HOME
The Info List - Anandamide


--- Advertisement ---



(i)

ANANDAMIDE, also known as N-ARACHIDONOYLETHANOLAMINE or AEA, is a fatty acid neurotransmitter derived from the non-oxidative metabolism of eicosatetraenoic acid (arachidonic acid ) an essential ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid. The name is taken from the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
"> Low dose intake has an anxiolytic effect. High dose intake in mice shows evident hippocampus death. It is not possible to train tolerable maximum high dosage for mice. Expired patents from 2004 exist that describe anandamide as a vitalising additive for alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages, including combining it with another additive, Oleoylethanolamide, recited as an invention from Nestle, to increase the "stimulus" effect. The amount of anandamide in cacao is 0.5 μg per gram. "Lucid Parties", where people eat 20–30 kilograms of chocolate (and, therefore, significant amounts of anandamide), are legal and becoming trendy. According to associate statistics world cacao production in 2013 had a value of around five million metric tons annually with a rising tendency, but since the patent expired anyone is allowed to synthetically produce it and add it to food.

SEE ALSO

* Cannabinoids
Cannabinoids
* Virodhamine
Virodhamine
* Tetrahydrocannabinol
Tetrahydrocannabinol
(THC) * 2-Arachidonoylglycerol
2-Arachidonoylglycerol
* Fatty acid
Fatty acid
amide hydrolase * Endocannabinoid transporters * Raphael Mechoulam * NAPE-PLD

REFERENCES

* ^ A B Devane, W.; Hanus, L; Breuer, A; Pertwee, R.; Stevenson, L.; Griffin, G; Gibson, D; Mandelbaum, A; Etinger, A; Mechoulam, R (18 December 1992). "Isolation and structure of a brain constituent that binds to the cannabinoid receptor". Science. 258 (5090): 1946–1949. Bibcode :1992Sci...258.1946D. PMID 1470919 . doi :10.1126/science.1470919 . * ^ Mechoulam R, Fride E (1995). "The unpaved road to the endogenous brain cannabinoid ligands, the anandamides". In Pertwee RG. Cannabinoid
Cannabinoid
receptors. Boston: Academic Press. pp. 233–258. ISBN 0-12-551460-3 . * ^ A B Wang, J.; Ueda, N. (2009). "Biology of endocannabinoid synthesis system". Prostaglandins & Other Lipid
Lipid
Mediators. 89 (3–4): 112–119. PMID 19126434 . doi :10.1016/j.prostaglandins.2008.12.002 .

