The Info List - Alhambra

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The ALHAMBRA (/ælˈhæmbrə/ ; Spanish: ; Arabic : الْحَمْرَاء‎‎ , _Al-Ḥamrā_, lit. "The Red One"), the complete Arabic form of which was _Qalat Al-Hamra_, is a palace and fortress complex located in Granada
, Andalusia
, Spain
. It was originally constructed as a small fortress in AD 889 on the remains of Roman fortifications, and then largely ignored until its ruins were renovated and rebuilt in the mid-13th century by the Moorish emir Mohammed ben Al-Ahmar of the Emirate of Granada
, who built its current palace and walls. It was converted into a royal palace in 1333 by Yusuf I, Sultan of Granada
. After the conclusion of the Christian Reconquista
in 1492, the site became the Royal Court of Ferdinand and Isabella (where Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
received royal endorsement for his expedition), and the palaces were partially altered to Renaissance tastes. In 1526 Charles I its most characteristic feature, however, is the dense wood of English elms brought by the Duke of Wellington in 1812. The park has a multitude of nightingales and is usually filled with the sound of running water from several fountains and cascades. These are supplied through a conduit 8 km (5.0 mi) long, which is connected with the Darro at the monastery of Jesus del Valle above Granada.

Despite long neglect, willful vandalism, and some ill-judged restoration, the Alhambra
endures as an atypical example of Muslim art in its final European stages, relatively uninfluenced by the direct Byzantine
influences found in the Mezquita of Córdoba . The majority of the palace buildings are quadrangular in plan, with all the rooms opening on to a central court, and the whole reached its present size simply by the gradual addition of new quadrangles, designed on the same principle, though varying in dimensions, and connected with each other by smaller rooms and passages. Alhambra
was extended by the different Muslim rulers who lived in the complex. However, each new section that was added followed the consistent theme of "paradise on earth". Column arcades, fountains with running water, and reflecting pools were used to add to the aesthetic and functional complexity. In every case, the exterior was left plain and austere. Sun and wind were freely admitted. Blue, red, and a golden yellow, all somewhat faded through lapse of time and exposure, are the colors chiefly employed.

The decoration consists for the upper part of the walls, as a rule, of Arabic inscriptions—mostly poems by Ibn Zamrakand others praising the palace—that are manipulated into geometrical patterns with vegetal background set onto an arabesque setting ("Ataurique"). Much of this ornament is carved stucco (plaster) rather than stone. Tile mosaics ("alicatado"), with complicated mathematical patterns ("tracería", most precisely "lacería"), are largely used as panelling for the lower part. Similar designs are displayed on wooden ceilings ( Alfarje). Muqarnas
are the main elements for vaulting with stucco, and some of the most accomplished dome examples of this kind are in the Court of the Lionshalls. The palace complex is designed in the Nasrid style, the last blooming of Islamic Art in the Iberian Peninsula, that had a great influence on the Maghreb
to the present day, and on contemporary MudejarArt, which is characteristic of western elements reinterpreted into Islamic forms and widely popular during the Reconquista
in Spain. Panorama of the Alhambra
from Mirador de San Nicolas. From left to right: Generalife, Pico del Veleta (mountain), Palacios Nazaríes, Palace of Charles V, Alcazaba
Panoramic view, illuminated at night


* 1 History * 2 Layout

* 3 Main structures

* 3.1 Royal complex * 3.2 Court of the Myrtles * 3.3 Hall of the Ambassadors

* 3.4 Court of the Lionsand fountain

* 3.4.1 Fountain of Lions

* 3.5 Hall of the Abencerrajes * 3.6 Generalife
* 3.7 Other features

* 4 Influence

* 4.1 In literature * 4.2 In music * 4.3 In mathematics * 4.4 In film * 4.5 In video games * 4.6 In board games * 4.7 In astronomy * 4.8 In Architecture

* 5 See also * 6 Further reading * 7 Notes

* 8 References

* 8.1 Bibliography

* 9 External links


_ The Tower of Justice (Puerta de la Justicia_) is the original entrance gate to the Alhambra, built by Yusuf Iin 1348.

