The ALHAMBRA (/ælˈhæmbrə/ ; Spanish: ; Arabic :
الْحَمْرَاء , _Al-Ḥamrā_, lit. "The Red One"),
the complete Arabic form of which was _Qalat Al-Hamra_, is a palace
and fortress complex located in
Spain. It was
originally constructed as a small fortress in AD 889 on the remains of
Roman fortifications, and then largely ignored until its ruins were
renovated and rebuilt in the mid-13th century by the Moorish emir
Mohammed ben Al-Ahmar of the Emirate of
Granada, who built its
current palace and walls. It was converted into a royal palace in 1333
by Yusuf I, Sultan of
Granada. After the conclusion of the Christian
Reconquistain 1492, the site became the Royal Court of Ferdinand and
Christopher Columbusreceived royal endorsement for
his expedition), and the palaces were partially altered to Renaissance
tastes. In 1526 Charles I its most characteristic feature, however, is
the dense wood of English elms brought by the Duke of Wellington in
1812. The park has a multitude of nightingales and is usually filled
with the sound of running water from several fountains and cascades.
These are supplied through a conduit 8 km (5.0 mi) long, which is
connected with the Darro at the monastery of Jesus del Valle above
Despite long neglect, willful vandalism, and some ill-judged
Alhambraendures as an atypical example of Muslim art
in its final European stages, relatively uninfluenced by the direct
Byzantineinfluences found in the Mezquita of Córdoba . The majority
of the palace buildings are quadrangular in plan, with all the rooms
opening on to a central court, and the whole reached its present size
simply by the gradual addition of new quadrangles, designed on the
same principle, though varying in dimensions, and connected with each
other by smaller rooms and passages.
Alhambrawas extended by the
different Muslim rulers who lived in the complex. However, each new
section that was added followed the consistent theme of "paradise on
earth". Column arcades, fountains with running water, and reflecting
pools were used to add to the aesthetic and functional complexity. In
every case, the exterior was left plain and austere. Sun and wind were
freely admitted. Blue, red, and a golden yellow, all somewhat faded
through lapse of time and exposure, are the colors chiefly employed.
The decoration consists for the upper part of the walls, as a rule,
of Arabic inscriptions—mostly poems by
Ibn Zamrakand others
praising the palace—that are manipulated into geometrical patterns
with vegetal background set onto an arabesque setting ("Ataurique").
Much of this ornament is carved stucco (plaster) rather than stone.
Tile mosaics ("alicatado"), with complicated mathematical patterns
("tracería", most precisely "lacería"), are largely used as
panelling for the lower part. Similar designs are displayed on wooden
Muqarnasare the main elements for vaulting with
stucco, and some of the most accomplished dome examples of this kind
are in the
Court of the Lionshalls. The palace complex is designed in
the Nasrid style, the last blooming of Islamic Art in the Iberian
Peninsula, that had a great influence on the
Maghrebto the present
day, and on contemporary
MudejarArt, which is characteristic of
western elements reinterpreted into Islamic forms and widely popular
Reconquistain Spain. Panorama of the
Mirador de San Nicolas. From left to right: Generalife, Pico del
Veleta (mountain), Palacios Nazaríes, Palace of Charles V,
Panoramic view, illuminated at night
* 1 History
* 2 Layout
* 3 Main structures
* 3.1 Royal complex
Court of the Myrtles
* 3.3 Hall of the Ambassadors
Court of the Lionsand fountain
* 3.4.1 Fountain of Lions
* 3.5 Hall of the Abencerrajes
* 3.7 Other features
* 4 Influence
* 4.1 In literature
* 4.2 In music
* 4.3 In mathematics
* 4.4 In film
* 4.5 In video games
* 4.6 In board games
* 4.7 In astronomy
* 4.8 In Architecture
* 5 See also
* 6 Further reading
* 7 Notes
* 8 References
* 8.1 Bibliography
* 9 External links
_ The Tower of Justice (Puerta de la Justicia_) is the original
entrance gate to the Alhambra, built by
Yusuf Iin 1348.
