The ALHAMBRA (/ælˈhæmbrə/ ; Spanish: ; Arabic :
الْحَمْرَاء , Al-Ḥamrā, lit. "The Red One"),
the complete Arabic form of which was Qalat Al-Hamra, is a palace and
fortress complex located in
Spain . It was
originally constructed as a small fortress in AD 889 on the remains of
Roman fortifications, and then largely ignored until its ruins were
renovated and rebuilt in the mid-13th century by the Moorish emir
Mohammed ben Al-Ahmar of the Emirate of
Granada , who built its
current palace and walls. It was converted into a royal palace in 1333
by Yusuf I, Sultan of
Granada . After the conclusion of the Christian
Reconquista in 1492, the site became the Royal Court of Ferdinand and
Christopher Columbus received royal endorsement for
his expedition), and the palaces were partially altered to Renaissance
tastes. In 1526 Charles I its most characteristic feature, however, is
the dense wood of English elms brought by the Duke of Wellington in
1812. The park has a multitude of nightingales and is usually filled
with the sound of running water from several fountains and cascades.
These are supplied through a conduit 8 km (5.0 mi) long, which is
connected with the Darro at the monastery of Jesus del Valle above
Despite long neglect, willful vandalism, and some ill-judged
Alhambra endures as an atypical example of Muslim art
in its final European stages, relatively uninfluenced by the direct
Byzantine influences found in the Mezquita of Córdoba . The majority
of the palace buildings are quadrangular in plan, with all the rooms
opening on to a central court, and the whole reached its present size
simply by the gradual addition of new quadrangles, designed on the
same principle, though varying in dimensions, and connected with each
other by smaller rooms and passages.
Alhambra was extended by the
different Muslim rulers who lived in the complex. However, each new
section that was added followed the consistent theme of "paradise on
earth". Column arcades, fountains with running water, and reflecting
pools were used to add to the aesthetic and functional complexity. In
every case, the exterior was left plain and austere. Sun and wind were
freely admitted. Blue, red, and a golden yellow, all somewhat faded
through lapse of time and exposure, are the colors chiefly employed.
The decoration consists for the upper part of the walls, as a rule,
of Arabic inscriptions—mostly poems by
Ibn Zamrak and others
praising the palace—that are manipulated into geometrical patterns
with vegetal background set onto an arabesque setting ("Ataurique").
Much of this ornament is carved stucco (plaster) rather than stone.
Tile mosaics ("alicatado"), with complicated mathematical patterns
("tracería", most precisely "lacería"), are largely used as
panelling for the lower part. Similar designs are displayed on wooden
Muqarnas are the main elements for vaulting with
stucco, and some of the most accomplished dome examples of this kind
are in the
Court of the Lions halls. The palace complex is designed in
the Nasrid style, the last blooming of Islamic Art in the Iberian
Peninsula, that had a great influence on the
Maghreb to the present
day, and on contemporary
Mudejar Art, which is characteristic of
western elements reinterpreted into Islamic forms and widely popular
Reconquista in Spain. Panorama of the
Mirador de San Nicolas. From left to right: Generalife, Pico del
Veleta (mountain), Palacios Nazaríes, Palace of Charles V,
Panoramic view, illuminated at night
* 1 History
* 2 Layout
* 3 Main structures
* 3.1 Royal complex
Court of the Myrtles
* 3.3 Hall of the Ambassadors
Court of the Lions and fountain
* 3.4.1 Fountain of Lions
* 3.5 Hall of the Abencerrajes
* 3.7 Other features
* 4 Influence
* 4.1 In literature
* 4.2 In music
* 4.3 In mathematics
* 4.4 In film
* 4.5 In video games
* 4.6 In board games
* 4.7 In astronomy
* 4.8 In architecture
* 5 See also
* 6 Further reading
* 7 Notes
* 8 References
* 8.1 Bibliography
* 9 External links
The Tower of Justice (Puerta de la Justicia) is the original
entrance gate to the Alhambra, built by
Yusuf I in 1348.