Completed towards the end of Muslim rule of Spain
by Yusuf I (1333–1353) and Muhammed V, Sultan of Granada
(1353–1391), the Alhambra
is a reflection of the culture of the last centuries of the Moorish rule of Al Andalus
Al Andalus
, reduced to the Nasrid Emirate of Granada . It is a place where artists and intellectuals had taken refuge as the Reconquista
by Spanish Christians won victories over Al Andalus. The Alhambra
integrates natural site qualities with constructed structures and gardens, and is a testament to Moorish culture in Spain and the skills of Muslim, Jewish, and Christian artisans, craftsmen, and builders of their era.

The literal translation of Alhambra, "the red (female)," reflects the color of the red clay of the surroundings of which the fort is made. The buildings of the Alhambra
were originally whitewashed ; however, the buildings as seen today are reddish. Another possible origin of the name is the tribal designation of the Nasrid Dynasty
Nasrid Dynasty
, known as the Banu al-Ahmar_Arabic: Sons of the Red (male)_, a sub-tribe of the Arab Qahtanite
Banu Khazrajtribe. One of the early Nasrid ancestors was nicknamed _Yusuf Al Ahmar_ (Yusuf the Red) and hence the (Nasrid) fraction of the Banu Khazrajtook up the name of Banu al-Ahmar. Detail of Islamic calligraphy
Islamic calligraphy
in Mexuar Hall: "God is the only Victor"

The first reference to the Qal‘at al-Ḥamra was during the battles between the Arabs
and the Muladies(people of mixed Arab and European descent) during the rule of the ‘Abdullah ibn Muhammad(r. 888–912). In one particularly fierce and bloody skirmish, the Muladiessoundly defeated the Arabs, who were then forced to take shelter in a primitive red castle located in the province of Elvira, presently located in Granada
. According to surviving documents from the era, the red castle was quite small, and its walls were not capable of deterring an army intent on conquering. The castle was then largely ignored until the eleventh century, when its ruins were renovated and rebuilt by Samuel ibn Naghrela, vizier to the emir Badis ben Habus of the ZiridDynasty of Al Andalus, in an attempt to preserve the small Jewish settlement also located on the natural plateau, Sabikah Hill.

Ibn Nasr , the founder of the Nasrid Dynasty
Nasrid Dynasty
, was forced to flee to Jaén to avoid persecution by King Ferdinand III of Castileand the Reconquista
supporters working to end Spain's Moorish rule. After retreating to Granada, Ibn-Nasr took up residence at the Palace of Badis ben Habus in the Alhambra. A few months later, he embarked on the construction of a new Alhambra
fit for the residence of a sultan. According to an Arab manuscript since published as the _Anónimo de Granada
y Copenhague_,

This year, 1238 Abdallah ibn al-Ahmar climbed to the place called "the Alhambra" inspected it, laid out the foundations of a castle and left someone in charge of its construction... Detail of arabesque and pavilion

The design included plans for six palaces, five of which were grouped in the northeast quadrant forming a royal quarter, two circuit towers, and numerous bathhouses. During the reign of the Nasrid Dynasty, the Alhambra
was transformed into a palatine city, complete with an irrigation system composed of acequias for the gardens of the Generalife
located outside the fortress. Previously, the old Alhambra structure had been dependent upon rainwater collected from a cistern and from what could be brought up from the Albaicín. The creation of the Sultan's Canal solidified the identity of the Alhambra
as a palace-city rather than a defensive and ascetic structure.

The Muslim ruler Muhammad XII of Granada
surrendered the Emirate of Granada
in 1492 without the Alhambra
itself being attacked when the forces of the Reyes Católicos, King Ferdinand II of Aragon
Ferdinand II of Aragon
and Queen Isabella I of Castile
Isabella I of Castile
, took the surrounding territory with a force of overwhelming numbers. Muqarnas
ceiling decoration

The decoration within the palaces comes from the last great period of Andalusian art in Granada. With little of the Byzantine
influence of contemporary Abassid
architecture, artists endlessly reproduced the same forms and trends, creating a new style that developed over the course of the Nasrid Dynasty. The Nasrids used freely all the stylistic elements that had been created and developed during eight centuries of Muslim rule in the Peninsula, including the Caliphate horseshoe arch , the Almohad sebka (a grid of rhombuses ), the Almoravid palm, and unique combinations of them, as well as innovations such as stilted arches and muqarnas (stalactite ceiling decorations). Structurally, the design is simple and does not evince significant innovation. While artistically pleasing it was until the reconquest structurally ad hoc and reliant on the skills of subject artisans and workers. Arabesques around a window