Completed towards the end of Muslim rule of
Spainby Yusuf I
(1333–1353) and Muhammed V, Sultan of
Alhambrais a reflection of the culture of the last centuries of the
Moorish rule of
Al Andalus, reduced to the Nasrid Emirate of Granada
. It is a place where artists and intellectuals had taken refuge as
Reconquistaby Spanish Christians won victories over Al Andalus.
Alhambraintegrates natural site qualities with constructed
structures and gardens, and is a testament to Moorish culture in Spain
and the skills of Muslim, Jewish, and Christian artisans, craftsmen,
and builders of their era.
The literal translation of Alhambra, "the red (female)," reflects the
color of the red clay of the surroundings of which the fort is made.
The buildings of the
Alhambrawere originally whitewashed ; however,
the buildings as seen today are reddish. Another possible origin of
the name is the tribal designation of the
Nasrid Dynasty, known as
Banu al-Ahmar_Arabic: Sons of the Red (male)_, a sub-tribe of the
Banu Khazrajtribe. One of the early Nasrid ancestors
was nicknamed _Yusuf Al Ahmar_ (Yusuf the Red) and hence the (Nasrid)
fraction of the
Banu Khazrajtook up the name of
Islamic calligraphyin Mexuar Hall: "God is the only Victor"
The first reference to the Qal‘at al-Ḥamra was during the battles
Muladies(people of mixed Arab and European
descent) during the rule of the
‘Abdullah ibn Muhammad(r.
888–912). In one particularly fierce and bloody skirmish, the
Muladiessoundly defeated the Arabs, who were then forced to take
shelter in a primitive red castle located in the province of Elvira,
presently located in
Granada. According to surviving documents from
the era, the red castle was quite small, and its walls were not
capable of deterring an army intent on conquering. The castle was then
largely ignored until the eleventh century, when its ruins were
renovated and rebuilt by
Samuel ibn Naghrela, vizier to the emir
Badis ben Habus of the
ZiridDynasty of Al Andalus, in an attempt to
preserve the small Jewish settlement also located on the natural
plateau, Sabikah Hill.
Ibn Nasr , the founder of the
Nasrid Dynasty, was forced to flee to
Jaén to avoid persecution by King
Ferdinand III of Castileand the
Reconquistasupporters working to end Spain's Moorish rule. After
retreating to Granada, Ibn-Nasr took up residence at the Palace of
Badis ben Habus in the Alhambra. A few months later, he embarked on
the construction of a new
Alhambrafit for the residence of a sultan.
According to an Arab manuscript since published as the _Anónimo de
This year, 1238 Abdallah ibn al-Ahmar climbed to the place called
"the Alhambra" inspected it, laid out the foundations of a castle and
left someone in charge of its construction... Detail of
arabesque and pavilion
The design included plans for six palaces, five of which were grouped
in the northeast quadrant forming a royal quarter, two circuit towers,
and numerous bathhouses. During the reign of the Nasrid Dynasty, the
Alhambrawas transformed into a palatine city, complete with an
irrigation system composed of acequias for the gardens of the
Generalifelocated outside the fortress. Previously, the old Alhambra
structure had been dependent upon rainwater collected from a cistern
and from what could be brought up from the Albaicín. The creation of
the Sultan's Canal solidified the identity of the
palace-city rather than a defensive and ascetic structure.
