The Info List - Allier

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(French pronunciation: ​[alje]); is a French department located in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
region of central France named after the river Allier. Moulins is the prefecture and the INSEE and Post Code is 03. The inhabitants of the department are known as Elavérins or Elavérines[3]


1 Geography

1.1 Relief 1.2 Hydrography 1.3 Climate

2 History

2.1 Heraldry

3 Demography 4 Politics and administration

4.1 Prefecture 4.2 Two senators 4.3 Four Members of Parliament 4.4 Departmental Assembly 4.5 Three major cities 4.6 History of the left in Allier

5 Economy 6 Tourism 7 Gastronomy and viticulture

7.1 Second homes

8 Culture

8.1 Twinning 8.2 Regional languages

9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 External links


Château de Billy

department is composed of almost all of the former Duchy of Bourbonnais. It is part of the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
region and borders the departments of Cher, Nièvre, Saône-et-Loire, Loire, Puy-de-Dome, and Creuse.

Major towns

Moulins (préfecture) Montluçon Vichy Gannat Saint-Pourçain-sur-Sioule Yzeure Bourbon-l'Archambault Néris-les-Bains Commentry Cusset Saint-Yorre Lapalisse

The department also includes three spa towns:

Bourbon l'Archambault Neris-les-Bains Vichy

is the only town in the department with more than 10% of second homes: 504 out of 1,800 homes in 1999. Relief[edit] Bourbonnais
bocage covers most of the western and central parts of the department (including the Forest of Tronçais), followed by the Bourbonnais
Sologne in the east north-east, the Bourbonnais
Mountain (near Vichy) which is the highest point of Bourbonnais
together with Montoncel (peaking at 1,287 metres), and finally in the south of the department, the Bourbonnais
Limagne, which extends from Varennes to Gannat, and is the breadbasket of the department.

The Bourbonnais

To the north and just over 500 metres above sea level, the Bourbonnais Bocage
occupies one-third of the department, with two parts: the centre and the west (for the part between the Val de Cher and western boundaries of the territory). The bocage is especially remarkable for its rich forests and woodlands including the famous Forest of Tronçais but also the forests of Moladier Bagnolet, Civrais, Soulongis, Grosbois, Dreuille, Lespinasse and Suave. Almost all of the southern area consists of Combrailles which is sometimes called High Bourbonnais, in an area that goes beyond the departmental boundaries of Creuse
and Puy-de-Dôme. This area of the department rises to 778 metres at Bosse. The rivers Sioule, Bouble, and Cher have carved the most picturesque gorges in Allier.

The Bourbonnais

To the east, between the Val d' Allier
and the borders of Nièvre
and Saône-et-Loire, the Bourbonnais
Sologne has a nice balance between pastures, crops, woods and ponds: the balance between agriculture and semi-wilderness constituting a very favorable setting for fauna and flora.

The Bourbonnais

In its southern extension, the Bourbonnais
Mountain rises from the Puy Saint-Ambroise (442 metres) near Saint-Léon and then extends to the massif of Assisi and the Black Forest at the edge of Puy-de-Dome
and Loire
which is marked by the Puy de Montoncel (1,287 metres) – the highest point in Allier.

The Bourbonnais

Commonly grouped under the name of Val d'Allier, the Limagne
and Forterre extend on both sides of the river between Vichy
and Saint-Pourçain-sur-Sioule
with an essential quality of fertility. Limogne, together with Sioule
and Allier, is part of the Gannat
/ Escurolles / Saint-Pourçain triangle while Forterre covers the Canton of Varennes-sur-Allier
ending near Jaligny. Hydrography[edit]


to the west: the Cher in the centre: the Allier River
Allier River
and its tributary the Sioule to the east the Loire
and its tributary the Besbre

Climate[edit] A transition zone in the middle of the country, Allier
is actually a free zone between north and south. The department is wide open to Atlantic influences and it enjoys a mild and humid climate dominated by westerly winds which helps a little to differentiate it from other parts of Auvergne. The weather variances coincide with the diversity of Bourbonnais
territory such as: flat regions, low altitude Bourbonnais
Sologne and large floodplains, the hill country, the average altitude of 300 to 600 metres, the central part of the department, and the semi-mountainous southern townships bordering the Combraille and Forez between 700 and 1,200 metres. There are two periods of maximum precipitation in June and October and a minimum in January and February with average of 694 millimetres in Montluçon
(altitude 207 metres), 763 mm in Moulins (245 m) 778 mm in Vichy
(251 m) 791 mm in Lapalisse (285 m). and nearly 1,200 mm in Assisi (1,050 m). As noted Atlantic winds are dominant from the west, northwest, or southwest. The influence of topography, especially in the valleys of Cher and Allier, also contributes to the south and north variance.