Columns and muqarnas appear in several chambers, and the interiors of numerous palaces are decorated with arabesques and calligraphy. The arabesques of the interior are ascribed to, among other sultans, Yusuf I , Mohammed V , and Ismail I, Sultan of Granada

After the Christian conquest of the city in 1492, the conquerors began to alter the Alhambra. The open work was filled up with whitewash , the painting and gilding effaced, and the furniture soiled, torn, or removed. Charles I (1516–1556) rebuilt portions in the Renaissance
style of the period and destroyed the greater part of the winter palace to make room for a Renaissance-style structure which was never completed. Philip V (1700–1746) Italianised the rooms and completed his palace in the middle of what had been the Moorish building; he had partitions constructed which blocked up whole apartments. Detail of arabesques

Over subsequent centuries the Moorish art was further damaged, and in 1812 some of the towers were destroyed by the French under Count Sebastiani . In 1821, an earthquake caused further damage. Restoration work was undertaken in 1828 by the architect José Contreras, endowed in 1830 by Ferdinand VII . After the death of Contreras in 1847, it was continued with fair success by his son Rafael (died 1890) and his grandson.

Especially notable was the intervention of Leopoldo Torres Balbás in the 1930s: the young architect "opened arcades that had been walled up, re-excavated filled-in pools, replaced missing tiles, completed inscriptions that lacked portions of their stuccoed lettering, and installed a ceiling in the still unfinished palace of Charles V".


Modern plan of the Alhambra

According to the site's current architect Pedro Salmeron Escobar, the Alhambra
evolved organically over a period of several centuries from the ancient hilltop fortress defined by a narrow promontory carved by the river Daro and overlooking the _Vega_ or Plain of Granada
as it descends from the Sierra Nevada . The red earth from which the fortress is constructed is a granular aggregate held together by a medium of red clay which gives the resulting layered brick- and stone- reinforced construction (_tapial calicastrado_) its characteristic hue and is at the root of the name of 'the Red Hill'.

This crude earthiness is counterpointed by the startling fine alabaster white stucco work of the famous interiors. Meltwater from the 'Snowy Mountains' is drawn across an arched vault at the eastern tip of the _Torre del Agua_ ('Water Tower') and channeled through the citadel via a complex system of conduits (_acequia_) and water tanks (_los albercones_) which create the celebrated interplay of light, sound and surface.

is about 740 metres (2,430 ft) in length by 205 metres (670 ft) at its greatest width. It extends from west-northwest to east-southeast and covers an area of about 142,000 square metres (1,530,000 sq ft). The Alhambra's most westerly feature is the Alcazaba
(citadel), a strongly fortified position built to protect the original post-Roman districts of _Iliberri_, now 'Centro', and _Gárnata al-yahūd_ (' Granada
of the Jews
', now _Realejo_, and the Moorish suburb of _El Albayzín_. Plan of the Nasrid Palaces, Alhambra, 1889. Palaces of the Ambassadors Palace of the Lions Mexuar Garden of Lindajar and later habitation of the Emir

Due to touristic demand, modern access runs contrary to the original sequence which began from a principal access via the _Puerta de la Justicia_ ('Gate of Justice') onto a large Souq
or public market square facing the Alcazaba, now subdivided and obscured by later Christian-era development. From the _Puerta del Vino_ (Wine Gate) ran the _Calle Real_ ('Royal Street') dividing the Alhambra
along its axial spine into a southern residential quarter with mosques , hamams (bathhouses) and diverse functional establishments. The greater portion, occupying the northern edge, was occupied by several palaces of the nobility with extensive landscaped gardens commanding views over the Albayzin, all of which were subservient to the great Tower of the Ambassadors in the _Palacio Comares_ which acted as the royal audience chamber and throne room with its three arched windows dominating the city. The private internalised universe of the _Palacio de Los Leones_ (Palace of the Lions) adjoins the public spaces at right angles (see Plan illustration) but was originally connected only by the function of the Royal Baths, the "Eye of Aixa's Room" serving as the exquisitely decorated focus of meditation and authority overlooking the refined garden of _Lindaraja/Daraxa_ toward the city.