The Muslim ruler Muhammad XII of
Granadasurrendered the Emirate of
Granadain 1492 without the
Alhambraitself being attacked when the
forces of the
Reyes Católicos, King
Ferdinand II of Aragon
Ferdinand II of Aragonand Queen
Isabella I of Castile
Isabella I of Castile, took the surrounding territory with a force of
The decoration within the palaces comes from the last great period of
Andalusian art in Granada. With little of the
Abassidarchitecture, artists endlessly reproduced the
same forms and trends, creating a new style that developed over the
course of the Nasrid Dynasty. The Nasrids used freely all the
stylistic elements that had been created and developed during eight
centuries of Muslim rule in the Peninsula, including the Caliphate
horseshoe arch , the Almohad sebka (a grid of rhombuses ), the
Almoravid palm, and unique combinations of them, as well as
innovations such as stilted arches and muqarnas (stalactite ceiling
decorations). Structurally, the design is simple and does not evince
significant innovation. While artistically pleasing it was until the
reconquest structurally ad hoc and reliant on the skills of subject
artisans and workers. Arabesques around a window
Columns and muqarnas appear in several chambers, and the interiors of
numerous palaces are decorated with arabesques and calligraphy. The
arabesques of the interior are ascribed to, among other sultans, Yusuf
I , Mohammed V , and Ismail I, Sultan of
After the Christian conquest of the city in 1492, the conquerors
began to alter the Alhambra. The open work was filled up with
whitewash , the painting and gilding effaced, and the furniture
soiled, torn, or removed. Charles I (1516–1556) rebuilt portions in
Renaissancestyle of the period and destroyed the greater part of
the winter palace to make room for a Renaissance-style structure which
was never completed. Philip V (1700–1746) Italianised the rooms and
completed his palace in the middle of what had been the Moorish
building; he had partitions constructed which blocked up whole
apartments. Detail of arabesques
Over subsequent centuries the Moorish art was further damaged, and in
1812 some of the towers were destroyed by the French under Count
Sebastiani . In 1821, an earthquake caused further damage.
Restoration work was undertaken in 1828 by the architect José
Contreras, endowed in 1830 by Ferdinand VII . After the death of
Contreras in 1847, it was continued with fair success by his son
Rafael (died 1890) and his grandson.
Especially notable was the intervention of Leopoldo Torres Balbás in
the 1930s: the young architect "opened arcades that had been walled
up, re-excavated filled-in pools, replaced missing tiles, completed
inscriptions that lacked portions of their stuccoed lettering, and
installed a ceiling in the still unfinished palace of Charles V".
Modern plan of the
According to the site's current architect Pedro Salmeron Escobar, the
Alhambraevolved organically over a period of several centuries from
the ancient hilltop fortress defined by a narrow promontory carved by
the river Daro and overlooking the _Vega_ or Plain of
descends from the Sierra Nevada . The red earth from which the
fortress is constructed is a granular aggregate held together by a
medium of red clay which gives the resulting layered brick- and stone-
reinforced construction (_tapial calicastrado_) its characteristic hue
and is at the root of the name of 'the Red Hill'.
This crude earthiness is counterpointed by the startling fine
alabaster white stucco work of the famous interiors. Meltwater from
the 'Snowy Mountains' is drawn across an arched vault at the eastern
tip of the _Torre del Agua_ ('Water Tower') and channeled through the
citadel via a complex system of conduits (_acequia_) and water tanks
(_los albercones_) which create the celebrated interplay of light,
sound and surface.
Alhambrais about 740 metres (2,430 ft) in length by 205 metres (670
ft) at its greatest width. It extends from west-northwest to
east-southeast and covers an area of about 142,000 square metres
(1,530,000 sq ft). The Alhambra's most westerly feature is the
Alcazaba(citadel), a strongly fortified position built to protect the
original post-Roman districts of _Iliberri_, now 'Centro', and
_Gárnata al-yahūd_ ('
Jews', now _Realejo_, and the
Moorish suburb of _El
Albayzín_. Plan of the Nasrid Palaces,
Alhambra, 1889. Palaces of the Ambassadors Palace of the Lions
Mexuar Garden of Lindajar and later habitation of the
Due to touristic demand, modern access runs contrary to the original
sequence which began from a principal access via the _Puerta de la
Justicia_ ('Gate of Justice') onto a large
Souqor public market
square facing the Alcazaba, now subdivided and obscured by later
Christian-era development. From the _Puerta del Vino_ (Wine Gate) ran
the _Calle Real_ ('Royal Street') dividing the
axial spine into a southern residential quarter with mosques , hamams
(bathhouses) and diverse functional establishments. The greater
portion, occupying the northern edge, was occupied by several palaces
of the nobility with extensive landscaped gardens commanding views
over the Albayzin, all of which were subservient to the great Tower of
the Ambassadors in the _Palacio Comares_ which acted as the royal
audience chamber and throne room with its three arched windows
dominating the city. The private internalised universe of the _Palacio
de Los Leones_ (Palace of the Lions) adjoins the public spaces at
right angles (see Plan illustration) but was originally connected only
by the function of the Royal Baths, the "Eye of Aixa's Room" serving
as the exquisitely decorated focus of meditation and authority
overlooking the refined garden of _Lindaraja/Daraxa_ toward the city.
