Altenburg ( listen (help·info)) is a city in Thuringia,
Germany, located 40 kilometres (25 miles) south of Leipzig, 90
kilometres (56 miles) west of
Dresden and 100 kilometres (62 miles)
east of Erfurt. It is the capital of the
Altenburger Land district and
part of a polycentric old-industrial textile and metal production
region between Gera,
Chemnitz with more than 1 million
inhabitants, while the city itself has a population of 33,000.
Altenburg was first mentioned in 976 and later became one of the first
German cities within former Slavic area, east of the
Saale river (as
part of the medieval
Ostsiedlung movement). The emperor Frederick
Altenburg several times between 1165 and 1188,
hence the town is named a
Barbarossa town today. Since the 17th
Altenburg was the residence of different Ernestine duchies,
of whom the
Saxe-Altenburg persisted until the end of monarchy in
Germany in 1918. Industrialization reached
Altenburg and the region
quite early in the first half of the 19th century and flourished until
Great Depression around 1930. Economic malaise set in while
Altenburg was in East
Germany and continued after German reunification
in 1990, evidenced by a decline in population, high unemployment and
house vacancy rates.
The main sights of
Altenburg are the castle, the Lindenau-Museum, the
historic city center (most buildings are from early-modern origin) and
Gründerzeit architecture around the center. The popular German
card game Skat was developed in
Altenburg during the 1810s and the
founder of the famous Brockhaus Enzyklopädie, Friedrich Arnold
Brockhaus, lived and worked in
Altenburg between 1810 and 1817.
Altenburg lies in the flat and fertile landscape of
Osterland on the
Pleiße river in the very east of Thuringia, next to the neighboring
federal state of Saxony.
1.1 Middle Ages
1.2 Early modern period
1.3 Since 1815
2 Geography and demographics
2.2 Administrative division
3 Culture, sights and cityscape
3.3 Old town
3.4 Sights and architectural heritage
3.4.2 Ducal buildings
3.4.3 Other sights
4 Economy and infrastructure
4.1 Agriculture, industry and services
5.1 Mayor and city council
5.2 Twin towns
6 Notable natives
7 See also
9 External links
Altenburg about the year 1650
Castle of Altenburg
The Nikolai quarter is one of the oldest parts of Altenburg
The town (civitas Altenburg) was first mentioned in a deed to the
Zeitz in 976. Remains of a Slavic castle on the Schloßberg
("Castle Hill") demonstrate that the town was probably a Slavic
foundation, the capital of the shire of Plisni, taken over during the
conquest of Meissen by Henry I. As shown by placenames, the
surrounding area (Osterland) was mainly settled by Slavs.
The town's location on the imperial road 'Via Imperii' between Halle
Altenburg economic importance in the salt
The first castle, located under the present day church St.
Bartholomäi, was destroyed after the Battle of Hohenmölsen between
Henry IV and Rudolph of Swabia. It was rebuilt on the Schloßberg
outside of the town. The 11th century Mantelturm tower is still
preserved. The castle later became an imperial palatinate and played
an important part in the German takeover and settlement of the area
between the Harz-mountains and the Elbe.
In the middle of the 12th century, the Hohenstaufen emperors
Altenburg as one of their Kaiserpfalzes, allowing the town
to become a market and a mint. Together with the Royal forests Leina,
Pahna, Kammerforst and Luckauer Forst, lands of the
bought by Frederick Barbarossa, Altenburg, Colditz,
Chemnitz were turned into the Terra Plisnensis.
Altenburg and Chemnitz
as Imperial towns were intended to reduce the importance of Leipzig
held by the Margrave of Meissen. Under
Frederick Barbarossa much
building took place, especially in the market area, and the town grew
rapidly. A priory of canons regular was founded and the parish church
was finished in 1172. The twin towers of the 12th century Augustine
monastery (Rote Spitzen) are still preserved. A town wall with 5 gates
was constructed at the end of the 12th century.
Altenburg got its
charter around 1200, in 1256 the Wettins confirmed it again. The law
structure was transposed from
Goslar municipal law.
During the Interregnum, the Terra Plisnensis was impounded, but bought
back by Rudolph I of Germany, who desired the crown of Thuringia.
Zwickau and Chemnitz,
Altenburg was part of the
anti-Meissen Pleiße-city Union of 1290. After the
Battle of Lucka in
Frederick the Brave
Frederick the Brave of Meissen and his brother Diezmann,
King Albert I lost
Altenburg and the Pleiße-lands to the Wettin
margraves of Meissen, who held the city until 1918.