Completed towards the end of Muslim rule of
Spain by Yusuf I
(1333–1353) and Muhammed V, Sultan of
Granada (1353–1391), the
Alhambra is a reflection of the culture of the last centuries of the
Moorish rule of
Al Andalus , reduced to the Nasrid Emirate of Granada
. It is a place where artists and intellectuals had taken refuge as
Reconquista by Spanish Christians won victories over Al Andalus.
Alhambra integrates natural site qualities with constructed
structures and gardens, and is a testament to Moorish culture in Spain
and the skills of Muslim, Jewish, and Christian artisans, craftsmen,
and builders of their era.
The literal translation of Alhambra, "the red (female)," reflects the
color of the red clay of the surroundings of which the fort is made.
The buildings of the
Alhambra were originally whitewashed ; however,
the buildings as seen today are reddish. Another possible origin of
the name is the tribal designation of the
Nasrid Dynasty , known as
Banu al-Ahmar Arabic: Sons of the Red (male), a sub-tribe of the
Banu Khazraj tribe. One of the early Nasrid ancestors
was nicknamed Yusuf Al Ahmar (Yusuf the Red) and hence the (Nasrid)
fraction of the
Banu Khazraj took up the name of
Banu al-Ahmar .
Islamic calligraphy in Mexuar Hall: "God is the only Victor"
Detail of arabesque and pavilion
The first reference to the Qal‘at al-Ḥamra was during the battles
Arabs and the
Muladies (people of mixed Arab and European
descent) during the rule of the
‘Abdullah ibn Muhammad (r.
888–912). In one particularly fierce and bloody skirmish, the
Muladies soundly defeated the Arabs, who were then forced to take
shelter in a primitive red castle located in the province of Elvira,
presently located in
Granada . According to surviving documents from
the era, the red castle was quite small, and its walls were not
capable of deterring an army intent on conquering. The castle was then
largely ignored until the eleventh century, when its ruins were
renovated and rebuilt by
Samuel ibn Naghrela , vizier to the emir
Badis ben Habus of the
Zirid Dynasty of Al Andalus, in an attempt to
preserve the small Jewish settlement also located on the natural
plateau, Sabikah Hill.
Ibn Nasr , the founder of the
Nasrid Dynasty , was forced to flee to
Jaén to avoid persecution by King
Ferdinand III of Castile and the
Reconquista supporters working to end Spain's Moorish rule. After
retreating to Granada, Ibn-Nasr took up residence at the Palace of
Badis ben Habus in the Alhambra. A few months later, he embarked on
the construction of a new
Alhambra fit for the residence of a sultan.
According to an Arab manuscript since published as the Anónimo de
Granada y Copenhague,
This year, 1238 Abdallah ibn al-Ahmar climbed to the place called
"the Alhambra" inspected it, laid out the foundations of a castle and
left someone in charge of its construction...
The design included plans for six palaces, five of which were grouped
in the northeast quadrant forming a royal quarter, two circuit towers,
and numerous bathhouses. During the reign of the Nasrid Dynasty, the
Alhambra was transformed into a palatine city, complete with an
irrigation system composed of acequias for the gardens of the
Generalife located outside the fortress. Previously, the old Alhambra
structure had been dependent upon rainwater collected from a cistern
and from what could be brought up from the Albaicín. The creation of
the Sultan's Canal solidified the identity of the
Alhambra as a
palace-city rather than a defensive and ascetic structure.