Rest of the plateau comprises a number of earlier and later Moorish palaces, enclosed by a fortified wall , with thirteen defensive towers, some such as the _Torres de la Infanta_ and _Cattiva_ containing elaborate vertical palaces in miniature. The river Darro passes through a ravine on the north and divides the plateau from the Albaicíndistrict of Granada. Similarly, the Assabica valley, containing the Alhambra
Park on the west and south, and, beyond this valley, the almost parallel ridge of Monte Mauror, separate it from the Antequeruela district. Another ravine separates it from the Generalife
, the summer pleasure gardens of the Emir. Escobar notes that the later planting of deciduous elms obscures the overall perception of the layout such that a better reading of the original landscape is given in winter when the trees are bare.


The citadel before and after the 20th-century reconstruction campaign

The Alhambra
resembles many medieval Christian strongholds in its threefold arrangement as a castle, a palace and a residential annex for subordinates. The alcazaba or citadel, its oldest part, is built on the isolated and precipitous foreland which terminates the plateau on the northwest. All that remains are its massive outer walls, towers and ramparts. On its watchtower, the 25 m (85 ft) high _Torre de la Vela_, the flag of Ferdinand and Isabella was first raised as a symbol of the Spanish conquest of Granada
on 2 January 1492. A turret containing a large bell was added in the 18th century and restored after being damaged by lightning in 1881. Beyond the Alcazaba
is the palace of the Moorish rulers, The Nasrid Palaces or Alhambra
proper, and beyond this is the Alhambra
Alta (Upper Alhambra), originally occupied by officials and courtiers.

Access from the city to the Alhambra
Park is afforded by the _Puerta de las Granadas_ (Gate of Pomegranates), a triumphal arch dating from the 15th century. A steep ascent leads past the Pillar of Charles V, a fountain erected in 1554, to the main entrance of the Alhambra. This is the _Puerta de la Justicia_ (Gate of Judgment), a massive horseshoe archway surmounted by a square tower and used by the Moors
as an informal court of justice. The hand of Fatima , with fingers outstretched as a talisman against the evil eye , is carved above this gate on the exterior; a key, the symbol of authority, occupies the corresponding place on the interior. A narrow passage leads inward to the _Plaza de los Aljibes_ (Place of the Cisterns), a broad open space which divides the Alcazaba
from the Moorish palace. To the left of the passage rises the _Torre del Vino_ (Wine Tower), built in 1345 and used in the 16th century as a cellar. On the right is the palace of Charles V , a smaller Renaissance
building, to construct which part of the Alhambra, including the original main entrance, was torn down.


West side of Palace of Charles Vin the Alhambra
of the Palace of Charles V

The Royal Complex consists of three main parts: Mexuar, Serallo, and the Harem. The Mexuar is modest in decor and houses the functional areas for conducting business and administration. Strapwork is used to decorate the surfaces in Mexuar. The ceilings, floors, and trim are made of dark wood and are in sharp contrast to white, plaster walls. Serallo, built during the reign of Yusuf Iin the 14th century, contains the Patio de los Arrayanes (Court of the Myrtles). Brightly colored interiors featured _dado_ panels, _yesería _, _azulejo_, cedar, and _artesonado_. Artesonado are highly decorative ceilings and other woodwork. Lastly, the Harem is also elaborately decorated and contains the living quarters for the wives and mistresses of the Berber monarchs. This area contains a bathroom with running water (cold and hot), baths, and pressurized water for showering. The bathrooms were open to the elements in order to allow in light and air.


Main article: Court of the Myrtles

The present entrance to the _Palacio Árabe_, or _Casa Real_ (Moorish palace), is by a small door from which a corridor connects to the _Patio de los Arrayanes_ (Court of the Myrtles), also called the _Patio de la Alberca_ (Court of the Blessing or Court of the Pond), from the Arabic _birka_, "pool". The birka helped to cool the palace and acted as a symbol of power. Because water was usually in short supply, the technology required to keep these pools full was expensive and difficult. This court is 42 m (140 ft) long by 22 m (74 ft) broad, and in the centre there is a large pond set in the marble pavement, full of goldfish, and with myrtles growing along its sides. There are galleries on the north and south sides; the southern gallery is 7 m (23 ft) high and supported by a marble colonnade. Underneath it, to the right, was the principal entrance, and over it are three windows with arches and miniature pillars. From this court, the walls of the _Torre de Comares_ are seen rising over the roof to the north and reflected in the pond.