Altenburg saw the division (Altenburger Teilung) of the
Meissen lands between Elector Frederick II (the Gentle) and Duke
William that led, after a failed attempt at reconciliation (Hallescher
Machtspruch) to a war (1446–1451) between the two brothers
(Bruderkrieg). In the second division of the Wettin lands between
Ernest and Albert at
Leipzig in 1485,
Altenburg fell to Ernest,
together with the Electorate (Kurland), Grimma, the Mutschener Pflege,
Thuringia and the Vogtland. From this time on,
historically connected with
Thuringia and its dynasty, the Ernestine
Early modern period
The Reformation was introduced in
Altenburg quite early, in 1522, by
George Spalatin, Wenzeslaus Linck and Gabriel Zwilling. During the
German Peasants' War
German Peasants' War of 1525, the
Altenburg Augustinian monastery was
attacked. In the summer, four peasant rebels were executed at the
marketplace. After the
Schmalkaldic War brought defeat for the
Altenburg belonged to the Albertines for short time
(1547–1554) before coming back to the Ernestines after the Naumburg
From 1603 to 1672,
Altenburg was the residence of an Ernestine line,
after that, it fell to Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg. The Thirty Years' War
brought heavy damage to the city and more than half of the population
Napoleonic wars it was a scene of a brief Allied raid by
the Saxon General Johann von Thielmann.
Market square in 1839
When the Ernestine lands were re-divided in 1826,
Altenburg became the
capital of Saxe-Altenburg, successor state to the dissolved
Saxe-Hildburghausen. Around 1830, the city walls and gates were
knocked down and the old suburbia in front of the former wall were
incorporated. Industrialization began around this time and the economy
and population both saw rapid growth, strengthened by the connection
to the railway in 1842 (as Thuringia's first connected city). The
Revolution of 1848 led to the abdication of the conservative duke
Joseph, who was replaced by his more liberal brother George. The last
duke abdicated during the Revolution of 1918 on 13 November 1918 after
being promised 12 million Marks and the ownership of numerous castles.
The free-state of
Saxe-Altenburg was merged with
Thuringia in 1920.
Altenburg was a working-class city during the
Weimar Republic, ruled
SPD and KPD, which led to heavy conflicts between left- and
right-wing forces after 1933. The Jewish community was destroyed
Kristallnacht in 1938, many Jews emigrated or were killed
in the concentration camps. Furthermore, communists and invalids from
Altenburg were murdered. During World War II, several subcamps of the
Buchenwald concentration camp
Buchenwald concentration camp were located here. They provided 13,000
forced labourers for HASAG, the third largest German company to use
concentration camp labour. The US Army reached
Altenburg on 15
April 1945 and was replaced by the Soviet Army on 1 July 1945.
Thuringia was dissolved and replaced by administrative
divisions of East
Altenburg became part of the
Leipzig administrative district, in which it was the second largest
city. After reunification, previously extant states were
re-established in the former east
Germany as federal states in the
reunified Germany. Although a majority of 54% in the district voted
Saxony in a plebiscite, the district council decided to join
Thuringia together with the
Schmölln district, partly because a vast
majority of 80% in the neighboring
Schmölln district had voted for
Thuringia. These districts had formed the eastern part of
Saxe-Altenburg until 1920 and were reunified as the modern-day
Altenburger Land district in 1994.
Geography and demographics
"Großer Teich", bridge to island with the Zoological Gardens
Altenburg is located on the southern edge of the
Leipzig Bay, a flat
and fertile area, with intensive agricultural use and lignite surface
mining 10 km (6 mi) north of the town. The nearest mountains
Ore Mountains approximately 50 km (31 mi) to the
Pleiße valley runs east of the city, whereas the
center itself is located at Blaue Flut (blue flood) river, a small
Pleiße river. The Blaue Flut feeds the Großer Teich
(big pond), an inner-city pond with an island in the middle, on which
Altenburg zoo is located. There is relatinely little forest within
the town's municipal territory: the small Stadtwald (town wood) and
Herzog-Ernst-Wald (Duke Ernest wood) south of the center and the
Fasanerieholz (Pheasantry wood) at Ehrenberg district. The elevation
of the city center is 200 m, to the north it declines down to 162 m
and in the south next to Mockzig district it rises up to 261 m.