Comparison of local Meteorological data with other cities in France[4]

Town Sunshine

(hours/yr) Rain

(mm/yr) Snow

(days/yr) Storm

(days/yr) Fog


National Average 1,973 770 14 22 40

Vichy[5] 1,862 780 18 26 35

Paris 1,661 637 12 18 10

Nice 2,724 767 1 29 1

Strasbourg 1,693 665 29 29 56

Brest 1,605 1,211 7 12 75

Climate data for Vichy

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 7.4 (45.3) 9.0 (48.2) 13.0 (55.4) 15.8 (60.4) 20.0 (68) 23.5 (74.3) 26.4 (79.5) 26.1 (79) 22.2 (72) 17.6 (63.7) 11.2 (52.2) 7.8 (46) 16.7 (62.1)

Daily mean °C (°F) 3.5 (38.3) 4.4 (39.9) 7.5 (45.5) 9.9 (49.8) 14.1 (57.4) 17.4 (63.3) 19.9 (67.8) 19.5 (67.1) 16.0 (60.8) 12.5 (54.5) 7.0 (44.6) 4.1 (39.4) 11.3 (52.3)

Average low °C (°F) −0.4 (31.3) −0.2 (31.6) 1.9 (35.4) 3.9 (39) 8.1 (46.6) 11.2 (52.2) 13.3 (55.9) 12.9 (55.2) 9.8 (49.6) 7.3 (45.1) 2.8 (37) 0.4 (32.7) 5.9 (42.6)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 46.8 (1.843) 39.8 (1.567) 44.2 (1.74) 69.3 (2.728) 98.2 (3.866) 78.2 (3.079) 71.6 (2.819) 74.2 (2.921) 75.4 (2.969) 68.0 (2.677) 63.3 (2.492) 50.5 (1.988) 779.5 (30.689)

Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm) 9.8 8.3 8.4 9.8 11.6 8.7 7.6 8.6 8.3 9.6 10.0 9.0 109.7

Mean monthly sunshine hours 78 95 154 175 203 225 249 238 184 128 77 56 1,862

Source: Meteorological data for Vichy
– 249 m altitude, from 1981 to 2010 January 2015 (in French)

History[edit] The history of Allier
corresponds to the Duchy of Bourbon (Bourbonnais) with which it shares almost the entire territory. Allier
is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on 4 March 1790. It was created from parts of the former provinces of Auvergne and Bourbonnais. In 1940, the government of Marshal Philippe Pétain
Philippe Pétain
chose the town of Vichy
as its capital. Vichy
also became the department's second sub-prefecture in 1940, since the department now found itself split by the demarcation line between the occupied and (relatively, at least initially) free zones of France. Heraldry[edit]

The arms of Allier
are also those of the former province of Bourbonnais
and are the arms of the third house of Bourbon of Robert de Clermont, sixth son of Saint Louis, who married Beatrice of Bourbon and was recognized as Sire of Bourbon in 1283. Blazon: Azure, Semé-de-lis of Or with a bend of Gules.


Map of Allier

On 1 January 1997 the population of Allier
was estimated at 357,100 inhabitants which represented an average density of 50 people/km². Many areas have a density less than 20 people/km². Because of its low population density, it is considered to fall within the empty diagonal. Since the early 1980s Allier
has faced many demographic handicaps. The ratio of older people is important and with low fertility rates the natural growth is negative. Meanwhile, net migration has become very negative. At 1 January 2009 the legal population was 343,046 inhabitants. The fertility rate was slightly lower than the national average in 2007 but nevertheless would renew of the Allier
population if not for the lack of jobs leading to the exodus of young people to more favourable employment areas thus confirming a negative net migration. Allier
has three major cities, Montlucon, Vichy, and Moulins by size. The rest of the department includes some small towns and villages scattered mainly along the rivers. The few villages are far from each other and it is generally a sparsely populated department. Until the end of the 19th century, however, the population was increasing through the development of its cities (industries at Montlucon
and Moulins, spas in Vichy) compensated by the rural exodus. The department then passed 420,000 inhabitants. After the population losses of the First World War
First World War
the population stabilized and grew a little again in the 1960s. Since then, due to the continuing rural exodus and especially the decline of old industries, the population has decreased and aged steadily from 386,533 inhabitants in 1968 to 343,046 in 2009. The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known through the population censuses conducted in the communes of the department since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year.[Note 1] Population change (See database)