The _Salón de los Embajadores_ (Hall of the Ambassadors) is the largest room in the Alhambra
and occupies all the _Torre de Comares_. It is a square room, the sides being 12 m (37 ft) in length, while the centre of the dome is 23 m (75 ft) high. This was the grand reception room, and the throne of the sultan was placed opposite the entrance. The grand hall projects from the walls of the palace, providing views in three directions. In this sense, it was a "mirador" from which the palace's inhabitants could gaze outward to the surrounding landscape. The tiles are nearly 4 ft (1.2 m) high all round, and the colours vary at intervals. Over them is a series of oval medallions with inscriptions, interwoven with flowers and leaves. There are nine windows, three on each facade, and the ceiling is decorated with white, blue and gold inlays in the shape of circles, crowns and stars. The walls are covered with varied stucco works, surrounding many ancient escutcheons.


Main article: Court of the Lions The Court of the Lions, an example of Islamic Moorish architectureand garden design

The Court of the Lions(_Patio de los Leones_) is an oblong courtyard , 116 ft (35 m) in length by 66 ft (20 m) in width, surrounded by a low gallery supported on 124 white marble columns. A pavilion projects into the court at each extremity, with filigree walls and a light domed roof. The square is paved with coloured tiles and the colonnade with white marble, while the walls are covered 5 ft (1.5 m) up from the ground with blue and yellow tiles, with a border above and below of enamelled blue and gold. The columns supporting the roof and gallery are irregularly placed. They are adorned by varieties of foliage, etc.; about each arch there is a large square of stucco arabesques; and over the pillars is another stucco square of filigree work.

Fountain Of Lions

In the centre of the court is the Fountain of Lions, an alabaster basin supported by the figures of twelve lions in white marble, not designed with sculptural accuracy but as symbols of strength, power, and sovereignty. Each hour one lion would produce water from its mouth. At the edge of the great fountain there is a poem written by Ibn Zamrak. This praises the beauty of the fountain and the power of the lions, but it also describes their ingenious hydraulic systems and how they actually worked, which baffled all those who saw them.


"Honeycomb," "stalactite," or "mocárabe " vaulting in the Hall of the Abencerrajes

The _Sala de los Abencerrajes_ (Hall of the Abencerrages) derives its name from a legend according to which the father of Boabdil
, the last sultan of Granada
, having invited the chiefs of that line to a banquet, massacred them here. This room is a perfect square, with a lofty dome and trellised windows at its base. The roof is decorated in blue, brown, red and gold, and the columns supporting it spring out into the arch form in a remarkably beautiful manner. Opposite to this hall is the _Sala de las dos Hermanas_ (Hall of the two Sisters), so-called from two white marble slabs laid as part of the pavement. These slabs measure 500 by 220 cm (15 by 7½ ft). There is a fountain in the middle of this hall, and the roof — a dome honeycombed with tiny cells, all different, and said to number 5000 — is an example of the "stalactite vaulting" of the Moors.


Main article: Generalife

Of the outlying buildings connected to the Alhambra, the foremost in interest is the Palacio de Generalife
or Gineralife (the Muslim _Jennat al Arif_, "Garden of Arif," or "Garden of the Architect"). This villa dates from the beginning of the 14th century but has been restored several times. The _Villa de los Martires_ (Martyrs' Villa), on the summit of Monte Mauror, commemorates by its name the Christian slaves who were forced to build the Alhambra
and confined here in subterranean cells. The _Torres Bermejas_ (Vermilion Towers), also on Monte Mauror, are a well-preserved Moorish fortification, with underground cisterns, stables, and accommodation for a garrison of 200 men. Several Roman tombs were discovered in 1829 and 1857 at the base of Monte Mauror. _ Pools in the Palacio de Generalife (left_) and the Partal (_right_; in the _Alta Alhambra_ of the complex)


Among the other features of the Alhambra
are the _Sala de la Justicia_ (Hall of Justice), the _Patio del Mexuar_ (Court of the Council Chamber), the _Patio de Daraxa_ (Court of the Vestibule), and the _Peinador de la Reina_ (Queen's Robing Room), in which there is similar architecture and decoration. The palace and the Upper Alhambra also contain baths, rows of bedrooms and summer-rooms, a whispering gallery and labyrinth, and vaulted sepulchres.