Altenburg is bounded by Windischleuba, Nobitz, Altkirchen, Göhren,
Lödla, Rositz, Meuselwitz,
Treben and Gerstenberg.
Because of the quite densely settlement of the region, many small
villages and ancient former suburbs are situated within the municipal
territory, which is officially divided into 4 districts:
Altenburg (including the villages Drescha, Kauerndorf, Poschwitz,
Rasephas, Steinwitz and Zschernitzsch)
Ehrenberg, incorporated in 1993 (with Greipzig, Lehnitzsch, Mockzig,
Modelwitz, Paditz, Stünzhain, Zschaiga and Zschechwitz)
Kosma, incorporated in 1996 (with Altendorf and Kürbitz)
Zetzscha, incorporated in 1994 (with Knau, Oberzetzscha, Rautenberg
For a detailed view of Altenburg's administrative division, see the
list in German.
Evolution of population between 1831 and 2011
Altenburg has been a relatively big town (compared to others in the
wider region) down the centuries, because of its importance as a
Kaiserpfalz and later as a ducal residence. During the Middle Ages, it
had a population of 3,000 to 4,000 inhabitants, rising to 6,000 around
1700, 10,000 around 1800 and 20,000 around 1870, making it Thuringia's
second-largest city after
Erfurt for a short time in the mid-19th
century. The population grew further to 40,000 in 1910, 44,000 in 1940
and peaked at about 56,000 around 1980 before starting to decline. In
1988, before reunification,
Altenburg had 53,000 inhabitants,
shrinking to 41,000by 2000 and 33,000 in 2012. With a decline of
nearly 40% since 1988,
Altenburg is among the most rapidly decling
urban areas in Germany.
The average decrease of population between 2009 and 2012 was
approximately 1.27% p.a., whereas the population in bordering rural
regions is shrinking with accelerating tendency. Suburbanization
played only a small role in Altenburg. It occurred after the
reunification for a short time in the 1990s, but most of the suburban
areas were situated within the administrative city borders, others are
Windischleuba and Nobitz. During the 1990s and the 2000s, many
Altenburg to search a better life in western Germany
or other major east German cities like Leipzig,
Dresden or Jena. The
birth deficit, caused by the high average age of the population, is
becoming a bigger problem because there is no immigration to
compensate it. Despite urban planning activities to tear down unused
flats, vacancy is still a problem with rates around 16% (according to
2011 EU census), which is the largest amount among Thuringia's major
towns. A positive side effect for the inhabitants is that Altenburg
has one of the lowest rent levels in Germany.
The birth deficit was 282 in 2012, this is -8.5 per 1,000 inhabitants
(Thuringian average: -4.5; national average: -2.4). The net migration
rate was -1.7 per 1,000 inhabitants in 2012 (Thuringian average: -0.8;
national average: +4.6). The most important target regions of
Altenburg migrants are the large cities around like Leipzig, Dresden,
Jena and Erfurt, as well as the western German conurbations.
Like most other small to middling eastern German towns,
only a small amount of foreign population: circa 1.7% are non-Germans
by citizenship and overall 1.6% are migrants (according to 2011 EU
census). Differing from the national average, the biggest groups of
Altenburg are Russians and Vietnamese people. During
recent years, the economic situation of the city has improved a bit:
the unemployment rate in the district declined from 24% in 2005 to 10%
in 2013 with little bit higher rates in the city than in the other
municipalities of the
Altenburger Land district. Nevertheless, this is
still one of the highest rates in Thuringia.
Partly due to official atheism in former GDR, most of the population
is non-religious. 12.1% are members of the Evangelical Church in
Germany and 2.5% are Catholics (according to 2011 EU census).
1831 – 1939
1946 – 1996
1997 – 2004
1831 – 12,629
1880 – 26,241
1885 – 29,110
1890 – 31,439
1900 – 37,110
1925 – 42,570
1933 – 43,736
1939 – 45,851
1946 – 51,805 [* 1]
1950 – 49,413 [* 2]
1960 – 46,791
1981 – 55,827
1984 – 54,755
1994 – 46,291
1995 – 45,472
1996 – 44,854
1997 – 44,060
1998 – 43,032
1999 – 42,005
2000 – 41,290
2001 – 40,559
2002 – 39,810
2003 – 39,189
2004 – 38,417
2013 – 32,992
Source (since 1994): Thüringer Landesamt für Statistik
^ 29 October
^ 31 August
Culture, sights and cityscape
Altenburg is nicknamed playing cards town. The game of skat is said to
have originated here, based on the Bavarian tarock. Because of the
Frederick Barbarossa had on the town, it is
nicknamed a "Barbarossa town".
