rusanov Kuchin Brusilov Expedition

Sv. Anna Brusilov Albanov Konrad

Wiese Nagórski Taymyr / Vaygach

Vilkitsky

Maud

Amundsen

AARI

Samoylovich

Begichev Urvantsev Sadko

Ushakov

Glavsevmorput

Schmidt

Aviaarktika

Shevelev

Sibiryakov

Voronin

Chelyuskin Krassin Gakkel Nuclear-powered icebreakers

NS Lenin Arktika class

Antarctic

Continent History Expeditions

Southern Ocean

Roché Bouvet Kerguelen HMS Resolution

J. Cook

HMS Adventure

Furneaux

Smith San Telmo Vostok

Bellingshausen

Mirny

Lazarev

Bransfield Palmer Davis Weddell Morrell Astrolabe

Dumont d'Urville

United States Exploring Expedition

USS Vincennes Wilkes

USS Porpoise

Ringgold

Ross expedition

HMS Erebus (J. C. Ross Abernethy) HMS Terror (Crozier)

Cooper Challenger expedition

HMS Challenger Nares Murray

Jason

C. A. Larsen

"Heroic Age"

Belgian Antarctic
Antarctic
Expedition

Belgica de Gerlache Lecointe Amundsen Cook Arctowski Racoviță Dobrowolski

Southern Cross

Southern Cross Borchgrevink

Discovery

Discovery Discovery Hut

Gauss

Gauss Drygalski

Swedish Antarctic
Antarctic
Expedition

Antarctic O. Nordenskjöld C. A. Larsen

Scottish Antarctic
Antarctic
Expedition

Bruce Scotia

Orcadas Base Nimrod Expedition

Nimrod

French Antarctic
Antarctic
Expeditions

Pourquoi-Pas Charcot

Japanese Antarctic
Antarctic
Expedition

Shirase

Amundsen's South Pole
South Pole
expedition

Fram Amundsen Framheim Polheim

Terra Nova

Terra Nova Scott Wilson E. R. Evans Crean Lashly

Filchner Australasian Antarctic
Antarctic
Expedition

SY Aurora Mawson

Far Eastern Party Imperial Trans- Antarctic
Antarctic
Expedition

Endurance Ernest Shackleton Wild

James Caird Ross Sea
Ross Sea
party

Mackintosh

Shackleton–Rowett Expedition

Quest

IPY · IGY Modern research

Christensen Byrd BANZARE BGLE

Rymill

New Swabia

Ritscher

Operation Tabarin

Marr

Operation Highjump Captain Arturo Prat Base British Antarctic
Antarctic
Survey Operation Windmill

Ketchum

Ronne Expedition

F. Ronne E. Ronne Schlossbach

Operation Deep Freeze McMurdo Station Commonwealth Trans- Antarctic
Antarctic
Expedition

Hillary V. Fuchs

Soviet Antarctic
Antarctic
Expeditions

1st

Somov Klenova Mirny

2nd

Tryoshnikov

3rd

Tolstikov

Antarctic Treaty
Antarctic Treaty
System Transglobe Expedition

Fiennes Burton

Lake Vostok Kapitsa

Farthest South South Pole

HMS Resolution

J. Cook

HMS Adventure

Furneaux

Weddell HMS Erebus

J. C. Ross

HMS Terror

Crozier

Southern Cross

Borchgrevink

Discovery

Barne

Nimrod

Shackleton Wild Marshall Adams

South Magnetic Pole

Mawson David Mackay

Amundsen's South Pole
South Pole
expedition

Fram Amundsen Bjaaland Helmer Hassel Wisting Polheim

Terra Nova

Scott E. Evans Oates Wilson Bowers

Byrd Balchen McKinley Dufek Amundsen–Scott South Pole
South Pole
Station Hillary V. Fuchs Pole of Cold

Vostok Station

Pole of inaccessibility

Pole of Inaccessibility Station Tolstikov

Crary A. Fuchs Messner

Antarctica
Antarctica
portal

Coordinates: 90°00′S 00°00′W / 90.000°S -0.000°E / -90.000; -0.000

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 235888

.