The original furniture of the palace is represented by one of the famous Alhambra vases, very large Hispano-Moresque ware
Hispano-Moresque ware
vases made in the Sultanate to stand in niches around the palace, famous examples of Hispano-Moresque ware
Hispano-Moresque ware
dating from the 14th and 15th centuries. The one remaining in the palace, from about 1400, is 1.3 m (4 ft 3 in) high; the background is white, and the decoration is blue, white and gold.



Parts of the following works are set in the Alhambra:

* Washington Irving
Washington Irving
's _ Tales of the Alhambra_. This is a collection of essays, verbal sketches, and stories. Irving lived in the palace while writing the book and was instrumental in introducing the site to Western audiences. * Salman Rushdie
Salman Rushdie
's _The Moor\'s Last Sigh _ * Amin Maalouf's _Leo Africanus _, depicting the reconquest of Granada
by the Catholic Monarchs
Catholic Monarchs
. * Philippa Gregory's _ The Constant Princess_, depicting Catalina the Infanta of Spain
as she lived in the Alhambra
after her parents took Granada. * Federico Garcia Lorca's play _ Doña Rosita the Spinster_, mentioned by title character Dona Rosita in her song/speech to the Manola sisters. * Paulo Coelho's novel _The Alchemist _ * Ali Smith's _ The Accidental_ * George Bernard Shaw
George Bernard Shaw
's play _ Man and Superman
Man and Superman
_ * Colin de Silva 's _Alhambra: Arena of Assassins _ * László Krasznahorkai's _ Seiobo There Below_ * Hanya Yanagihara's " A Little Life"


Gazelles on one of the Alhambra vasesmade for the palace

The plot of the _Ballet-héroïque_ entitled _Zaïde, Reine De Grenade _, by the French Baroque
composer Joseph-Nicolas-Pancrace Royer (c. 1705–1755), takes place at the Alhambra. Alhambra
has directly inspired musical compositions as Francisco Tárrega's famous tremolo study for guitar _Recuerdos De La Alhambra
_. Claude Debussy 's piece for two pianos composed in 1901, _Lindaraja_, and the prelude, _La Puerta Del Vino_, from the second book of preludes composed from 1912 to 1913. Isaac Albénizwrote a piano suite _Recuerdos De viaje_, which included a piece called "En La Alhambra", while his suite Iberia
contained a piece called "El Albacin". Albéniz also composed a _Suite Alhambra_, but was uncompleted.

"En Los Jardines Del Generalife", the first movement of Manuel de Falla 's _Noches En Los Jardines De España _, and other pieces by composers such as Ruperto Chapí(_Los Gnomos De La Alhambra_, 1891), Tomás Bretón, and many others are included in a stream referred to by scholars as _Alhambrismo_.

In 1976, filmmaker Christopher Nupenfilmed _The Song Of The Guitar_ at the Alhambra
which was an hour-long program featuring the legendary Spanish guitarist, Andrés Segovia
Andrés Segovia
. British composer Julian Anderson wrote an orchestral piece, _ Alhambra

In pop and folk music, Alhambra
is the subject of the Ghymessong of the same name. The rock band The Grateful Deadreleased a song called "Terrapin Station" on the 1977 album of the same name . It consisted of a series of small compositions penned by Robert Hunter and put to music by Jerry Garcia; a lyrical section of this suite was called "Alhambra". In September 2006, Canadian singer/composer Loreena McKennitt performed live at the Alhambra. The resulting video recordings premiered on PBS
and were later released as a 3-disc DVD/CD set called _Nights From The Alhambra
_. The Basque pop group Mocedades performed a song called "Juntos En La Alhambra". _ Alhambra
_ is the title of an EP recording by Canadian rock band, The Tea Party
The Tea Party
, containing acoustic versions of a few of their songs. Alhambra
and Albaicínare mentioned in the Mago de Oz song named "El Paseo De Los Tristes" from the album entitled _Gaia II_. On California rapper Dom Kennedy 's 2015 album _By Dom Kennedy_, there is a song entitled "Alhambra".