There are some museums in Altenburg:
The Schloss- und Spielkartenmuseum (castle and playing card museum)
inside the castle hosts an exhibition about
Altenburg as a ducal
residence, and a historical playing cards collection.
Lindenau-Museum (established in 1876) shows Bernhard von
Lindenau's art collection including Italian paintings of the
13th–15th centuries, a collection of classical antiquities and cast
and modern art.
The Mauritianum (opened in 1908) is Altenburg's museum of natural
history with the largest well-known mummified rat king, which was
found in 1828 in a miller's fireplace at Buchheim.
The Brauereimuseum inside the Altenburger brewery shows an exhibition
about beer and its history with a local focus.
Schloss- und Spielkartenmuseum inside the castle
Gründerzeit architecture at Wallstraße
The town center of
Altenburg within the former wall has a planned grid
of 12th/13th century origin, whereas the two old settlement cores were
located around Brühl in the north-east and around St. Nicholas'
Church in the south-west. The area around the castle and southward on
the eastern bank of Blaue Flut river has also been urban since the
Middle Ages, nevertheless, it was located outside the city walls.
During the 19th and early 20th century,
Altenburg saw a construction
boom and the town enlarged to all directions, particularly north and
east towards the new railway station (opened in 1878). Its time as a
state capital until 1918 led to many interesting public and private
Gründerzeit style, same as in other historist styles.
Later, the town lost some of its importance and became a simple
district capital in Thuringia.
World War II
World War II left
so all historic buildings are preserved. Nevertheless, the buildings'
maintenance was neglected during the
East German period, instead, some
Plattenbau settlements were set up on the northern and
south-eastern periphery of Altenburg.
After reunification, most of the main sights and historic buildings
were refurbished. On the other hand, the city lost much of its
population which led to a very high vacancy rate, especially in the
old inner-city buildings, which today endangers the historic city
structure because of many vacant old private houses.
Sights and architectural heritage
St. Bartholomew's Church, built between 1428 and 1443 in Gothic style
at Burgstraße, is Altenburg's main evangelical parish church.
The Fraternity Church at Marktplatz is another evangelical parish
church, founded as a
Franciscans monastery during the 12th century. It
was abandoned after the Reformation in 1529 and reused as evangelical
church. Today's building was established in 1905 in Neo-Gothic style.
St. Nicholas' Church at Nikolaikirchhof was the first church of
Altenburg, mentioned in 1140. It was demolished during the 16th
century, only the steeple remains.
St. George's Chapel is the castle's church, built in picturesque
Gothic style during the mid-15th century.
St. Mary's Monastery (Augustines) is a former monastery on a hill east
of the center. It was founded during the 12th century and abandoned in
1543. Only the two Romanesque towers and some walls remain, being the
city's landmark called "Rote Spitzen" (red spires).
The Duchess Agnes Memorial Church at Hausweg is an evangelical church,
built between 1903 and 1906 in historist style.
The Cemetery Church at Hospitalplatz was built between 1639 and 1651
St. Bartholomew's Church
St. Nicholas' Steeple
St. George's Chapel at the castle
Duchess Agnes Memorial Church
Altenburg Castle is the big ducal residence on a hill above the city
center. It was in use first as fortification and later as residence
since the 9th century until the end of monarchy in
Germany in 1918.
Today's castle is of 17th and 18th century origin and was built in
Renaissance, later in Baroque style. The chapel is of older origin
(see above). The castle is the scene of the famous Prinzenraub,
related by Carlyle in his "Miscellanies".
Further buildings within the castle complex are the Junkerei in the
north, built in the 16th century, the Flasche, an old castle tower
from the 11th century, the Hausmannturm, built in the 12th century as
the castle's keep as well as the Prinzenpalais and the Hofmarschallamt
in the south, built after a fire in 1868.
Next to the castle lies the Schlosspark (castle park) with some more
ducal buildings: the Baroque Teehaus (tea house) (1712), the Baroque
Orangerie (1712) and the historist Marstall (1851).
The Amtshaus was built between 1725 and 1728 in Baroque style at
Burgstraße and is now used as district court.