Muqarnas ceiling decoration Detail of arabesques
The Muslim ruler
Muhammad XII of
Granada surrendered the Emirate of
Granada in 1492 without the
Alhambra itself being attacked when the
forces of the
Reyes Católicos , King
Ferdinand II of Aragon
Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen
Isabella I of Castile
Isabella I of Castile , took the surrounding territory with a force of
The decoration within the palaces comes from the last great period of
Andalusian art in Granada. With little of the
Byzantine influence of
Abassid architecture, artists endlessly reproduced the
same forms and trends, creating a new style that developed over the
course of the Nasrid Dynasty. The Nasrids used freely all the
stylistic elements that had been created and developed during eight
centuries of Muslim rule in the Peninsula, including the Caliphate
horseshoe arch , the Almohad sebka (a grid of rhombuses ), the
Almoravid palm, and unique combinations of them, as well as
innovations such as stilted arches and muqarnas (stalactite ceiling
decorations). Structurally, the design is simple and does not evince
significant innovation. While artistically pleasing it was until the
reconquest structurally ad hoc and reliant on the skills of subject
artisans and workers.
Columns and muqarnas appear in several chambers, and the interiors of
numerous palaces are decorated with arabesques and calligraphy . The
arabesques of the interior are ascribed to, among other sultans, Yusuf
I , Mohammed V , and Ismail I, Sultan of
Granada . Arabesques
around a window
After the Christian conquest of the city in 1492, the conquerors
began to alter the Alhambra. The open work was filled up with
whitewash , the painting and gilding effaced, and the furniture
soiled, torn, or removed. Charles I (1516–1556) rebuilt portions in
Renaissance style of the period and destroyed the greater part of
the winter palace to make room for a Renaissance-style structure which
was never completed. Philip V (1700–1746) Italianised the rooms and
completed his palace in the middle of what had been the Moorish
building; he had partitions constructed which blocked up whole
Over subsequent centuries the Moorish art was further damaged, and in
1812 some of the towers were destroyed by the French under Count
Sebastiani . In 1821, an earthquake caused further damage.
Restoration work was undertaken in 1828 by the architect José
Contreras, endowed in 1830 by Ferdinand VII . After the death of
Contreras in 1847, it was continued with fair success by his son
Rafael (died 1890) and his grandson.
Especially notable was the intervention of Leopoldo Torres Balbás in
the 1930s: the young architect "opened arcades that had been walled
up, re-excavated filled-in pools, replaced missing tiles, completed
inscriptions that lacked portions of their stuccoed lettering, and
installed a ceiling in the still unfinished palace of Charles V".
Modern plan of the
According to the site's current architect Pedro Salmeron Escobar, the
Alhambra evolved organically over a period of several centuries from
the ancient hilltop fortress defined by a narrow promontory carved by
the river Daro and overlooking the Vega or Plain of
Granada as it
descends from the Sierra Nevada . The red earth from which the
fortress is constructed is a granular aggregate held together by a
medium of red clay which gives the resulting layered brick- and stone-
reinforced construction (tapial calicastrado) its characteristic hue
and is at the root of the name of 'the Red Hill'.
This crude earthiness is counterpointed by the startling fine
alabaster white stucco work of the famous interiors. Meltwater from
the 'Snowy Mountains' is drawn across an arched vault at the eastern
tip of the Torre del Agua ('Water Tower') and channeled through the
citadel via a complex system of conduits (acequia) and water tanks
(los albercones) which create the celebrated interplay of light, sound
Alhambra is about 740 metres (2,430 ft) in length by 205 metres (670
ft) at its greatest width. It extends from west-northwest to
east-southeast and covers an area of about 142,000 square metres
(1,530,000 sq ft) or 35 acres. The Alhambra's most westerly feature
Alcazaba (citadel), a strongly fortified position built to
protect the original post-Roman districts of Iliberri, now 'Centro',
and Gárnata al-yahūd ('
Granada of the
Jews ', now Realejo, and the
Moorish suburb of El
Albayzín . Plan of the Nasrid Palaces,
Alhambra, 1889. Palaces of the Ambassadors Palace of the Lions
Mexuar Garden of Lindajar and later habitation of the
Due to touristic demand, modern access runs contrary to the original
sequence which began from a principal access via the Puerta de la
Justicia ('Gate of Justice') onto a large
Souq or public market square
facing the Alcazaba, now subdivided and obscured by later
Christian-era development. From the Puerta del Vino (Wine Gate) ran
the Calle Real ('Royal Street') dividing the
Alhambra along its axial
spine into a southern residential quarter with mosques , hamams
(bathhouses) and diverse functional establishments. The greater
portion, occupying the northern edge, was occupied by several palaces
of the nobility with extensive landscaped gardens commanding views
over the Albayzin, all of which were subservient to the great Tower of
the Ambassadors in the Palacio Comares which acted as the royal
audience chamber and throne room with its three arched windows
dominating the city. The private internalised universe of the Palacio
de Los Leones (Palace of the Lions) adjoins the public spaces at right
angles (see Plan illustration) but was originally connected only by
the function of the Royal Baths, the "Eye of Aixa's Room" serving as
the exquisitely decorated focus of meditation and authority
overlooking the refined garden of Lindaraja/Daraxa toward the city.