* ^ Gaetani, Silvana; Dipasquale, Pasqua; Romano, Adele; Righetti, Laura; Cassano, Tommaso; Piomelli, Daniele; Cuomo, Vincenzo (2009). "The endocannabinoid system as a target for novel anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs". International review of neurobiology. International Review of Neurobiology. 85: 57–72. ISBN 9780123748935 . PMID 19607961 . doi :10.1016/S0074-7742(09)85005-8 . * ^ Hwang, Jeannie; Adamson, Crista; Butler, David; Janero, David R.; Makriyannis, Alexandros; Bahr, Ben A. (April 2010). "Enhancement of endocannabinoid signaling by fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibition: A neuroprotective therapeutic modality" . Life Sciences. 86 (15–16): 615–623. PMC 2848893  . PMID 19527737 . doi :10.1016/j.lfs.2009.06.003 . * ^ A B Pacher P, Batkai S, Kunos G (2006). "The Endocannabinoid System as an Emerging Target of Pharmacotherapy" . Pharmacol Rev. 58 (3): 389–462. PMC 2241751  . PMID 16968947 . doi :10.1124/pr.58.3.2 . * ^ Mallet PE, Beninger RJ (1996). "The endogenous cannabinoid receptor agonist anandamide impairs memory in rats". Behavioural Pharmacology. 7 (3): 276–284. doi :10.1097/00008877-199605000-00008 . * ^ Piomelli D (January 2004). "THC: moderation during implantation". Nat. Med. 10 (1): 19–20. PMID 14702623 . doi :10.1038/nm0104-19 . * ^ El-Talatini MR, Taylor AH, Konje JC (April 2010). "The relationship between plasma levels of the endocannabinoid, anandamide, sex steroids, and gonadotrophins during the menstrual cycle". Fertil. Steril. 93 (6): 1989–96. PMID 19200965 . doi :10.1016/j.fertnstert.2008.12.033 . * ^ Rapino, C.; Battista, N.; Bari, M.; Maccarrone, M. (2014). "Endocannabinoids as biomarkers of human reproduction". Human Reproduction Update. 20 (4): 501–516. ISSN 1355-4786 . PMID 24516083 . doi :10.1093/humupd/dmu004 . * ^ Mahler SV, Smith KS, Berridge KC (November 2007). " Endocannabinoid hedonic hotspot for sensory pleasure: anandamide in nucleus accumbens shell enhances 'liking' of a sweet reward". Neuropsychopharmacology. 32 (11): 2267–78. PMID 17406653 . doi :10.1038/sj.npp.1301376 . * ^ Fuss J, Steinle J, Bindila L, Auer MK, Kirchherr H, Lutz B, and Gass P (2015). "A runner\'s high depends on cannabinoid receptors in mice" . PNAS. 112 (42): 13105–13108. Bibcode :2015PNAS..11213105F. PMC 4620874  . PMID 26438875 . doi :10.1073/pnas.1514996112 . * ^ Woodward, D. F.; Liang, Y; Krauss, A. H. (2007). "Prostamides (prostaglandin-ethanolamides) and their pharmacology" . British Journal of Pharmacology. 153 (3): 410–419. PMC 2241799  . PMID 17721551 . doi :10.1038/sj.bjp.0707434 . * ^ De Petrocellis, Luciano; Melck, Dominique; Palmisano, Antonella; Bisogno, Tiziana; Laezza, Chiara; Bifulco, Maurizio; Di Marzo, Vincenzo (7 July 1998). "The endogenous cannabinoid anandamide inhibits human breast cancer cell proliferation" . Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 95 (14): 8375–8380. Bibcode :1998PNAS...95.8375D. PMC 20983  . PMID 9653194 . doi :10.1073/pnas.95.14.8375 . * ^ di Tomaso E, Beltramo M, Piomelli D (Aug 1996). "Brain cannabinoids in chocolate". Nature. 382 (6593): 677–8. Bibcode :1996Natur.382..677D. PMID 8751435 . doi :10.1038/382677a0 . * ^ Jeffries K, Dempsey D, Behari A, Anderson R, Merkler D (Nov 2014). "Drosophila melanogaster as a model system to study long-chain fatty acid amide metabolism" . FEBS Letters. 588 (9): 1596–1602. PMC 4023565  . PMID 24650760 . doi :10.1016/j.febslet.2014.02.051 . CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link ) * ^ McPartland J, Di Marzo V, De Petrocellis L, Mercer A, Glass M. (Aug 2001). " Cannabinoid
Cannabinoid