Further information: Mathematics and art
Mathematics and art
like this inspired M.C. Escher\'s work.

The Alhambra
tiles are remarkable in that they contain nearly all, if not all, of the seventeen mathematically possible wallpaper groups . This is a unique accomplishment in world architecture. M. C. Escher
M. C. Escher
's visit in 1922 and study of the Moorish use of symmetries in the Alhambra
tiles inspired his subsequent work on tessellation , which he called "regular divisions of the plane".


Marcel L\'Herbier 's 1921 film _El Dorado _ features many scenes shot in and around the Alhambra
palace. This was the first time permission had been granted for a film company to shoot inside the Alhambra palace and L'Herbier gave prominent place to its gardens, fountains and geometric architectural patterns, which became some of the film's most memorable images.

Animated films by Spanish director Juan Bautista Berasategui such as _Ahmed, El Principe De La Alhambra_ and _El Embrujo Del Sur_ are based on stories in Washington Irving
Washington Irving
's _Tales Of The Alhambra

Court of the Lionswas depicted in Assassin\'s Creed (film) (2016) when Sultan Muhammad XII surrendered 'Apple of Eden', a powerful artifact in the center of the movie plot, in exchange of his son's safe return.

The fictional Broadway theatre (the interior actually Auckland
, New Zealand 's Civic Theatre ), in which Kong is displayed as the 'Eighth Wonder of the World' in 2005's _King Kong _, is named "The Alhambra".


* It is a multiplayer location in _Assassin\'s Creed: Brotherhood _ 's final DLC, _The Da Vinci Disappearance _. * This serves as a location for the Spain
stage in _The King of Fighters _ (1998). * Alhambra
is a wonder in _Civilization V: Gods border:solid #aaa 1px">

* Gardening portal

* 12 Treasures of Spain
* Alhambra Decree
Alhambra Decree
* Islamic gardens * History of Medieval Arabic and Western European domes


* Fernández Puertas, Antonio (1997), _The Alhambra. Vol 1: From the Ninth Century to Yusuf I(1354)_, Saqi Books, ISBN 0-86356-466-6 * Fernández Puertas, Antonio (1998), _The Alhambra. Vol 2: (1354–1391)_, Saqi Books, ISBN 0-86356-467-4 * Fernández Puertas, Antonio (1999), _The Alhambra. Vol 3: From 1391 to the Present Day_, Saqi Books, ISBN 978-0-86356-589-2 * Grabar, Oleg. _The Alhambra_. Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1978. * Jacobs, Michael; Fernández, Francisco (2009), _Alhambra_, Frances Lincoln, ISBN 978-0-7112-2518-3 * Lowney, Chris. _A Vanished World: Medieval Spain's Golden Age of Enlightenment_. New York: Simon -webkit-column-width: 32em; column-width: 32em; list-style-type: decimal;">

* ^ The "Al-" in "Alhambra" means "the" in Arabic, but this is ignored in general usage in both English and Spanish, where the name is normally given the definite article * ^ Arabic : الْحَمْرَاء‎‎, trans. _al-Ḥamrāʼ _; literally "the red one", feminine; in colloquial Arabic : _el-Ḥamra _ * ^ Arabic : الْقَلْعَةُ ٱلْحَمْرَاءُ‎‎, trans. _al-Qalʻat al-Ḥamrāʼ _, "the red fortress"


* ^ " Alhambra
- historical introduction". Retrieved 2 January 2013.

* ^ "Alhambra, Generalife
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* Al-Hassani, Salim T. S.; Woodcock, Elizabeth; Saoud, Rabah (2007). _1001 Inventions: Muslim Heritage in our World_ (2nd ed.). Manchester, UK: Foundation for Science Technology and Civilisation. ISBN 978-0-9552426-1-8 . * _ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Alhambra, The". Encyclopædia Britannica _. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 656–658.

* Irwin, Robert (2004). _The Alhambra_. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. * Ruggles, D. Fairchild (1992). "The gardens of the Alhambra
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_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to ALHAMBRA _.

* Alhambra
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Pedagogical & Cultural Association. * Alhambra