The Kanzlei was the seat of some ducal authorities, built in 1476 at
The Neues Ministerium at Lindenaustraße was built in 1895 in
Classicist style and is now the seat of the district government.
The former Landgericht at Pauritzer Platz was built in 1859 in
Renaissance style and hosts the social court now.
The Landesbank (federal state bank) at Burgstraße was built in 1865
Renaissance style. Currently, it is vacant.
Altenburg Cemetery (burial site of several
Dukes and Duchesses), now in ruins (those buried there removed to
other parts of the cemetery in 1974).
Junkerei and Flasche tower
The town hall is one of the most important
Renaissance buildings in
Germany. It was built between 1562 and 1564 by the architect Nikolaus
The Landestheater is the theater of Altenburg, built in Neo-Baroque
style in 1871.
The city wall remained in the north behind Johannisstraße and in the
south at Langengasse. Two towers are preserved at Langengasse and
The Palais Seckendorff at Brühl is a Baroque style nobility palace,
built in 1724.
The Wasserkunst at Kunstgasse is an old waterwork, built in 1844 in
The Pohlhof at Pohlhofgasse is a small
The Freemansons' Lodge at Johannisgraben was built in 1804 in
Tower at the city wall
Economy and infrastructure
Agriculture, industry and services
Agriculture plays an important role in the region, because the Loess
soil around the city is very fertile. 69% of the municipal territory
is in agricultural use, both for cultivation and cattle farming. A
famous product of the region is Altenburger Ziegenkäse, a soft cheese
of goat milk with some caraway seed inside with protected Geographical
indication. Another typical dish of
Altenburg is Mutzbraten, a
flame-grilled pork speciality.
Altenburg is also known for its
mustard, which is produced by Altenburger Senf und Feinkost.
Altenburger beer also enjoys some popularity.
The industry of
Altenburg was based on the production of textiles and
hardware during the 19th and 20th century, but most of the companies
did not survive the transition to capitalism after German
Altenburg was especially known for its sewing machine
production from companies like Vesta. Today, the main branches are
food industries (with a factory of
Vion NV amongst others) and
engineering with car component production in focus. The Gumpert
Sportwagenmanufaktur produced the
Gumpert Apollo supercar between 2005
and its bankruptcy in 2013.
Altenburg is also noted for produced
playing cards. The Altenburger Spielkartenfabrik (playing card
factory) was founded in 1831; today it is a subsidiary company of
Cartamundi and market leader in Germany. In 2012, there were 19
companies with more than 20 workers in industrial sector, employing
1,400 people and generating an overall turnover of €451 million.
Altenburg is a regional service hub for retail, hospitals, government,
culture etc. Tourism doesn't play a big role, although the city hosts
many historic sights and is a local center of culture with theater and
museums. In 2012, 37,000 hotel guests had 87,000 overnight stays in
Altenburg was the first city in
Thuringia with connection to the
railway, established in 1842 with the Leipzig–Hof line. Initially,
Altenburg station was a terminus station, which became impractical as
traffic grew, so a new through station was built in 1878 in the
north-east of the city. In addition to the connections to Leipzig
(1842) and Hof/
Zwickau (1844), some more lines were established to
Glauchau (1858, via Gößnitz), to
Gera (1865, via Gößnitz), to
Zeitz (1872, abandoned in 2002) and to
Narsdorf (1901, abandoned in
1998). Today, the
Altenburg station is the only station within the
municipality, after the Paditz station (on the Hof line) and the North
Altenburg station (on the
Zeitz line) were closed. There are some
regional trains to Leipzig,
Gera and Jena)
Glauchau can be reached by changing trains in the near
Gößnitz station. With the rollout of the
Leipzig City Tunnel in
December 2013, the services on the Leipzig–Hof/
Zwickau line were
reorganized and integrated in the
S-Bahn Mitteldeutschland with
Leipzig twice an hour. The connection to long-distance
trains is carried out via
Leipzig (north and east),
Jena (south) and
Erfurt (west), since the last long-distance trains on the
Leipzig–Hof line ceased operating in 2006.