Rest of the plateau comprises a number of earlier and later Moorish
palaces, enclosed by a fortified wall , with thirteen defensive
towers, some such as the _Torres de la Infanta_ and _Cattiva_
containing elaborate vertical palaces in miniature. The river Darro
passes through a ravine on the north and divides the plateau from the
Albaicíndistrict of Granada. Similarly, the Assabica valley,
AlhambraPark on the west and south, and, beyond this
valley, the almost parallel ridge of Monte Mauror, separate it from
the Antequeruela district. Another ravine separates it from the
Generalife, the summer pleasure gardens of the Emir. Escobar notes
that the later planting of deciduous elms obscures the overall
perception of the layout such that a better reading of the original
landscape is given in winter when the trees are bare.
The citadel before and after the 20th-century
Alhambraresembles many medieval Christian strongholds in its
threefold arrangement as a castle, a palace and a residential annex
for subordinates. The alcazaba or citadel, its oldest part, is built
on the isolated and precipitous foreland which terminates the plateau
on the northwest. All that remains are its massive outer walls, towers
and ramparts. On its watchtower, the 25 m (85 ft) high _Torre de la
Vela_, the flag of Ferdinand and Isabella was first raised as a symbol
of the Spanish conquest of
Granadaon 2 January 1492. A turret
containing a large bell was added in the 18th century and restored
after being damaged by lightning in 1881. Beyond the
palace of the Moorish rulers, The Nasrid Palaces or
and beyond this is the
AlhambraAlta (Upper Alhambra), originally
occupied by officials and courtiers.
Access from the city to the
AlhambraPark is afforded by the _Puerta
de las Granadas_ (Gate of Pomegranates), a triumphal arch dating from
the 15th century. A steep ascent leads past the Pillar of Charles V, a
fountain erected in 1554, to the main entrance of the Alhambra. This
is the _Puerta de la Justicia_ (Gate of Judgment), a massive horseshoe
archway surmounted by a square tower and used by the
informal court of justice. The hand of Fatima , with fingers
outstretched as a talisman against the evil eye , is carved above this
gate on the exterior; a key, the symbol of authority, occupies the
corresponding place on the interior. A narrow passage leads inward to
the _Plaza de los Aljibes_ (Place of the Cisterns), a broad open space
which divides the
Alcazabafrom the Moorish palace. To the left of the
passage rises the _Torre del Vino_ (Wine Tower), built in 1345 and
used in the 16th century as a cellar. On the right is the palace of
Charles V , a smaller
Renaissancebuilding, to construct which part of
the Alhambra, including the original main entrance, was torn down.
West side of
Palace of Charles Vin the
Palace of Charles V
The Royal Complex consists of three main parts: Mexuar, Serallo, and
the Harem. The Mexuar is modest in decor and houses the functional
areas for conducting business and administration. Strapwork is used to
decorate the surfaces in Mexuar. The ceilings, floors, and trim are
made of dark wood and are in sharp contrast to white, plaster walls.
Serallo, built during the reign of
Yusuf Iin the 14th century,
contains the Patio de los Arrayanes (Court of the Myrtles). Brightly
colored interiors featured _dado_ panels, _yesería _, _azulejo_,
cedar, and _artesonado_. Artesonado are highly decorative ceilings and
other woodwork. Lastly, the Harem is also elaborately decorated and
contains the living quarters for the wives and mistresses of the
Berber monarchs. This area contains a bathroom with running water
(cold and hot), baths, and pressurized water for showering. The
bathrooms were open to the elements in order to allow in light and
COURT OF THE MYRTLES
Court of the Myrtles
The present entrance to the _Palacio Árabe_, or _Casa Real_ (Moorish
palace), is by a small door from which a corridor connects to the
_Patio de los Arrayanes_ (Court of the Myrtles), also called the
_Patio de la Alberca_ (Court of the Blessing or Court of the Pond),
from the Arabic _birka_, "pool". The birka helped to cool the palace
and acted as a symbol of power. Because water was usually in short
supply, the technology required to keep these pools full was expensive
and difficult. This court is 42 m (140 ft) long by 22 m (74 ft) broad,
and in the centre there is a large pond set in the marble pavement,
full of goldfish, and with myrtles growing along its sides. There are
galleries on the north and south sides; the southern gallery is 7 m
(23 ft) high and supported by a marble colonnade. Underneath it, to
the right, was the principal entrance, and over it are three windows
with arches and miniature pillars. From this court, the walls of the
_Torre de Comares_ are seen rising over the roof to the north and
reflected in the pond.
HALL OF THE AMBASSADORS
The _Salón de los Embajadores_ (Hall of the Ambassadors) is the
largest room in the
Alhambraand occupies all the _Torre de Comares_.
It is a square room, the sides being 12 m (37 ft) in length, while the
centre of the dome is 23 m (75 ft) high. This was the grand reception
room, and the throne of the sultan was placed opposite the entrance.
The grand hall projects from the walls of the palace, providing views
in three directions. In this sense, it was a "mirador" from which the
palace's inhabitants could gaze outward to the surrounding landscape.
The tiles are nearly 4 ft (1.2 m) high all round, and the colours vary
at intervals. Over them is a series of oval medallions with
inscriptions, interwoven with flowers and leaves. There are nine
windows, three on each facade, and the ceiling is decorated with
white, blue and gold inlays in the shape of circles, crowns and stars.
The walls are covered with varied stucco works, surrounding many
COURT OF THE LIONS AND FOUNTAIN
Court of the Lions The
Court of the Lions, an
example of Islamic
Moorish architectureand garden design
Court of the Lions(_Patio de los Leones_) is an oblong courtyard
, 116 ft (35 m) in length by 66 ft (20 m) in width, surrounded by a
low gallery supported on 124 white marble columns. A pavilion projects
into the court at each extremity, with filigree walls and a light
domed roof. The square is paved with coloured tiles and the colonnade
with white marble, while the walls are covered 5 ft (1.5 m) up from
the ground with blue and yellow tiles, with a border above and below
of enamelled blue and gold. The columns supporting the roof and
gallery are irregularly placed. They are adorned by varieties of
foliage, etc.; about each arch there is a large square of stucco
arabesques; and over the pillars is another stucco square of filigree
Fountain Of Lions
In the centre of the court is the Fountain of Lions, an alabaster
basin supported by the figures of twelve lions in white marble, not
designed with sculptural accuracy but as symbols of strength, power,
and sovereignty. Each hour one lion would produce water from its
mouth. At the edge of the great fountain there is a poem written by
Ibn Zamrak. This praises the beauty of the fountain and the power of
the lions, but it also describes their ingenious hydraulic systems and
how they actually worked, which baffled all those who saw them.
HALL OF THE ABENCERRAJES
"Honeycomb," "stalactite," or "mocárabe " vaulting in the Hall
of the Abencerrajes
The _Sala de los Abencerrajes_ (Hall of the
its name from a legend according to which the father of
last sultan of
Granada, having invited the chiefs of that line to a
banquet, massacred them here. This room is a perfect square, with a
lofty dome and trellised windows at its base. The roof is decorated in
blue, brown, red and gold, and the columns supporting it spring out
into the arch form in a remarkably beautiful manner. Opposite to this
hall is the _Sala de las dos Hermanas_ (Hall of the two Sisters),
so-called from two white marble slabs laid as part of the pavement.
These slabs measure 500 by 220 cm (15 by 7½ ft). There is a fountain
in the middle of this hall, and the roof — a dome honeycombed with
tiny cells, all different, and said to number 5000 — is an example
of the "stalactite vaulting" of the Moors.
Of the outlying buildings connected to the Alhambra, the foremost in
interest is the Palacio de
Generalifeor Gineralife (the Muslim
_Jennat al Arif_, "Garden of Arif," or "Garden of the Architect").
This villa dates from the beginning of the 14th century but has been
restored several times. The _Villa de los Martires_ (Martyrs' Villa),
on the summit of Monte Mauror, commemorates by its name the Christian
slaves who were forced to build the
Alhambraand confined here in
subterranean cells. The _Torres Bermejas_ (Vermilion Towers), also on
Monte Mauror, are a well-preserved Moorish fortification, with
underground cisterns, stables, and accommodation for a garrison of 200
men. Several Roman tombs were discovered in 1829 and 1857 at the base
of Monte Mauror. _ Pools in the Palacio de Generalife
(left_) and the Partal (_right_; in the _Alta Alhambra_ of the
Among the other features of the
Alhambraare the _Sala de la
Justicia_ (Hall of Justice), the _Patio del Mexuar_ (Court of the
Council Chamber), the _Patio de Daraxa_ (Court of the Vestibule), and
the _Peinador de la Reina_ (Queen's Robing Room), in which there is
similar architecture and decoration. The palace and the Upper Alhambra
also contain baths, rows of bedrooms and summer-rooms, a whispering
gallery and labyrinth, and vaulted sepulchres.
The original furniture of the palace is represented by one of the
Alhambra vases, very large
Hispano-Moresque warevases made in
the Sultanate to stand in niches around the palace, famous examples of
Hispano-Moresque waredating from the 14th and 15th centuries. The one
remaining in the palace, from about 1400, is 1.3 m (4 ft 3 in) high;
the background is white, and the decoration is blue, white and gold.
Parts of the following works are set in the Alhambra:
Washington Irving's _
Tales of the Alhambra_. This is a
collection of essays, verbal sketches, and stories. Irving lived in
the palace while writing the book and was instrumental in introducing
the site to Western audiences.
Salman Rushdie's _The Moor\'s Last Sigh _
Amin Maalouf's _Leo Africanus _, depicting the reconquest of
Philippa Gregory's _
The Constant Princess_, depicting Catalina
the Infanta of
Spainas she lived in the
Alhambraafter her parents
Federico Garcia Lorca's play _
Doña Rosita the Spinster_,
mentioned by title character Dona Rosita in her song/speech to the
Paulo Coelho's novel _The Alchemist _
Ali Smith's _
George Bernard Shaw
George Bernard Shaw's play _
Man and Superman
Man and Superman_
* Colin de Silva 's _Alhambra: Arena of Assassins _
László Krasznahorkai's _
Seiobo There Below_
Hanya Yanagihara's "
A Little Life"
Gazelles on one of the
Alhambra vasesmade for the palace
The plot of the _Ballet-héroïque_ entitled _Zaïde, Reine De
Grenade _, by the French
Royer (c. 1705–1755), takes place at the Alhambra.
directly inspired musical compositions as
Francisco Tárrega's famous
tremolo study for guitar _Recuerdos De La
Alhambra_. Claude Debussy
's piece for two pianos composed in 1901, _Lindaraja_, and the
prelude, _La Puerta Del Vino_, from the second book of preludes
composed from 1912 to 1913.
Isaac Albénizwrote a piano suite
_Recuerdos De viaje_, which included a piece called "En La Alhambra",
while his suite
Iberiacontained a piece called "El Albacin". Albéniz
also composed a _Suite Alhambra_, but was uncompleted.
"En Los Jardines Del Generalife", the first movement of Manuel de
Falla 's _Noches En Los Jardines De España _, and other pieces by
composers such as
Ruperto Chapí(_Los Gnomos De La Alhambra_, 1891),
Tomás Bretón, and many others are included in a stream referred to
by scholars as _Alhambrismo_.
In 1976, filmmaker
Christopher Nupenfilmed _The Song Of The Guitar_
Alhambrawhich was an hour-long program featuring the legendary
Andrés Segovia. British composer Julian Anderson
wrote an orchestral piece, _
In pop and folk music,
Alhambrais the subject of the
the same name. The rock band
The Grateful Deadreleased a song called
"Terrapin Station" on the 1977 album of the same name . It consisted
of a series of small compositions penned by Robert Hunter and put to
Jerry Garcia; a lyrical section of this suite was called
"Alhambra". In September 2006, Canadian singer/composer Loreena
McKennitt performed live at the Alhambra. The resulting video
recordings premiered on
PBSand were later released as a 3-disc DVD/CD
set called _Nights From The
Alhambra_. The Basque pop group Mocedades
performed a song called "Juntos En La Alhambra". _
Alhambra_ is the
title of an EP recording by Canadian rock band,
The Tea Party
The Tea Party,
containing acoustic versions of a few of their songs.
Albaicínare mentioned in the Mago de Oz song named "El Paseo De Los
Tristes" from the album entitled _Gaia II_. On California rapper Dom
Kennedy 's 2015 album _By
Dom Kennedy_, there is a song entitled
Mathematics and art
Mathematics and art
this inspired M.C. Escher\'s work.
Alhambratiles are remarkable in that they contain nearly all, if
not all, of the seventeen mathematically possible wallpaper groups .
This is a unique accomplishment in world architecture.
M. C. Escher
M. C. Escher's
visit in 1922 and study of the Moorish use of symmetries in the
Alhambratiles inspired his subsequent work on tessellation , which he
called "regular divisions of the plane".
Marcel L\'Herbier 's 1921 film _El Dorado _ features many scenes shot
in and around the
Alhambrapalace. This was the first time permission
had been granted for a film company to shoot inside the Alhambra
palace and L'Herbier gave prominent place to its gardens, fountains
and geometric architectural patterns, which became some of the film's
most memorable images.
Animated films by Spanish director Juan Bautista Berasategui such as
_Ahmed, El Principe De La Alhambra_ and _El Embrujo Del Sur_ are based
on stories in
Washington Irving's _Tales Of The
Court of the Lionswas depicted in Assassin\'s Creed (film) (2016)
when Sultan Muhammad XII surrendered 'Apple of Eden', a powerful
artifact in the center of the movie plot, in exchange of his son's
The fictional Broadway theatre (the interior actually
Zealand 's Civic Theatre ), in which Kong is displayed as the 'Eighth
Wonder of the World' in 2005's _King Kong _, is named "The Alhambra".
IN VIDEO GAMES
* It is a multiplayer location in _Assassin\'s Creed: Brotherhood _
's final DLC, _The Da Vinci Disappearance _.
* This serves as a location for the
Spainstage in _The King of
Fighters _ (1998).
Alhambrais a wonder in _Civilization V: Gods border:solid #aaa
* Gardening portal
* 12 Treasures of
* Islamic gardens
History of Medieval Arabic and Western European domes
* Fernández Puertas, Antonio (1997), _The Alhambra. Vol 1: From the
Ninth Century to
Yusuf I(1354)_, Saqi Books, ISBN 0-86356-466-6
* Fernández Puertas, Antonio (1998), _The Alhambra. Vol 2:
(1354–1391)_, Saqi Books, ISBN 0-86356-467-4
* Fernández Puertas, Antonio (1999), _The Alhambra. Vol 3: From
1391 to the Present Day_, Saqi Books, ISBN 978-0-86356-589-2
* Grabar, Oleg. _The Alhambra_. Massachusetts: Harvard University
* Jacobs, Michael; Fernández, Francisco (2009), _Alhambra_, Frances
Lincoln, ISBN 978-0-7112-2518-3
* Lowney, Chris. _A Vanished World: Medieval Spain's Golden Age of
Enlightenment_. New York: Simon -webkit-column-width: 32em;
column-width: 32em; list-style-type: decimal;">
* ^ The "Al-" in "Alhambra" means "the" in Arabic, but this is
ignored in general usage in both English and Spanish, where the name
is normally given the definite article
* ^ Arabic : الْحَمْرَاء, trans. _al-Ḥamrāʼ _;
literally "the red one", feminine; in colloquial Arabic :
* ^ Arabic : الْقَلْعَةُ ٱلْحَمْرَاءُ,
trans. _al-Qalʻat al-Ḥamrāʼ _, "the red fortress"
* ^ "
Alhambra- historical introduction". Retrieved 2 January 2013.
* ^ "Alhambra,
Generalifeand Albayzín, Granada". _World Heritage
List_. UNESCO. Retrieved 13 January 2013.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Chisholm (1911) , p. 657
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ Chisholm (1911)
* ^ _Envisioning Islamic Art and Architecture_ (ed. David J.
Roxburgh). BRILL, 2014. ISBN 9789004280281 . P. 18-19.
* ^ Salmerón Escobar (2007)
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Salmerón Escobar (2007) , III. The material
base: construction and form
* ^ "Alhambra, Granada, Spain". _AirPano_. Retrieved 23 January
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Salmerón Escobar (2007) , IV. Formation and
* ^ Salmerón Escobar (2007) , VI. The
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Mirmobiny, Shadieh. "The Alhambra".
Khan Academy. Retrieved 26 February 2013.
* ^ Ruggles (1992)
* ^ Al-Hassani, Woodcock & Saoud (2007)
* ^ Al-Hassani, Woodcock & Saoud (2007) , p. 233
* ^ Alfonso Lowe, Hugh Seymour-Davies. _The Companion Guide to the
South of Spain_. Companion Guides, 2000. ISBN 9781900639330 . P. 8.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Chisholm (1911) , p. 658
* ^ "
* ^ "CVC. Rinconete. Acordes". Cvc.cervantes.es. Retrieved 4 April
* ^ "El alhambrismo en la música española hasta la época de
Manuel de Falla– Dialnet". Dialnet.unirioja.es. Retrieved 4 April
* ^ "Mathematics in Art and Architecture". Math.nus.edu.sg.
Retrieved 4 April 2012.
* ^ Gelgi, Fatih (July 2010). "The Influence of Islamic Art on M.C.
Escher". _The Fountain_ (76).
* ^ "King Kong, 2005". The Worldwide Guide to Movie Locations.
Retrieved May 27, 2017.
* ^ Pete Haas (February 18, 2011). "Assassin\'s Creed Brotherhood
Da Vinci Disappearance DLC Announced". _CINEMABLEND_. Retrieved
December 14, 2016.
* ^ Matt Peckham (October 25, 2016). "Review: ‘Civilization 6’
Fixes Most of the Series’ Biggest Flaws". _Time _. Retrieved
December 14, 2016.
* Al-Hassani, Salim T. S.; Woodcock, Elizabeth; Saoud, Rabah (2007).
_1001 Inventions: Muslim Heritage in our World_ (2nd ed.). Manchester,
UK: Foundation for Science Technology and Civilisation. ISBN
* _ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Alhambra, The". Encyclopædia
Britannica _. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 656–658.
* Irwin, Robert (2004). _The Alhambra_. Cambridge, MA: Harvard
* Ruggles, D. Fairchild (1992). "The gardens of the
concept of the garden in Islamic Spain". In Jerrilynn Dodds.
_Al-Andalus: The Arts of Islamic Spain_. New York, NY: Metropolitan
Museum. pp. 163–171. ISBN 0-87099-636-3 .
* Salmerón Escobar, Pedro (2007). _The Alhambra: Structure and
Landscape_. La Biblioteca de la Alhambra. Translated by Diana Kelham.
ISBN 9788461181230 .
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