receptors are absent in insects". Journal of Comparative Neurology. 436 (4): 423–429. PMID 11447587 . doi :10.1002/cne.1078 . CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link ) * ^ Natarajan V, Reddy PV, Schmid PC, Schmid HH (August 1982). "N-Acylation of ethanolamine phospholipids in canine myocardium". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 712 (2): 342–55. PMID 7126608 . doi :10.1016/0005-2760(82)90352-6 . * ^ Cadas H, di Tomaso E, Piomelli D (February 1997). "Occurrence and biosynthesis of endogenous cannabinoid precursor, N-arachidonoyl phosphatidylethanolamine, in rat brain". J. Neurosci. 17 (4): 1226–42. PMID 9006968 . * ^ Magotti P, Bauer I, Igarashi M, Babagoli M, Marotta R, Piomelli D, Garau G (Dec 2014). "Structure of Human N-Acylphosphatidylethanolamine-Hydrolyzing Phospholipase D: Regulation of Fatty Acid Ethanolamide Biosynthesis by Bile Acids" . Structure. 23 (3): 598–604. PMC 4351732  . PMID 25684574 . doi :10.1016/j.str.2014.12.018 . * ^ Berger, Alvin; Crozier, Gayle; Bisogno, Tiziana; Cavaliere, Paolo; Innis, Sheila; Di Marzo, Vincenzo (15 May 2001). "Anandamide and diet: Inclusion of dietary arachidonate and docosahexaenoate leads to increased brain levels of the corresponding N-acylethanolamines in piglets" . Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 98 (11): 6402–6406. Bibcode :2001PNAS...98.6402B. PMC 33480  . PMID 11353819 . doi :10.1073/pnas.101119098 . * ^ Osei-Hyiaman, Douglas; DePetrillo, Michael; Pacher, Pál; Liu, Jie; Radaeva, Svetlana; Bátkai, Sándor; Harvey-White, Judith; Mackie, Ken; Offertáler, László; Wang, Lei; Kunos, George (2 May 2005). " Endocannabinoid activation at hepatic CB1 receptors stimulates fatty acid synthesis and contributes to diet-induced obesity" . Journal of Clinical Investigation. 115 (5): 1298–1305. PMC 1087161  . PMID 15864349 . doi :10.1172/JCI23057 . * ^ Högestätt, E. D.; Jönsson, B. A.; Ermund, A.; Andersson, D. A.; Björk, H.; Alexander, J. P.; Cravatt, B. F.; Basbaum, A. I.; Zygmunt, P. M. (2005). "Conversion of Acetaminophen
Acetaminophen
to the Bioactive N-Acylphenolamine AM404 via Fatty Acid Amide
Amide
Hydrolase-dependent Arachidonic Acid Conjugation in the Nervous System" (pdf). Journal of Biological Chemistry. 280 (36): 31405–31412. PMID 15987694 . doi :10.1074/jbc.M501489200 . * ^ Bertolini, Alfio; Ferrari, Anna; Ottani, Alessandra; Guerzoni, Simona; Tacchi, Raffaella; Leone, Sheila (September 2006). "Paracetamol: New Vistas of an Old Drug". CNS Drug Reviews. 12 (3–4): 250–275. PMID 17227290 . doi :10.1111/j.1527-3458.2006.00250.x . * ^ Sinning, Christian; Watzer, Bernhard; Coste, Ovidiu; Nüsing, Rolf M.; Ott, Ingo; Ligresti, Alessia; Marzo, Vincenzo Di; Imming, Peter (25 December 2008). "New Analgesics Synthetically Derived from the Paracetamol Metabolite-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-(5,8,11,14)-icosatetra-5,8,11,14-enamide". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 51 (24): 7800–7805. PMID 19053765 . doi :10.1021/jm800807k . * ^ Kaczocha, M.; Glaser, S.T.; Deutsch, D.G. (2009). "Identification of intracellular carriers for the endocannabinoid anandamide" . Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 106 (15): 6375–6380. Bibcode :2009PNAS..106.6375K. PMC 2669397  . PMID 19307565 . doi :10.1073/pnas.0901515106 . * ^ Oddi, S.; Fezza, F.; Pasquariello, N.; D'Agostino, A.; Catanzaro, G.; De Simone, C.; Rapino, C.; Finazzi-Agro, A.; Maccarrone, M. (2009). "Molecular identification of albumin and Hsp70 as cytosolic anandamide-binding proteins". Chemistry & Biology. 16 (6): 624–632. PMID 19481477 . doi :10.1016/j.chembiol.2009.05.004 . * ^ Evans, Jon (July 2004). "Easing anxiety with anandamide". Chemistry World. * ^ Ameri, A; Wilhelm, A; Simmet, T (1999). "Effects of the endogeneous cannabinoid, anandamide, on neuronal activity in rat hippocampal slices" . British Journal of Pharmacology. 126 (8): 1831–1839. PMC 1565956  . PMID 10372827 . doi :10.1038/sj.bjp.0702478 . * ^ http://google.com/patents/DE202004013386U1?cl=da * ^ Nehlig, A (2013). "The neuroprotective effects of cocoa flavanol and its influence on cognitive performance" . British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 75 (3): 716–727. PMC 3575938  . PMID 22775434 . doi :10.1111/j.1365-2125.2012.04378.x . * ^ https://amuse-i-d.vice.com/is-cacao-the-best-new-party-drug/ * ^ http://www.worldcocoafoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/Cocoa-Market-Update-as-of-4-1-2014.pdf

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Could anandamide be the missing link to "runner\'s high"? Accessed 2015-10-31

.