1791 1801 1806 1821 1831 1836 1841 1846 1851

267,126 248,864 260,046 280,025 298,257 309,270 311,361 329,540 336,758

1856 1861 1866 1872 1876 1881 1886 1891 1896

352,241 356,432 376,164 390,812 405,783 416,759 424,582 424,382 424,378

1901 1906 1911 1921 1926 1931 1936 1946 1954

422,024 417,961 406,291 370,950 370,562 373,924 368,778 373,481 372,689

1962 1968 1975 1982 1990 1999 2007 2009 -

380,221 386,533 378,406 369,580 357,710 344,615 343,114 343,046 -

Sources : Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 (population without double counting and municipal population from 2006)

Politics and administration[edit] Prefecture[edit] Jean-Luc Marx, the prefect of Lot, was named the prefect of Allier
on 1 June 2011, replacing Pierre Monzani who was appointed Prefect of Seine-et-Marne
on 25 May 2011. Pierre Monzani had been prefect of Allier
since 14 January 2009. Born on 12 May 1958 in Villerupt
(Meurthe-et-Moselle), Pierre Monzani holds a civil service agrégation in history and a DEA in history and civilization. A former student of the Ecole Normale Superieure (Saint-Cloud) and of École nationale d'administration
École nationale d'administration
(ENA), since August 2006 he has been director of INHES (National Institute of Advanced Security Studies).[6] Two senators[edit] In the Senate elections in 2008 the left took one of the two Senate seats in Allier
formerly held by the right. Mireille Schurch, PCF Mayor of Lignerolles, was elected:

Gérard Dériot DVD Mireille Schurch PCF

Four Members of Parliament[edit] The elections of 2007 returned three Socialists ( Bernard Lesterlin for Montlucon, Jean Mallot for Saint-Pourçain, and Guy Chambefort for Moulins) and one PRG ( Gerard Charasse for Vichy). Departmental Assembly[edit] In the local elections of March 2008, Allier
department was won by a majority of the left. The URB (Republican Union for Bourbonnais, right) had headed the department between 2001 and 2008, with the last year with only one vote majority. From 2008 the left coalition was in control also with a majority of one vote (10 PC, 6 PS, 2 PRG, 18 seats in total), facing 17 councilors from the URB. Allier
Council is chaired by a Communist, Jean-Paul Dufregne as for Val-de-Marne department in Île-de-France. The General Council of Allier
has also been led – after decentralization – by a communist: Jean-Claude Mairal (1998–2001). The loss of his mandate was included in a national dynamic of victory of the right.