Altenburg is situated between two Autobahns: the A4 (Erfurt–Dresden)
passes approximately 20 km (12 mi) south and the A72
(Leipzig–Chemnitz) passes approximately 20 km (12 mi) east
of the city. Regional traffic is carried by the three national roadsn
in Altenburg. The B7 is the connection to
Gera (and A4 in Erfurt
direction) in the south-west and to
Rochlitz in the north-east, the
B93 runs to Borna (and A72 in
Leipzig direction) in the north and to
Zwickau in the south and the B180 links
Zeitz in the
Hohenstein-Ernstthal (and A72/A4 in
Chemnitz and Dresden
direction via secondary road 1357) in the south-east. An important
secondary road connects
Gera north to the B7 via
Lumpzig. The B7 and B93 bypass the town center on a ring road to
absorb the transit traffic between
Leipzig and Zwickau.
Altenburg Airport, a former Soviet military airport, is
situated 5 km (3 mi) east of the city and was used by
Ryanair for flights to London Stansted, Barcelona-
Girona and Edinburgh
until 2011. Currently, there are no public flights at this airport.
The next regional airport is located in Leipzig/Halle (60 km
(37 mi) to the north).
Biking is becoming more popular since the construction of long
distance cycle tracks began in the 1990s. Both the
Pleiße valley from
Zwickau to Leipzig, and the
Thuringian city track (Radweg Thüringer Städtekette) from Eisenach
via Erfurt, Weimar,
Gera to Altenburg, connect points of
Local public transport within
Altenburg is based exclusively on buses.
Six lines connect the outlying quarters to the inner city.
Furthermore, there are some regional bus services to the villages in
the district. The
Altenburg Tramway was in operation from 1895 until
There are three Gymnasiums in Altenburg: two state-owned and one
Mayor and city council
This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to
reflect recent events or newly available information. (February 2015)
The current mayor Michael Wolf,
SPD is in office since 2000.
The last municipal election was held in 2009 with the result:
Seats in council
Two FDP members changed to the
SPD in 2010. In 2011, six CDU members
founded a new group "Pro Altenburg".
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany
Altenburg is twinned with:
Zlín, Czech Republic
Hickory, United States
Günter Beier, (born 1942), gymnast
Friedrich von Beust, (1817-1899), Privy Councillor, Chamberlain and
Lord Marshal, Major General and Adjutant General
Perry Bräutigam, (born 1963), footballer
Joachim Büchner, (1905-1983), sprinter athlete
Friedrich Arnold Brockhaus, (1772–1823), encyclopedia publisher
Hermann Askan Demme, (1802-1867), physician and surgeon
Adolph Douai, (1819-1888), German-American journalist, social reformer
and founder of the first kindergarten s of the USA
Bernhard Erdmannsdörffer, (1833-1901), historian
Walther Flemming, (1843-1905), sculptor
Frederick I, (1122-1190), Holy Roman Emperor
Erhard Frommhold, (1928–2007), art historian and publicist
Hans Conon von der Gabelentz, (1807–1874)
Georg von der Gabelentz, (1840-1893), linguist and sinologist
Hermann Schlegel 1842
Johann Georg August Galletti, (1750–1828)
Hanns Bruno Geinitz, (1814-1900), geologist and paleontologist
Ralf Haber, (born 1962), hammer thrower
Dieter Kalka, (born 1957), author, musician and songwriter
Johann Ludwig Krebs (1713-1780), Baroque musician and composer
Bernhard von Lindenau
Bernhard von Lindenau (1780-1854), lawyer, astronomer and politician
Sophie Mereau, (1770-1806), writer of German Romanticism
Uwe Rösler, (born 1968), football player and manager
Heinrich Schmidt, hauptsturmführer and camp doctor in the
Johann Severin Vater, theologian and linguist
Jürgen Thiele, rowers, Olympic champion in 1980 in coxless four
Kerstin Walther, athlete, with the GDR relay won the gold medal in the
4x400-meter race at the 1983 World Championship
Christian Friedrich Witt, church musician and composer
Fürstlich Sächsischer Hofbuchdruckerei zu Altenburg
^ "Bevölkerung der Gemeinden, Gemeinschaftsfreie Gemeinde,
Verwaltungsgemeinschaft/Mitgliedsgemeinden in Thüringen". Thüringer
Landesamt für Statistik (in German). January 2018.
^ Edward Victor, Alphabetical List of Camps, Subcamps and Other Camps.
Archived 2012-02-22 at WebCite
^ According to Thüringer Landesamt für Statistik
^ According to Thüringer Landesamt für Statistik
^ According to Thüringer Landesamt für Statistik
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Altenburg.
Official website of the town
Places adjacent to Altenburg
Towns and municipalities in Altenburger Land
Thuringia by population