Rest of the plateau comprises a number of earlier and later Moorish
palaces, enclosed by a fortified wall , with thirteen defensive
towers, some such as the Torres de la Infanta and Cattiva containing
elaborate vertical palaces in miniature. The river Darro passes
through a ravine on the north and divides the plateau from the
Albaicín district of Granada. Similarly, the Assabica valley,
Alhambra Park on the west and south, and, beyond this
valley, the almost parallel ridge of Monte Mauror, separate it from
the Antequeruela district. Another ravine separates it from the
Generalife , the summer pleasure gardens of the Emir. Escobar notes
that the later planting of deciduous elms obscures the overall
perception of the layout such that a better reading of the original
landscape is given in winter when the trees are bare.
The citadel before and after the 20th-century
Alhambra resembles many medieval Christian strongholds in its
threefold arrangement as a castle, a palace and a residential annex
for subordinates. The alcazaba or citadel, its oldest part, is built
on the isolated and precipitous foreland which terminates the plateau
on the northwest. All that remains are its massive outer walls, towers
and ramparts. On its watchtower, the 25 m (85 ft) high Torre de la
Vela, the flag of Ferdinand and Isabella was first raised as a symbol
of the Spanish conquest of
Granada on 2 January 1492. A turret
containing a large bell was added in the 18th century and restored
after being damaged by lightning in 1881. Beyond the
Alcazaba is the
palace of the Moorish rulers, The Nasrid Palaces or
and beyond this is the
Alhambra Alta (Upper Alhambra), originally
occupied by officials and courtiers.
Access from the city to the
Alhambra Park is afforded by the Puerta
de las Granadas (Gate of Pomegranates), a triumphal arch dating from
the 15th century. A steep ascent leads past the Pillar of Charles V, a
fountain erected in 1554, to the main entrance of the Alhambra. This
is the Puerta de la Justicia (Gate of Judgment), a massive horseshoe
archway surmounted by a square tower and used by the
Moors as an
informal court of justice. The hand of Fatima , with fingers
outstretched as a talisman against the evil eye , is carved above this
gate on the exterior; a key, the symbol of authority, occupies the
corresponding place on the interior. A narrow passage leads inward to
the Plaza de los Aljibes (Place of the Cisterns), a broad open space
which divides the
Alcazaba from the Moorish palace. To the left of the
passage rises the Torre del Vino (Wine Tower), built in 1345 and used
in the 16th century as a cellar. On the right is the palace of Charles
V , a smaller
Renaissance building, to construct which part of the
Alhambra, including the original main entrance, was torn down.
West side of
Palace of Charles V
Palace of Charles V in the
Courtyard of the
Palace of Charles V
Palace of Charles V
The Royal Complex consists of three main parts: Mexuar, Serallo, and
the Harem. The Mexuar is modest in decor and houses the functional
areas for conducting business and administration. Strapwork is used to
decorate the surfaces in Mexuar. The ceilings, floors, and trim are
made of dark wood and are in sharp contrast to white, plaster walls.
Serallo, built during the reign of
Yusuf I in the 14th century,
contains the Patio de los Arrayanes (Court of the Myrtles). Brightly
colored interiors featured dado panels, yesería , azulejo, cedar, and
artesonado. Artesonado are highly decorative ceilings and other
woodwork. Lastly, the Harem is also elaborately decorated and contains
the living quarters for the wives and mistresses of the Berber
monarchs. This area contains a bathroom with running water (cold and
hot), baths, and pressurized water for showering. The bathrooms were
open to the elements in order to allow in light and air.
COURT OF THE MYRTLES
Court of the Myrtles
The present entrance to the Palacio Árabe, or Casa Real (Moorish
palace), is by a small door from which a corridor connects to the
Patio de los Arrayanes (Court of the Myrtles), also called the Patio
de la Alberca (Court of the Blessing or Court of the Pond), from the
Arabic birka, "pool". The birka helped to cool the palace and acted as
a symbol of power. Because water was usually in short supply, the
technology required to keep these pools full was expensive and
difficult. This court is 42 m (140 ft) long by 22 m (74 ft) broad, and
in the centre there is a large pond set in the marble pavement, full
of goldfish, and with myrtles growing along its sides. There are
galleries on the north and south sides; the southern gallery is 7 m
(23 ft) high and supported by a marble colonnade. Underneath it, to
the right, was the principal entrance, and over it are three windows
with arches and miniature pillars. From this court, the walls of the
Torre de Comares are seen rising over the roof to the north and
reflected in the pond.
HALL OF THE AMBASSADORS
The Salón de los Embajadores (Hall of the Ambassadors) is the
largest room in the
Alhambra and occupies all the Torre de Comares. It
is a square room, the sides being 12 m (37 ft) in length, while the
centre of the dome is 23 m (75 ft) high. This was the grand reception
room, and the throne of the sultan was placed opposite the entrance.
The grand hall projects from the walls of the palace, providing views
in three directions. In this sense, it was a "mirador" from which the
palace's inhabitants could gaze outward to the surrounding landscape.
The tiles are nearly 4 ft (1.2 m) high all round, and the colours vary
at intervals. Over them is a series of oval medallions with
inscriptions, interwoven with flowers and leaves. There are nine
windows, three on each facade, and the ceiling is decorated with
white, blue and gold inlays in the shape of circles, crowns and stars.
The walls are covered with varied stucco works, surrounding many
COURT OF THE LIONS AND FOUNTAIN
Court of the Lions The
Court of the Lions , an
example of Islamic
Moorish architecture and garden design
Court of the Lions (Patio de los Leones) is an oblong courtyard ,
116 ft (35 m) in length by 66 ft (20 m) in width, surrounded by a low
gallery supported on 124 white marble columns. A pavilion projects
into the court at each extremity, with filigree walls and a light
domed roof. The square is paved with coloured tiles and the colonnade
with white marble, while the walls are covered 5 ft (1.5 m) up from
the ground with blue and yellow tiles, with a border above and below
of enamelled blue and gold. The columns supporting the roof and
gallery are irregularly placed. They are adorned by varieties of
foliage, etc.; about each arch there is a large square of stucco
arabesques; and over the pillars is another stucco square of filigree
Fountain Of Lions
In the centre of the court is the Fountain of Lions, an alabaster
basin supported by the figures of twelve lions in white marble, not
designed with sculptural accuracy but as symbols of strength, power,
and sovereignty. Each hour one lion would produce water from its
mouth. At the edge of the great fountain there is a poem written by
Ibn Zamrak. This praises the beauty of the fountain and the power of
the lions, but it also describes their ingenious hydraulic systems and
how they actually worked, which baffled all those who saw them.
HALL OF THE ABENCERRAJES
"Honeycomb," "stalactite," or "mocárabe " vaulting in the Hall
of the Abencerrajes
The Sala de los Abencerrajes (Hall of the
Abencerrages ) derives its
name from a legend according to which the father of
Boabdil , the last
Granada , having invited the chiefs of that line to a
banquet, massacred them here. This room is a perfect square, with a
lofty dome and trellised windows at its base. The roof is decorated in
blue, brown, red and gold, and the columns supporting it spring out
into the arch form in a remarkably beautiful manner. Opposite to this
hall is the Sala de las dos Hermanas (Hall of the two Sisters),
so-called from two white marble slabs laid as part of the pavement.
These slabs measure 500 by 220 cm (15 by 7½ ft). There is a fountain
in the middle of this hall, and the roof — a dome honeycombed with
tiny cells, all different, and said to number 5000 — is an example
of the "stalactite vaulting" of the Moors.
Generalife Pools in the Palacio de
Generalife (left) and the Partal (right; in the Alta
Alhambra of the
Of the outlying buildings connected to the Alhambra, the foremost in
interest is the Palacio de
Generalife or Gineralife (the Muslim Jennat
al Arif, "Garden of Arif," or "Garden of the Architect"). This villa
dates from the beginning of the 14th century but has been restored
several times. The Villa de los Martires (Martyrs' Villa), on the
summit of Monte Mauror, commemorates by its name the Christian slaves
who were forced to build the
Alhambra and confined here in
subterranean cells. The Torres Bermejas (Vermilion Towers), also on
Monte Mauror, are a well-preserved Moorish fortification, with
underground cisterns, stables, and accommodation for a garrison of 200
men. Several Roman tombs were discovered in 1829 and 1857 at the base
of Monte Mauror.
Among the other features of the
Alhambra are the Sala de la Justicia
(Hall of Justice), the Patio del Mexuar (Court of the Council
Chamber), the Patio de Daraxa (Court of the Vestibule), and the
Peinador de la Reina (Queen's Robing Room), in which there is similar
architecture and decoration. The palace and the Upper
contain baths, rows of bedrooms and summer-rooms, a whispering gallery
and labyrinth, and vaulted sepulchres.
The original furniture of the palace is represented by one of the
Alhambra vases , very large
Hispano-Moresque ware vases made in
the Sultanate to stand in niches around the palace, famous examples of
Hispano-Moresque ware dating from the 14th and 15th centuries. The one
remaining in the palace, from about 1400, is 1.3 m (4 ft 3 in) high;
the background is white, and the decoration is blue, white and gold.
Nasrid shell vase in the
Parts of the following works are set in the Alhambra:
Washington Irving 's
Tales of the Alhambra . This is a collection
of essays, verbal sketches, and stories. Irving lived in the palace
while writing the book and was instrumental in introducing the site to
Salman Rushdie 's The Moor\'s Last Sigh
Amin Maalouf 's Leo Africanus , depicting the reconquest of
Granada by the
Catholic Monarchs .
Philippa Gregory 's
The Constant Princess , depicting Catalina the
Spain as she lived in the
Alhambra after her parents took
Federico Garcia Lorca
Federico Garcia Lorca 's play
Doña Rosita the Spinster ,
mentioned by title character Dona Rosita in her song/speech to the
Paulo Coelho 's novel The Alchemist
Ali Smith 's
George Bernard Shaw
George Bernard Shaw 's play
Man and Superman
Man and Superman
* Colin de Silva 's Alhambra: Arena of Assassins
László Krasznahorkai 's
Seiobo There Below
Seiobo There Below
Hanya Yanagihara 's "
A Little Life
A Little Life "
The plot of the Ballet-héroïque entitled Zaïde, Reine De Grenade ,
by the French
Joseph-Nicolas-Pancrace Royer (c.
1705–1755), takes place at the Alhambra.
Alhambra has directly
inspired musical compositions as
Francisco Tárrega 's famous tremolo
study for guitar Recuerdos De La
Claude Debussy 's piece
for two pianos composed in 1901, Lindaraja, and the prelude, La Puerta
Del Vino, from the second book of preludes composed from 1912 to 1913.
Isaac Albéniz wrote a piano suite Recuerdos De viaje, which included
a piece called "En La Alhambra", while his suite
Iberia contained a
piece called "El Albacin". Albéniz also composed a Suite Alhambra,
but was uncompleted. Gazelles on one of the
Alhambra vases made
for the palace
"En Los Jardines Del Generalife", the first movement of Manuel de
Falla 's Noches En Los Jardines De España , and other pieces by
composers such as
Ruperto Chapí (Los Gnomos De La Alhambra, 1891),
Tomás Bretón , and many others are included in a stream referred to
by scholars as Alhambrismo.
In 1976, filmmaker
Christopher Nupen filmed The Song Of The Guitar at
Alhambra which was an hour-long program featuring the legendary
Andrés Segovia . British composer Julian Anderson
wrote an orchestral piece,
In pop and folk music,
Alhambra is the subject of the
Ghymes song of
the same name. The rock band
The Grateful Dead released a song called
"Terrapin Station" on the 1977 album of the same name . It consisted
of a series of small compositions penned by Robert Hunter and put to
Jerry Garcia ; a lyrical section of this suite was called
"Alhambra". In September 2006, Canadian singer/composer Loreena
McKennitt performed live at the Alhambra. The resulting video
recordings premiered on
PBS and were later released as a 3-disc DVD/CD
set called Nights From The
Alhambra . The Basque pop group Mocedades
performed a song called "Juntos En La Alhambra".
Alhambra is the title
of an EP recording by Canadian rock band,
The Tea Party , containing
acoustic versions of a few of their songs.
mentioned in the Mago de Oz song named "El Paseo De Los Tristes" from
the album entitled Gaia II. On California rapper
Dom Kennedy 's 2015
Dom Kennedy , there is a song entitled "Alhambra".
Mathematics and art
this inspired M.C. Escher\'s work.
Alhambra tiles are remarkable in that they contain nearly all, if
not all, of the seventeen mathematically possible wallpaper groups .
This is a unique accomplishment in world architecture.
M. C. Escher 's
visit in 1922 and study of the Moorish use of symmetries in the
Alhambra tiles inspired his subsequent work on tessellation , which he
called "regular divisions of the plane".
Marcel L\'Herbier 's 1921 film El Dorado features many scenes shot in
and around the
Alhambra palace. This was the first time permission had
been granted for a film company to shoot inside the
and L'Herbier gave prominent place to its gardens, fountains and
geometric architectural patterns, which became some of the film's most
Animated films by Spanish director Juan Bautista Berasategui such as
Ahmed, El Principe De La
Alhambra and El Embrujo Del Sur are based on
Washington Irving 's
Tales of the Alhambra .
Court of the Lions was depicted in Assassin\'s Creed (film) (2016)
Muhammad XII surrendered 'Apple of Eden', a powerful
artifact in the center of the movie plot, in exchange of his son's
The fictional Broadway theatre (the interior actually
Auckland , New
Zealand 's Civic Theatre ), in which Kong is displayed as the 'Eighth
Wonder of the World' in 2005's King Kong , is named "The Alhambra".
IN VIDEO GAMES
* It is a multiplayer location in Assassin\'s Creed: Brotherhood 's
final DLC, The Da Vinci Disappearance .
* This serves as a location for the
Spain stage in The King of
Alhambra is a wonder in Civilization V: Gods border:solid #aaa
* Gardening portal
* 12 Treasures of
* Islamic gardens
History of Medieval Arabic and Western European domes
History of Medieval Arabic and Western European domes
* Fernández Puertas, Antonio (1997), The Alhambra. Vol 1: From the
Ninth Century to
Yusuf I (1354), Saqi Books, ISBN 0-86356-466-6
* Fernández Puertas, Antonio (1998), The Alhambra. Vol 2:
(1354–1391), Saqi Books, ISBN 0-86356-467-4
* Fernández Puertas, Antonio (1999), The Alhambra. Vol 3: From 1391
to the Present Day, Saqi Books, ISBN 978-0-86356-589-2
* Grabar, Oleg. The Alhambra. Massachusetts: Harvard University
* Jacobs, Michael; Fernández, Francisco (2009), Alhambra, Frances
Lincoln, ISBN 978-0-7112-2518-3
* Lowney, Chris. A Vanished World: Medieval Spain's Golden Age of
Enlightenment. New York: Simon -webkit-column-width: 32em;
column-width: 32em; list-style-type: decimal;">
* ^ The "Al-" in "Alhambra" means "the" in Arabic, but this is
ignored in general usage in both English and Spanish, where the name
is normally given the definite article
* ^ Arabic : الْحَمْرَاء, trans. al-Ḥamrāʼ ;
literally "the red one", feminine; in colloquial Arabic :
* ^ Arabic : الْقَلْعَةُ ٱلْحَمْرَاءُ,
trans. al-Qalʻat al-Ḥamrāʼ , "the red fortress"
* ^ "
Alhambra - historical introduction". Retrieved 2 January 2013.
* ^ "Alhambra,
Generalife and Albayzín, Granada". World Heritage
List. UNESCO. Retrieved 13 January 2013.
* ^ A B C D Chisholm (1911) , p. 657
* ^ A B C D E F Chisholm (1911)
* ^ Envisioning Islamic Art and Architecture (ed. David J.
Roxburgh). BRILL, 2014. ISBN 9789004280281 . P. 18-19.
* ^ Salmerón Escobar (2007)
* ^ A B C D Salmerón Escobar (2007) , III. The material base:
construction and form
* ^ "Alhambra, Granada, Spain". AirPano. Retrieved 23 January 2017.
* ^ A B C Salmerón Escobar (2007) , IV. Formation and spatial
* ^ Salmerón Escobar (2007) , VI. The
Alhambra that survives
* ^ A B C D Mirmobiny, Shadieh. "The Alhambra".
Khan Academy . Retrieved 26 February 2013.
* ^ Ruggles (1992)
* ^ Al-Hassani, Woodcock & Saoud (2007)
* ^ Al-Hassani, Woodcock & Saoud (2007) , p. 233
* ^ Alfonso Lowe, Hugh Seymour-Davies. The Companion Guide to the
South of Spain. Companion Guides, 2000. ISBN 9781900639330 . P. 8.
* ^ A B Chisholm (1911) , p. 658
* ^ "
Alhambra de Granada".
* ^ "CVC. Rinconete. Acordes". Cvc.cervantes.es. Retrieved 4 April
* ^ "El alhambrismo en la música española hasta la época de
Manuel de Falla – Dialnet". Dialnet.unirioja.es. Retrieved 4 April
* ^ "Mathematics in Art and Architecture". Math.nus.edu.sg.
Retrieved 4 April 2012.
* ^ Gelgi, Fatih (July 2010). "The Influence of Islamic Art on M.C.
Escher". The Fountain (76).
* ^ "King Kong, 2005". The Worldwide Guide to Movie Locations.
Retrieved May 27, 2017.
* ^ Pete Haas (February 18, 2011). "Assassin\'s Creed Brotherhood
Da Vinci Disappearance DLC Announced". CINEMABLEND. Retrieved December
* ^ Matt Peckham (October 25, 2016). "Review: ‘Civilization 6’
Fixes Most of the Series’ Biggest Flaws". Time . Retrieved December
* Al-Hassani, Salim T. S.; Woodcock, Elizabeth; Saoud, Rabah (2007).
1001 Inventions: Muslim Heritage in our World (2nd ed.). Manchester,
UK: Foundation for Science Technology and Civilisation. ISBN
* Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Alhambra, The". Encyclopædia
Britannica . 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 656–658.
* Irwin, Robert (2004). The Alhambra. Cambridge, MA: Harvard
* Ruggles, D. Fairchild (1992). "The gardens of the
Alhambra and the
concept of the garden in Islamic Spain". In Jerrilynn Dodds.
Al-Andalus: The Arts of Islamic Spain. New York, NY: Metropolitan
Museum. pp. 163–171. ISBN 0-87099-636-3 .
* Salmerón Escobar, Pedro (2007). The Alhambra: Structure and
Landscape. La Biblioteca de la Alhambra. Translated by Diana Kelham.
ISBN 9788461181230 .
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