Party seats

Miscellaneous Right 13

• French Communist Party 9

• Socialist Party 6

Union for a Popular Movement 4

• Left Radical Party 2

• Miscellaneous Left 1

Three major cities[edit] The three major cities of Allier
are run by mayors of the right who were re-elected in the 2008 municipal elections in the first round by Daniel Dugléry in Montluçon
and in the second round for Pierre-André Périssol in Moulins, and Claude Malhuret in Vichy. History of the left in Allier[edit] The department was distinguished by communist votes in early voting which continued until after the Second World War
Second World War
with the two major political parties of the left being the PCF and the SFIO
which have now become the Socialist Party. The small town of Commentry
has the distinction of being the first town in France[7] to elect a socialist mayor in 1882: Christophe Thivrier. Another local figure, Pierre Brizon, an MP in 1910, was typically a member for sharecroppers.[8] Earlier, Ledru-Rollin achieved a very good result in 1848 (14%) with Democratic and socialist candidates in the following year (44% of the vote, against 35% for all of France).[9] Similarly, resistance to the coup of 2 December 1851 was important after an attempt to support the uprising in June 1849.[10] Republicans were in the majority in 1876 and held all six parliamentary seats.[7] After neighbouring results of 15% of enrolled voters from 1893 to 1906 the Socialists rose to 31% of enrolled votes (42% of those cast) in 1910 and maintained this in 1914[11] Allier
remains a land of rural communism (still 14.66% in the 2004 regional elections – the second best result for the party after Somme) in a sometimes difficult cohabitation with the Socialist Party. For the causes of their success it may be noted that historically Allier
has been a department where vast properties were combined into sharecropping. Sharecropping
only spread in the 15th century[12] and was not disturbed by the sale of national assets to the Revolution.[13] In the 19th century large properties (100 hectares or more) occupied about half of the land, and even more than 70% in the north of the department. In the south, small properties dominate.[13] Sharecropping
continued as a form of land development and it involved 40% of the land in 1892 (only 7% overall for France).[14] Adverse conditions made sharecroppers promote the creation of rural unions between 1904 and 1911 (the third greatest number per department in France after Hérault
and Landes). Despite poor results the mobilization was important and promoted the election of left-wing candidates.[15]

List of senators of Allier Communes of the Allier

Economy[edit] The industries most represented are the food industry, wood and furniture, chemical, foundries and metalworking, rubber, machinery and electrical equipment, automotive, weaponry, textiles, building, and the spas. According to studies by INSEE agriculture would be about 7 to 8% of departmental gross domestic product. Tourism[edit] Marked by the imprint of the Dukes of Bourbon, Allier
is a land of rivers, bocage, and small mountains. Landscapes such as Bourbonnais bocage, the gorges of the Sioule, and the Forest of Tronçais
Forest of Tronçais
are places suitable for the practice of outdoor activities: hiking, fishing, and white water sports. Hydrotherapy is one of the leading sectors of Bourbonnais
tourism with the international spa at Vichy. This nature preserve also features a multitude of castles (over 500), Romanesque churches and beautiful houses much of which is the heritage of the Bourbons. Bourbon cuisine reflects the history of the province and provides quality products: Pâté aux pommes de terre, Charolais beef, wines from Saint-Pourçain AOC, Charroux mustard, and Vichy pastilles. Among the tourist sites to visit are:


the Château de La Palice
Château de La Palice
and its famous Renaissance chambered ceilings, the Bourbon-l'Archambault
Castle, "Cradle of the Bourbons"

Churches and abbeys

Moulins Cathedral
Moulins Cathedral
and the triptych of the Virgin in glory the Priory Church of Saint Peter at Souvigny, more commonly called the "Saint-Denis" of the Bourbons the Abbey of Saint Vincent de Chantelle


The National Centre of Stage Costume Maison Mantin
Maison Mantin
in Moulins


Le PAL, an amusement and animal park in Dompierre-sur-Besbre Paleopolis in Gannat, a site designed to understand life sciences and the earth through paleontology Three cities stand out: Moulins for its historical heritage from the 15th century Montluçon, a medieval and festive city dominated by its castle Vichy, an important spa town.




Medieval fair in Montluçon

Gastronomy and viticulture[edit] The pâté aux pommes de terre is one of the specialities of the Allier, as well as of the neighboring Limousin region. The Allier River is one of the rare places in Southern Europe where the freshwater grayling (Thymallus thymallus), known in French as ombre des rivières, occurs in a natural habitat.[16] This fish is much valued in French gastronomy for its fine and delicate texture and is best eaten along with a light wine.[17] Saint-Pourçain AOC wine is produced in Allier
and the oak from the forest of Tronçais is one of the most favoured in the construction of wine barrels.[18] Second homes[edit] In 2008 the department had 7.5% of second homes. This table shows the main communes of Allier
with second homes and which occasionally exceed 10% of total housing. The department has attracted many foreigners, English, Belgian, Swiss, and Dutch. They have acquired many second homes by renovating and bringing unmatched cultural diversity to Allier. We therefore find many communes have become "European" such as Pouzy-Mésangy
which today has many English and Swiss residents.

Communes with more than 10% of second homes in 2008[19]

Town Municipal population Number of lodgings Secondary homes Percentage of secondary homes

Saint-Nicolas-des-Biefs 181 300 203 67.67%

Laprugne 360 537 305 56.80%

Chouvigny 239 268 131 48.88%

Châtel-Montagne 419 373 131 35.15%

Arfeuilles 685 667 234 35.08%

Saint-Clément 355 313 105 33.55%

Néris-les-Bains 2,704 1,842 435 23.62%

Saint-Bonnet-Tronçais 755 538 125 23.32%

Ébreuil 1,270 736 160 21.74%

Cérilly 1,379 886 119 13.40%

Bourbon-l'Archambault 2,593 1,519 170 11.17%

Culture[edit] Twinning[edit] [20]

Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso
since 2002. SOURIRES since 2006. Niafunké
(Mali) since 1988. Khemisset
(Morocco) since 2009. Uvurkhangai
(Mongolia) since 2000. Cluj
(Romania) since 2002. Yzeure
Kafountine (Senegal) since 2011. Nguekokh (Senegal) since 2009. Cusset
(Togo) since 2011.

Regional languages[edit] Allier
is traversed by the border between Occitan
and French.[21] For a long period the people of Allier
did not speak standard French but one of the following local languages:

Bourbonnais: Dialect oïl, north of a line from Montlucon
to Saint-Pourçain-sur-Sioule
to Lapalisse Auvergnat: (a dialect of Occitan) in the extreme south the area between the two, sometimes called Bourbon d'oc is part of the Occitan
Crescent,[22] an area of mixing of French and Occitan considered by most linguists as Occitan
with French pronunciation. Some[23] consider the speech of the Crescent to be a full Occitan dialect and use the term Marchois.


Note that in the south-east of the department (notably in Forterre[24] and the Bourbonnais
Mountain[25]) the influence of Francoprovencal arises. Similarly, in the north-west (and especially in the old part of the Bourbonnais
department of Cher to Saint-Amand-Montrond), the Bourbon dialects are close to the Berrichon dialect.

See also[edit]

Communes of the Allier
department Cantons of the Allier
department Arrondissements of the Allier


^ At the beginning of the 21st century, the methods of identification have been modified by law No. 2002-276 of 27 February 2002 [1] Archived 6 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine., the so-called "law of local democracy" and in particular Title V "census operations" which allow, after a transitional period running from 2004 to 2008, the annual publication of the legal population of the different French administrative districts. For communes with a population greater than 10,000 inhabitants, a sample survey is conducted annually, the entire territory of these communes is taken into account at the end of the period of five years. The first "legal population" after 1999 under this new law came into force on 1 January 2009 and was based on the census of 2006.


^ Delacou, Antoine (25 September 2017). "Claude Riboulet succède à Gérard Dériot à la présidence du conseil départemental de l'Allier". Lamontagne.fr (in French). Retrieved 25 September 2017.  ^ "Claude Riboulet succède à Gérard Dériot à la tête du Conseil départemental de l'Allier". France 3 (in French). 25 September 2017. Retrieved 25 September 2017.  ^ Inhabitants of Allier
(in French) ^ Paris, Nice, Strasbourg, Brest ^ Data from the Station at Vichy
from 1981 to 2010 (in French) ^ "HCFDC Pierre Monzani" (PDF).  ^ a b Agnès Roche, A favourable breeding-ground, Études rurales 3/2004 (No. 171-172), p. 111 (in French) ^ Agnès Roche, A favourable breeding-ground, Études rurales 3/2004 (No. 171-172), p. 108-109 (in French) ^ Agnès Roche, A favourable breeding-ground, Études rurales 3/2004 (No. 171-172), p. 109 (in French) ^ Agnès Roche, A favourable breeding-ground, Études rurales 3/2004 (No. 171-172), p. 109-110 (in French) ^ Agnès Roche, A favourable breeding-ground, Études rurales 3/2004 (No. 171-172), p. 111-112 (in French) ^ Agnès Roche, A favourable breeding-ground, Études rurales 3/2004 (No. 171-172), p. 105 (in French) ^ a b Agnès Roche, A favourable breeding-ground, Études rurales 3/2004 (No. 171-172), p. 106 (in French) ^ Agnès Roche, A favourable breeding-ground, Études rurales 3/2004 (No. 171-172), p. 107 (in French) ^ Agnès Roche, A favourable breeding-ground, Études rurales 3/2004 (No. 171-172), p. 107-108 (in French) ^ "The grayling zones of rivers and their tributaries" (PDF).  ^ "Les accords vin-poisson – Célébration d'un mariage réussi!".  ^ Robinson, Jancis (1999). The Oxford Companion to Wine. Oxford University Press. pp. 13, 495. ISBN 0-19-866236-X.  ^ Source INSEE (in French) ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 4 October 2013. Retrieved 2013-12-26.  National Commission for Decentralised cooperation] (in French) ^ Charles de Tourtoulon and Octavien Bringuier (1876), Study on the geographical limits of Occitan
anmd French (with a map), Paris: Imprimerie Nationale [reprinted 2004, Masseret-Meuzac: Institut d’Estudis Occitans de Lemosin/Lo Chamin de Sent Jaume] (in French) ^ Guylaine Brun-Trigaud (1990), The Crescent:the concept and the word. Contribution to the history of the French dialect of the 19th century (Thesis), coll. Série dialectologie, Lyon: Centre d’Études Linguistiques Jacques Goudet (in French) ^ E.g. Nicolas Quint, The marchois speech of Saint-Priest-la-Feuille (Creuse) (in French) ^ Marcel Bonin, (1981), The dialect of Langy and of Forterre (region of Varennes-sur-Allier), Cagnes sur Mer: Cahiers Bourbonnais
(in French) ^ Simone Escoffier (1958), The meeting of langue d’oïl, Occitan
and francoprovençal between Loire
and Allier: phonetic limits and morphologies (Thesis), Mâcon: impr. Protat [éd. identique de la même année: coll. Publications de l’Institut de Linguistique Romane de Lyon-vol. 11, Paris: Les Belles Lettres] (in French)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Allier.

(in French) Prefecture website (in French) Departmental council website (in English) Allier
at Curlie (based on DMOZ)

v t e

Departments of France

01 Ain 02 Aisne 03 Allier 04 Alpes-de-Haute-Provence 05 Hautes-Alpes 06 Alpes-Maritimes 07 Ardèche 08 Ardennes 09 Ariège 10 Aube 11 Aude 12 Aveyron 13 Bouches-du-Rhône 14 Calvados 15 Cantal 16 Charente 17 Charente-Maritime 18 Cher 19 Corrèze 2A Corse-du-Sud 2B Haute-Corse 21 Côte-d'Or 22 Côtes-d'Armor 23 Creuse 24 Dordogne 25 Doubs 26 Drôme 27 Eure 28 Eure-et-Loir 29 Finistère 30 Gard 31 Haute-Garonne 32 Gers 33 Gironde 34 Hérault 35 Ille-et-Vilaine 36 Indre 37 Indre-et-Loire 38 Isère 39 Jura 40 Landes 41 Loir-et-Cher 42 Loire 43 Haute-Loire 44 Loire-Atlantique 45 Loiret 46 Lot 47 Lot-et-Garonne 48 Lozère 49 Maine-et-Loire 50 Manche 51 Marne 52 Haute-Marne 53 Mayenne 54 Meurthe-et-Moselle 55 Meuse 56 Morbihan 57 Moselle 58 Nièvre 59 Nord 60 Oise 61 Orne 62 Pas-de-Calais 63 Puy-de-Dôme 64 Pyrénées-Atlantiques 65 Hautes-Pyrénées 66 Pyrénées-Orientales 67 Bas-Rhin 68 Haut-Rhin 69D Rhône 70 Haute-Saône 71 Saône-et-Loire 72 Sarthe 73 Savoie 74 Haute-Savoie 75 Paris 76 Seine-Maritime 77 Seine-et-Marne 78 Yvelines 79 Deux-Sèvres 80 Somme 81 Tarn 82 Tarn-et-Garonne 83 Var 84 Vaucluse 85 Vendée 86 Vienne 87 Haute-Vienne 88 Vosges 89 Yonne 90 Territoire de Belfort 91 Essonne 92 Hauts-de-Seine 93 Seine-Saint-Denis 94 Val-de-Marne 95 Val-d'Oise

Overseas departments 971 Guadeloupe 972 Martinique 973 French Guiana 974 Réunion 976 Mayotte

Metropolis with territorial collectivity statute 69M Lyon

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 129021221 LCCN: n82001814 GND: 4399044-7 BNF: