Aleister Crowley (/ˈæl.i.stə ˈkroʊli/; born Edward Alexander
Crowley; 12 October 1875 – 1 December 1947) was an English
occultist, ceremonial magician, poet, painter, novelist, and
mountaineer. He founded the religion of Thelema, identifying himself
as the prophet entrusted with guiding humanity into the Æon of Horus
in the early 20th century. A prolific writer, he published widely over
the course of his life.
Born to a wealthy
Plymouth Brethren family in Royal Leamington Spa,
Warwickshire, Crowley rejected the fundamentalist Christian faith to
pursue an interest in Western esotericism. He was educated at the
University of Cambridge, where he focused his attentions on
mountaineering and poetry, resulting in several publications. Some
biographers allege that here he was recruited into a British
intelligence agency, further suggesting that he remained a spy
throughout his life. In 1898 he joined the esoteric Hermetic Order of
the Golden Dawn, where he was trained in ceremonial magic by Samuel
Liddell MacGregor Mathers and Allan Bennett. Moving to Boleskine House
Loch Ness in Scotland, he went mountaineering in Mexico with Oscar
Eckenstein, before studying Hindu and Buddhist practices in India. He
Rose Edith Kelly and in 1904 they honeymooned in Cairo, Egypt,
where Crowley claimed to have been contacted by a supernatural entity
named Aiwass, who provided him with The Book of the Law, a sacred text
that served as the basis for Thelema. Announcing the start of the Æon
of Horus, The Book declared that its followers should "Do what thou
wilt" and seek to align themselves with their
True Will through the
practice of magick.
After an unsuccessful attempt to climb Kanchenjunga and a visit to
India and China, Crowley returned to Britain, where he attracted
attention as a prolific author of poetry, novels, and occult
literature. In 1907, he and
George Cecil Jones co-founded a Thelemite
order, the A∴A∴, through which they propagated the religion. After
spending time in Algeria, in 1912 he was initiated into another
esoteric order, the German-based
Ordo Templi Orientis (O.T.O.), rising
to become the leader of its British branch, which he reformulated in
accordance with his Thelemite beliefs. Through the O.T.O., Thelemite
groups were established in Britain, Australia, and North America.
Crowley spent the
First World War
First World War in the United States, where he took
up painting and campaigned for the German war effort against Britain,
later revealing that he had infiltrated the pro-German movement to
assist the British intelligence services. In 1920 he established the
Abbey of Thelema, a religious commune in Cefalù, Sicily where he
lived with various followers. His libertine lifestyle led to
denunciations in the British press, and the Italian government evicted
him in 1923. He divided the following two decades between France,
Germany, and England, and continued to promote
Thelema until his
Crowley gained widespread notoriety during his lifetime, being a
recreational drug experimenter, bisexual and an individualist social
critic. He was denounced in the popular press as "the wickedest man in
the world" and a Satanist. Crowley has remained a highly influential
Western esotericism and the counter-culture, and continues
to be considered a prophet in Thelema. He is the subject of various
biographies and academic studies.
1 Early life
1.1 Youth: 1875–94
Cambridge University: 1895–98
1.3 The Golden Dawn: 1898–99
1.4 Mexico, India, Paris, and marriage: 1900–03
2 Developing Thelema
2.1 Egypt and The Book of the Law: 1904
Kangchenjunga and China: 1905–06
A∴A∴ and the Holy Books of Thelema: 1907–09
2.4 Algeria and the Rites of Eleusis: 1909–11
Ordo Templi Orientis and the Paris Working: 1912–14
2.6 United States: 1914–19
2.7 Abbey of Thelema: 1920–23
3 Later life
3.1 Tunisia, Paris, and London: 1923–29
Berlin and London: 1930–38
Second World War
Second World War and death: 1939–47
4 Beliefs and thought
4.1 Magick and theology
5 Personal life
5.1 Political views
5.2 Views on race and gender
6 Legacy and influence
9 Further reading
10 External links
Aleister Crowley was born as Edward Alexander Crowley at 30 Clarendon
Square in Royal Leamington Spa, Warwickshire, on 12 October 1875.
Crowley was born as Edward Alexander Crowley at 30 Clarendon Square in
Royal Leamington Spa, Warwickshire, on 12 October 1875. His father,
Edward Crowley (1829–87), was trained as an engineer, but his share
in a lucrative family brewing business, Crowley's Alton Ales, had
allowed him to retire before his son was born. His mother, Emily
Bertha Bishop (1848–1917), came from a Devonshire-Somerset family
and had a strained relationship with her son; she described him as
"the Beast", a name that he revelled in. The couple had been
married at London's Kensington Registry Office in November 1874,
and were evangelical Christians. Crowley's father had been born a
Quaker, but had converted to the Exclusive Brethren, a faction of a
Christian fundamentalist group known as the Plymouth Brethren, with
Emily joining him upon marriage. Crowley's father was particularly
devout, spending his time as a travelling preacher for the sect and
reading a chapter from the Bible to his wife and son after breakfast
every day. Following the death of their baby daughter in 1880, in
1881 the Crowleys moved to Redhill, Surrey. At the age of 8,
Crowley was sent to H.T. Habershon's evangelical Christian boarding
school in Hastings, and then to Ebor preparatory school in Cambridge,
run by the Reverend Henry d'Arcy Champney, whom Crowley considered a
In March 1887, when Crowley was 11, his father died of tongue cancer.
Crowley described this as a turning point in his life, and he
always maintained an admiration of his father, describing him as "my
hero and my friend". Inheriting a third of his father's wealth, he
began misbehaving at school and was harshly punished by Champney;
Crowley's family removed him from the school when he developed
albuminuria. He then attended
Malvern College and Tonbridge
School, both of which he despised and left after a few terms. He
became increasingly sceptical regarding Christianity, pointing out
inconsistencies in the Bible to his religious teachers, and went
against the Christian morality of his upbringing by smoking,
masturbating, and having sex with prostitutes from whom he contracted
gonorrhea. Sent to live with a Brethren tutor in Eastbourne, he
undertook chemistry courses at
Eastbourne College. Crowley developed
interests in chess, poetry, and mountain climbing, and in 1894 climbed
Beachy Head before visiting the
Alps and joining the Scottish
Mountaineering Club. The following year he returned to the Bernese
Alps, climbing the Eiger, Trift, Jungfrau, Mönch, and Wetterhorn.
Cambridge University: 1895–98
Having adopted the name of Aleister over Edward, in October 1895
Crowley began a three-year course at Trinity College, Cambridge, where
he was entered for the
Tripos studying philosophy. With
approval from his personal tutor, he changed to English literature,
which was not then part of the curriculum offered. Crowley spent
much of his time at university engaged in his pastimes, becoming
president of the chess club and practising the game for two hours a
day; he briefly considered a professional career as a chess
player. Crowley also embraced his love of literature and poetry,
particularly the works of
Richard Francis Burton
Richard Francis Burton and Percy Bysshe
Shelley. Many of his own poems appeared in student publications
such as The Granta,
Cambridge Magazine, and Cantab. He continued
his mountaineering, going on holiday to the
Alps to climb every year
from 1894 to 1898, often with his friend Oscar Eckenstein, and in 1897
he made the first ascent of the
Mönch without a guide. These feats
led to his recognition in the Alpine mountaineering community.
For many years I had loathed being called Alick, partly because of the
unpleasant sound and sight of the word, partly because it was the name
by which my mother called me. Edward did not seem to suit me and the
diminutives Ted or Ned were even less appropriate. Alexander was too
long and Sandy suggested tow hair and freckles. I had read in some
book or other that the most favourable name for becoming famous was
one consisting of a dactyl followed by a spondee, as at the end of a
hexameter: like Jeremy Taylor.
Aleister Crowley fulfilled these
conditions and Aleister is the Gaelic form of Alexander. To adopt it
would satisfy my romantic ideals.
Aleister Crowley, on his name change.
Crowley had his first significant mystical experience while on holiday
in Stockholm in December 1896. Several biographers, including
Lawrence Sutin, Richard Kaczynski, and Tobias Churton, believed that
this was the result of Crowley's first same-sex sexual experience,
which enabled him to recognise his bisexuality. At Cambridge,
Crowley maintained a vigorous sex life with women—largely with
female prostitutes, from one of whom he caught syphilis—but
eventually he took part in same-sex activities, despite their
illegality. In October 1897, Crowley met Herbert Charles Pollitt,
president of the
Cambridge University Footlights Dramatic Club, and
the two entered into a relationship. They broke apart because Pollitt
did not share Crowley's increasing interest in Western esotericism, a
break-up that Crowley would regret for many years.
In 1897, Crowley travelled to
St Petersburg in Russia, later claiming
that he was trying to learn Russian as he was considering a future
diplomatic career there. Biographers Richard Spence and Tobias
Churton suggested that Crowley had done so as an intelligence agent
under the employ of the British secret service, speculating that he
had been enlisted while at Cambridge.
In October 1897, a brief illness triggered considerations of mortality
and "the futility of all human endeavour", and Crowley abandoned all
thoughts of a diplomatic career in favour of pursuing an interest in
the occult. In March 1898, he obtained A.E. Waite's The Book of
Black Magic and of Pacts (1898), and then Karl von Eckartshausen's The
Cloud Upon the Sanctuary (1896), furthering his occult interests.
In 1898 Crowley privately published 100 copies of his poem Aceldama: A
Place to Bury Strangers In, but it was not a particular success.
That same year he published a string of other poems, including White
Stains, a Decadent collection of erotic poetry that was printed abroad
lest its publication be prohibited by the British authorities. In
July 1898, he left Cambridge, not having taken any degree at all
despite a "first class" showing in his 1897 exams and consistent
"second class honours" results before that.
The Golden Dawn: 1898–99
Crowley in Golden Dawn garb
In August 1898, Crowley was in Zermatt, Switzerland, where he met the
chemist Julian L. Baker, and the two began discussing their common
interest in alchemy. Back in London, Baker introduced Crowley to
George Cecil Jones, Baker's brother in-law, and a fellow member of the
occult society known as the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, which
had been founded in 1888. Crowley was initiated into the Outer
Order of the Golden Dawn on 18 November 1898 by the group's leader,
Samuel Liddell MacGregor Mathers. The ceremony took place in the
Golden Dawn's Isis-Urania Temple held at London's Mark Masons Hall,
where Crowley took the magical motto and name "Frater Perdurabo",
which he interpreted as "I shall endure to the end". Biographers
Richard Spence and
Tobias Churton have suggested that Crowley joined
the Order under the command of the British secret services to monitor
the activities of Mathers, who was known to be a Carlist.
Crowley moved into his own luxury flat at 67–69
Chancery Lane and
soon invited a senior Golden Dawn member, Allan Bennett, to live with
him as his personal magical tutor. Bennett taught Crowley more about
ceremonial magic and the ritual use of drugs, and together they
performed the rituals of the Goetia, until Bennett left for South
Asia to study Buddhism. In November 1899, Crowley purchased
Boleskine House in
Foyers on the shore of
Loch Ness in Scotland. He
developed a love of Scottish culture, describing himself as the "Laird
of Boleskine", and took to wearing traditional highland dress, even
during visits to London. He continued writing poetry, publishing
Jezebel and Other Tragic Poems, Tales of Archais, Songs of the Spirit,
Appeal to the American Republic, and Jephthah in 1898–99; most
gained mixed reviews from literary critics, although Jephthah was
considered a particular critical success.
Crowley soon progressed through the lower grades of the Golden Dawn,
and was ready to enter the group's inner Second Order. He was
unpopular in the group; his bisexuality and libertine lifestyle had
gained him a bad reputation, and he had developed feuds with some of
the members, including W.B. Yeats. When the Golden Dawn's London
lodge refused to initiate Crowley into the Second Order, he visited
Mathers in Paris, who personally admitted him into the Adeptus Minor
Grade. A schism had developed between Mathers and the London
members of the Golden Dawn, who were unhappy with his autocratic
rule. Acting under Mathers' orders, Crowley – with the help of
his mistress and fellow initiate Elaine Simpson – attempted to seize
the Vault of the Adepts, a temple space at 36 Blythe Road in West
Kensington, from the London lodge members. When the case was taken to
court, the judge ruled in favour of the London lodge, as they had paid
for the space's rent, leaving both Crowley and Mathers isolated from
the group. Spence suggested that the entire scenario was part of
an intelligence operation to undermine Mathers' authority.
Mexico, India, Paris, and marriage: 1900–03
In 1900, Crowley travelled to Mexico via the United States, settling
Mexico City and taking a local woman as his mistress. Developing a
love of the country, he continued experimenting with ceremonial magic,
working with John Dee's
Enochian invocations. He later claimed to have
been initiated into
Freemasonry while there, and he wrote a play based
on Richard Wagner's Tannhäuser as well as a series of poems,
published as Oracles (1905). Eckenstein joined him later that year,
and together they climbed several mountains, including Iztaccihuatl,
Popocatepetl, and Colima, the latter of which they had to abandon
owing to a volcanic eruption. Spence has suggested that the
purpose of the trip might have been to explore Mexican oil prospects
for British intelligence. Leaving Mexico, Crowley headed to San
Francisco before sailing for Hawaii aboard the Nippon Maru. On the
ship he had a brief affair with a married woman named Mary Alice
Rogers; saying he had fallen in love with her, he wrote a series of
poems about the romance, published as Alice: An Adultery (1903).
Crowley during the K2 Expedition
Briefly stopping in Japan and Hong Kong, Crowley reached Ceylon, where
he met with Allan Bennett, who was there studying Shaivism. The pair
spent some time in
Kandy before Bennett decided to become a Buddhist
monk in the
Theravada tradition, travelling to Burma to do so.
Crowley decided to tour India, devoting himself to the Hindu practice
of raja yoga, from which he claimed to have achieved the spiritual
state of dhyana. He spent much of this time studying at the Meenakshi
Amman Temple in Madura. At this time he also composed and also wrote
poetry which was published as The Sword of Song (1904). He contracted
malaria, and had to recuperate from the disease in Calcutta and
Rangoon. In 1902, he was joined in India by Eckenstein and several
other mountaineers: Guy Knowles, H. Pfannl, V. Wesseley, and
Jules Jacot-Guillarmod. Together the Eckenstein-Crowley expedition
attempted K2, which had never been climbed. On the journey, Crowley
was afflicted with influenza, malaria, and snow blindness, and other
expedition members were also struck with illness. They reached an
altitude of 20,000 feet (6,100 m) before turning back.
Having arrived in Paris in November 1902 he socialised with friend and
future brother-in-law, the painter Gerald Kelly, and through him
became a fixture of the Parisian arts scene. Whilst there, Crowley
wrote a series of poems on the work of an acquaintance, the sculptor
Auguste Rodin. These poems were later published as Rodin in Rime
(1907). One of those frequenting this milieu was W. Somerset
Maugham, who after briefly meeting Crowley later used him as a model
for the character of
Oliver Haddo in his novel The Magician
(1908). Returning to Boleskine in April 1903, in August Crowley
wed Gerald's sister
Rose Edith Kelly in a "marriage of convenience" to
prevent her entering an arranged marriage; the marriage appalled the
Kelly family and damaged his friendship with Gerald. Heading on a
honeymoon to Paris, Cairo, and then Ceylon, Crowley fell in love with
Rose and worked to prove his affections. While on his honeymoon, he
wrote her a series of love poems, published as Rosa Mundi and other
Love Songs (1906), as well as authoring the religious satire Why Jesus
Egypt and The Book of the Law: 1904
Had! The manifestation of Nuit.
The unveiling of the company of heaven.
Every man and woman is a star.
Every number is infinite; there is no difference.
Help me, o warrior lord of Thebes, in my unveiling before the Children
The opening lines of The Book of the Law.
In February 1904, Crowley and Rose arrived in Cairo. Claiming to be a
prince and princess, they rented an apartment in which Crowley set up
a temple room and began invoking ancient Egyptian deities, while
studying Islamic mysticism and Arabic. According to Crowley's
later account, Rose regularly became delirious and informed him "they
are waiting for you." On 18 March, she explained that "they" were the
god Horus, and on 20 March proclaimed that "the Equinox of the Gods
has come". She led him to a nearby museum, where she showed him a
seventh-century BCE mortuary stele known as the
Ankh-ef-en-Khonsu; Crowley thought it important that the exhibit's
number was 666, the number of the beast in Christian belief, and in
later years termed the artefact the "
Stele of Revealing."
According to Crowley's later statements, on 8 April he heard a
disembodied voice that claimed to be that of Aiwass, the messenger of
Horus, or Hoor-Paar-Kraat. Crowley said that he wrote down everything
the voice told him over the course of the next three days, and titled
it Liber L vel Legis or The Book of the Law. The book proclaimed
that humanity was entering a new Aeon, and that Crowley would serve as
its prophet. It stated that a supreme moral law was to be introduced
in this Aeon, "Do what thou wilt shall be the whole of the Law," and
that people should learn to live in tune with their Will. This book,
and the philosophy that it espoused, became the cornerstone of
Crowley's religion, Thelema. Crowley said that at the time he had
been unsure what to do with The Book of the Law. Often resenting it,
he said that he ignored the instructions which the text commanded him
to perform, which included taking the
Stele of Revealing from the
museum, fortifying his own island, and translating the book into all
the world's languages. According to his account, he instead sent
typescripts of the work to several occultists he knew, putting the
manuscript away and ignoring it.
Kangchenjunga and China: 1905–06
Returning to Boleskine, Crowley came to believe that Mathers had begun
using magic against him, and the relationship between the two broke
down. On 28 July 1905, Rose gave birth to Crowley's first child, a
daughter named Lilith, with Crowley writing the pornographic Snowdrops
From a Curate's Garden to entertain his recuperating wife. He also
founded a publishing company through which to publish his poetry,
naming it the Society for the Propagation of Religious Truth in parody
of the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. Among its first
publications were Crowley's Collected Works, edited by Ivor Back.
His poetry often received strong reviews (either positive or
negative), but never sold well. In an attempt to gain more publicity,
he issued a reward of £100 for the best essay on his work. The winner
of this was J. F. C. Fuller, a British Army officer and military
historian, whose essay, The Star in the West (1907), heralded
Crowley's poetry as some of the greatest ever written.
Kangchenjunga, as seen from Darjeeling
Crowley decided to climb
Kangchenjunga in the Himalayas of Nepal,
widely recognised as the world's most treacherous mountain. Assembling
a team consisting of Jacot-Guillarmod, Charles Adolphe Reymond, Alexis
Pache, and Alcesti C. Rigo de Righi, the expedition was marred by much
argument between Crowley and the others, who thought that he was
reckless. They eventually mutinied against Crowley's control, with the
other climbers heading back down the mountain as nightfall approached
despite Crowley's warnings that it was too dangerous. Subsequently,
Pache and several porters were killed in an accident, something for
which Crowley was widely blamed by the mountaineering community.
Spending time in Moharbhanj, where he took part in big game hunting
and wrote the homoerotic work The Scented Garden, Crowley met up with
Rose and Lilith in Calcutta before being forced to leave India after
shooting dead a native man who tried to mug him. Briefly visiting
Bennett in Burma, Crowley and his family decided to tour Southern
China, hiring porters and a nanny for the purpose. Spence has
suggested that this trip to China was orchestrated as part of a
British intelligence scheme to monitor the region's opium trade.
Crowley smoked opium throughout the journey, which took the family
Tengyueh through to Yungchang, Tali, Yunnanfu, and then Hanoi. On
the way he spent much time on spiritual and magical work, reciting the
"Bornless Ritual", an invocation to his Holy Guardian Angel, on a
While Rose and Lilith returned to Europe, Crowley headed to Shanghai
to meet old friend Elaine Simpson, who was fascinated by The Book of
the Law; together they performed rituals in an attempt to contact
Aiwass. Crowley then sailed to Japan and Canada, before continuing to
New York City, where he unsuccessfully solicited support for a second
expedition up Kangchenjunga. Upon arrival in Britain, Crowley
learned that his daughter Lilith had died of typhoid in Rangoon,
something he later blamed on Rose's increasing alcoholism. Under
emotional distress, his health began to suffer, and he underwent a
series of surgical operations. He began short-lived romances with
actress Vera "Lola" Neville (née Snepp) and author Ada
Leverson, while Rose gave birth to Crowley's second daughter, Lola
Zaza, in February 1907.
A∴A∴ and the Holy Books of Thelema: 1907–09
With his old mentor George Cecil Jones, Crowley continued performing
the Abramelin rituals at the Ashdown Park Hotel in Coulsdon, Surrey.
Crowley claimed that in doing so he attained samadhi, or union with
Godhead, thereby marking a turning point in his life. Making heavy
use of hashish during these rituals, he wrote an essay on "The
Psychology of Hashish" (1909) in which he championed the drug as an
aid to mysticism. He also claimed to have been contacted once
Aiwass in late October and November 1907, adding that Aiwass
dictated two further texts to him, "Liber VII" and "Liber Cordis
Cincti Serpente", both of which were later classified in the corpus of
Holy Books of Thelema. Crowley wrote down more Thelemic Holy Books
during the last two months of the year, including "Liber LXVI", "Liber
Arcanorum", "Liber Porta Lucis, Sub Figura X", "Liber Tau", "Liber
Trigrammaton" and "Liber DCCCXIII vel Ararita", which he again claimed
to have received from a preternatural source. Crowley stated that
in June 1909, when the manuscript of
The Book of the Law
The Book of the Law was
rediscovered at Boleskine, he developed the opinion that Thelema
represented objective truth.
Crowley's inheritance was running out. Trying to earn money, he
was hired by George Montagu Bennett, the Earl of Tankerville, to help
protect him from witchcraft; recognising Bennett's paranoia as being
based in his cocaine addiction, Crowley took him on holiday to France
and Morocco to recuperate. In 1907, he also began taking in paying
students, whom he instructed in occult and magical practice.
Victor Neuburg, whom Crowley met in February 1907, became his sexual
partner and closest disciple; in 1908 the pair toured northern Spain
before heading to Tangier, Morocco. The following year Neuburg
stayed at Boleskine, where he and Crowley engaged in
sadomasochism. Crowley continued to write prolifically, producing
such works of poetry as Ambergris, Clouds Without Water, and Konx Om
Pax, as well as his first attempt at an autobiography, The World's
Tragedy. Recognising the popularity of short horror stories,
Crowley wrote his own, some of which were published, and he also
published several articles in Vanity Fair, a magazine edited by his
friend Frank Harris. He also wrote Liber 777, a book of magical
and Qabalistic correspondences that borrowed from Mathers and
Into my loneliness comes—
The sound of a flute in dim groves that haunt the uttermost hills.
Even from the brave river they reach to the edge of the wilderness.
And I behold Pan.
The opening lines of Liber VII (1907), the first of the Holy Books of
Thelema to be revealed to Crowley after The Book of the Law.
In November 1907, Crowley and Jones decided to found an occult order
to act as a successor to the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, being
aided in doing so by Fuller. The result was the A∴A∴. The group's
headquarters and temple were situated at 124 Victoria Street in
central London, and their rites borrowed much from those of the Golden
Dawn, but with an added Thelemic basis. Its earliest members
included solicitor Richard Noel Warren, artist Austin Osman Spare,
Horace Sheridan-Bickers, author George Raffalovich, Francis Henry
Everard Joseph Feilding, engineer Herbert Edward Inman, Kenneth Ward,
and Charles Stansfeld Jones. In March 1909, Crowley began
production of a biannual periodical titled The Equinox. He billed this
periodical, which was to become the "Official Organ" of the A∴A∴,
as "The Review of Scientific Illuminism".
Crowley had become increasingly frustrated with Rose's alcoholism, and
in November 1909 he divorced her on the grounds of his own adultery.
Lola was entrusted to Rose's care; the couple remained friends and
Rose continued to live at Boleskine. Her alcoholism worsened, and as a
result she was institutionalised in September 1911.
Algeria and the Rites of Eleusis: 1909–11
In November 1909, Crowley and Neuburg travelled to Algeria, touring
the desert from El Arba to Aumale, Bou Saâda, and then Dā'leh Addin,
with Crowley reciting the
Quran on a daily basis. During the trip he
invoked the thirty aethyrs of
Enochian magic, with Neuburg recording
the results, later published in
The Equinox as The Vision and the
Voice. Following a mountaintop sex magic ritual, Crowley also
performed an invocation to the demon
Choronzon involving blood
sacrifice, considering the results to be a watershed in his magical
career. Returning to London in January 1910, Crowley found that
Mathers was suing him for publishing Golden Dawn secrets in The
Equinox; the court found in favour of Crowley. The case was widely
reported in the press, with Crowley gaining wider fame. Crowley
enjoyed this, and played up to the sensationalist stereotype of being
Satanist and advocate of human sacrifice, despite being neither.
The publicity attracted new members to the A∴A∴, among them Frank
Bennett, James Bayley, Herbert Close, and James Windram. The
Leila Waddell soon became Crowley's lover.
Deciding to expand his teachings to a wider audience, Crowley
developed the Rites of Artemis, a public performance of magic and
A∴A∴ members personifying various deities. It
was first performed at the
A∴A∴ headquarters, with attendees given
a fruit punch containing peyote to enhance their experience. Various
members of the press attended, and reported largely positively on it.
In October and November 1910, Crowley decided to stage something
similar, the Rites of Eleusis, at Caxton Hall, Westminster; this time
press reviews were mixed. Crowley came under particular criticism
from West de Wend Fenton, editor of The Looking Glass newspaper, who
called him "one of the most blasphemous and cold-blooded villains of
modern times". Fenton's articles suggested that Crowley and Jones
were involved in homosexual activity; Crowley did not mind, but Jones
unsuccessfully sued for libel. Fuller broke off his friendship
and involvement with Crowley over the scandal, and Crowley and
Neuburg returned to Algeria for further magical workings.
The Equinox continued publishing, and various books of literature and
poetry were also published under its imprint, like Crowley's
Ambergris, The Winged Beetle, and The Scented Garden, as well as
Neuburg's The Triumph of Pan and Ethel Archer's The Whirlpool. In
1911, Crowley and Waddell holidayed in Montigny-sur-Loing, where he
wrote prolifically, producing poems, short stories, plays, and 19
works on magic and mysticism, including the two final Holy Books of
Thelema. In Paris, he met Mary Desti, who became his next
"Scarlet Woman", with the two undertaking magical workings in St.
Moritz; Crowley believed that one of the Secret Chiefs, Ab-ul-Diz, was
speaking through her. Based on Desti's statements when in trance,
Crowley wrote the two-volume Book 4 (1912–13) and at the time
developed the spelling "magick" in reference to the paranormal
phenomenon as a means of distinguishing it from the stage magic of
Ordo Templi Orientis and the Paris Working: 1912–14
Crowley in ceremonial garb, 1912
In early 1912, Crowley published The Book of Lies, a work of mysticism
Lawrence Sutin described as "his greatest success in
merging his talents as poet, scholar, and magus". The German
Theodor Reuss later accused him of publishing some of the
secrets of his own occult order, the
Ordo Templi Orientis (O.T.O.),
within The Book. Crowley convinced Reuss that the similarities were
coincidental, and the two became friends. Reuss appointed Crowley as
head of the O.T.O's British branch, the Mysteria Mystica Maxima (MMM),
and at a ceremony in
Berlin Crowley adopted the magical name of
Baphomet and was proclaimed "X° Supreme Rex and Sovereign Grand
Master General of Ireland, Iona, and all the Britons". With
Reuss' permission, Crowley set about advertising the MMM and
re-writing many O.T.O. rituals, which were then based largely on
Freemasonry; his incorporation of Thelemite elements proved
controversial in the group. Fascinated by the O.T.O's emphasis on sex
magic, Crowley devised a magical working based on anal sex and
incorporated it into the syllabus for those O.T.O. members who had
been initiated into the eleventh degree.
In March 1913 Crowley acted as producer for The Ragged Ragtime Girls,
a group of female violinists led by Waddell, as they performed at
Old Tivoli theatre. They subsequently performed in Moscow for
six weeks, where Crowley had a sadomasochistic relationship with the
Hungarian Anny Ringler. In Moscow, Crowley continued to write
plays and poetry, including "Hymn to Pan", and the Gnostic Mass, a
Thelemic ritual that became a key part of O.T.O. liturgy. Churton
suggested that Crowley had travelled to Moscow on the orders of
British intelligence to spy on revolutionary elements in the
city. In January 1914 Crowley and Neuburg settled into an
apartment in Paris, where the former was involved in the controversy
surrounding Jacob Epstein's new monument to Oscar Wilde. Together
Crowley and Neuburg performed the six-week "Paris Working", a period
of intense ritual involving strong drug use in which they invoked the
gods Mercury and Jupiter. As part of the ritual, the couple performed
acts of sex magic together, at times being joined by journalist Walter
Duranty. Inspired by the results of the Working, Crowley wrote Liber
Agapé, a treatise on sex magic. Following the Paris Working,
Neuburg began to distance himself from Crowley, resulting in an
argument in which Crowley cursed him.
United States: 1914–19
By 1914 Crowley was living a hand-to-mouth existence, relying largely
on donations from
A∴A∴ members and dues payments made to
O.T.O. In May he transferred ownership of
Boleskine House to the
MMM for financial reasons, and in July he went mountaineering in
the Swiss Alps. During this time the
First World War
First World War broke out.
After recuperating from a bout of phlebitis, Crowley set sail for the
United States aboard the
RMS Lusitania in October 1914. Arriving
in New York City, he moved into a hotel and began earning money
writing for the American edition of Vanity Fair and undertaking
freelance work for the famed astrologer Evangeline Adams. In the
city, he continued experimenting with sex magic, through the use of
masturbation, female prostitutes, and male clients of a Turkish
bathhouse; all of these encounters were documented in his
May Morn, one of Crowley's paintings from his time in the US. He
explained it thus: "The painting represents the dawning of the day
following a witches' celebration as described in Faust. The witch is
hanged, as she deserves, and the satyr looks out from behind a
Professing to be of Irish ancestry and a supporter of Irish
independence from Great Britain, Crowley began to espouse support for
Germany in their war against Britain. He became involved in New York's
pro-German movement, and in January 1915 German spy George Sylvester
Viereck employed him as a writer for his propagandist paper, The
Fatherland, which was dedicated to keeping the US neutral in the
conflict. In later years, detractors denounced Crowley as a
traitor to Britain for this action. In reality, Crowley was a
double agent, working for the British intelligence services to
infiltrate and undermine Germany's operation in New York. Many of his
The Fatherland were hyperbolic, for instance comparing
Kaiser Wilhelm II
Kaiser Wilhelm II to Jesus Christ; in July 1915 he orchestrated a
publicity stunt – reported on by The New York Times – in
which he declared independence for Ireland in front of the Statue of
Liberty; the real intention was to make the German lobby appear
ridiculous in the eyes of the American public. It has been argued
that he encouraged the German Navy to destroy the Lusitania, informing
them that it would ensure the US stayed out of the war, while in
reality hoping that it would bring the US into the war on Britain's
Crowley entered into a relationship with Jeanne Robert Foster, with
whom he toured the West Coast. In Vancouver, headquarters of the North
American O.T.O., he met with
Charles Stansfeld Jones and Wilfred
Talbot Smith to discuss the propagation of
Thelema on the continent.
In Detroit he experimented with anhalonium at Parke-Davis, then
visited Seattle, San Francisco, Santa Cruz, Los Angeles, San Diego,
Tijuana, and the Grand Canyon, before returning to New York.
There he befriended
Ananda Coomaraswamy and his wife Alice Richardson;
Crowley and Richardson performed sex magic in April 1916, following
which she became pregnant and then miscarried. Later that year he
took a "magical retirement" to a cabin by Lake Pasquaney owned by
Evangeline Adams. There, he made heavy use of drugs and undertook a
ritual after which he proclaimed himself "Master Therion". He also
wrote several short stories based on J.G. Frazer's The Golden Bough
and a work of literary criticism, The Gospel According to Bernard
In December he moved to New Orleans, his favourite US city, before
spending February 1917 with evangelical Christian relatives in
Titusville, Florida. Returning to New York City, he moved in with
A∴A∴ member Leon Engers Kennedy in May, learning of his
mother's death. After the collapse of The Fatherland, Crowley
continued his association with Viereck, who appointed him contributing
editor of arts journal The International. Crowley used it to promote
Thelema, but it soon ceased publication. He then moved to the
studio apartment of Roddie Minor, who became his partner and Scarlet
Woman. Through their rituals, which Crowley called "The Amalantrah
Workings", he believed that they were contacted by a preternatural
entity named Lam. The relationship soon ended.
In 1918, Crowley went on a magical retreat in the wilderness of Esopus
Island on the Hudson River. Here, he began a translation of the Tao Te
Ching, painted Thelemic slogans on the riverside cliffs, and – he
later claimed – experienced past life memories of being Ge Xuan,
Pope Alexander VI, Alessandro Cagliostro, and Eliphas Levi. Back
in New York City, he moved to Greenwich Village, where he took Leah
Hirsig as his lover and next Scarlet Woman. He took up painting
as a hobby, exhibiting his work at the
Greenwich Village Liberal Club
and attracting the attention of the New York Evening World. With
the financial assistance of sympathetic Freemasons, Crowley revived
The Equinox with the first issue of volume III, known as "The Blue
Equinox". He spent mid-1919 on a climbing holiday in Montauk
before returning to London in December.
Abbey of Thelema: 1920–23
Now destitute and back in London, Crowley came under attack from the
tabloid John Bull, which labelled him traitorous "scum" for his work
with the German war effort; several friends aware of his intelligence
work urged him to sue, but he decided not to. When he was
suffering from asthma, a doctor prescribed him heroin, to which he
soon became addicted. In January 1920, he moved to Paris, renting
a house in
Fontainebleau with Leah Hirsig; they were soon joined in a
ménage à trois by Ninette Shumway, and also (in living arrangement)
by Leah's newborn daughter Anne "Poupée" Leah. Crowley had ideas
of forming a community of Thelemites, which he called the Abbey of
Thelema after the Abbaye de Thélème in François Rabelais' satire
Gargantua and Pantagruel. After consulting the I Ching, he chose
Cefalù (on Sicily, Italy) as a location, and after arriving there,
began renting the old Villa Santa Barbara as his Abbey on 2
The dilapidated Abbey of
Thelema in 2017
Moving to the commune with Hirsig, Shumway, and their children Hansi,
Howard, and Poupée, Crowley described the scenario as "perfectly
happy ... my idea of heaven." They wore robes, and performed
rituals to the sun god Ra at set times during the day, also
occasionally performing the Gnostic Mass; the rest of the day they
were left to follow their own interests. Undertaking widespread
correspondences, Crowley continued to paint, wrote a commentary on The
Book of the Law, and revised the third part of Book 4. He offered
a libertine education for the children, allowing them to play all day
and witness acts of sex magic. He occasionally travelled to
Palermo to visit rent boys and buy supplies, including drugs; his
heroin addiction came to dominate his life, and cocaine began to erode
his nasal cavity. There was no cleaning rota, and wild dogs and
cats wandered throughout the building, which soon became
unsanitary. Poupée died in October 1920, and Ninette gave birth
to a daughter, Astarte Lulu Panthea, soon afterwards.
New followers continued to arrive at the Abbey to be taught by
Crowley. Among them was film star Jane Wolfe, who arrived in July
1920, where she was initiated into the
A∴A∴ and became Crowley's
secretary. Another was Cecil Frederick Russell, who often argued
with Crowley, disliking the same-sex sexual magic that he was required
to perform, and left after a year. More conducive was the
Australian Thelemite Frank Bennett, who also spent several months at
the Abbey. In February 1922, Crowley returned to Paris for a
retreat in an unsuccessful attempt to kick his heroin addiction.
He then went to London in search of money, where he published articles
The English Review criticising the
Dangerous Drugs Act 1920 and
wrote a novel, Diary of a Drug Fiend, completed in July. On
publication, it received mixed reviews; he was lambasted by the Sunday
Express, which called for its burning and used its influence to
prevent further reprints.
Subsequently, a young Thelemite named Raoul Loveday moved to the Abbey
with his wife Betty May; while Loveday was devoted to Crowley, May
detested him and life at the commune. She later said that Loveday was
made to drink the blood of a sacrificed cat, and that they were
required to cut themselves with razors every time they used the
pronoun "I". Loveday drank from a local polluted stream, soon
developing a liver infection resulting in his death in February 1923.
Returning to London, May told her story to the press. John Bull
proclaimed Crowley "the wickedest man in the world" and "a man we'd
like to hang", and although Crowley deemed many of their accusations
against him to be slanderous, he was unable to afford the legal fees
to sue them. As a result,
John Bull continued its attack, with its
stories being repeated in newspapers throughout Europe and in North
America. The Fascist government of
Benito Mussolini learned of
Crowley's activities and in April 1923 he was given a deportation
notice forcing him to leave Italy; without him, the Abbey closed.
Tunisia, Paris, and London: 1923–29
Crowley and Hirsig went to Tunis, where, dogged by continuing poor
health, he unsuccessfully tried again to give up heroin, and
began writing what he termed his "autohagiography", The Confessions of
Aleister Crowley. They were joined in
Tunis by the Thelemite
Norman Mudd, who became Crowley's public relations consultant.
Employing a local boy, Mohammad ben Brahim, as his servant, Crowley
went with him on a retreat to Nefta, where they performed sex magic
together. In January 1924, Crowley travelled to Nice, France,
where he met with Frank Harris, underwent a series of nasal
operations, and visited the Institute for the Harmonious
Development of Man and had a positive opinion of its founder, George
Gurdjieff. Destitute, he took on a wealthy student, Alexander Zu
Zolar, before taking on another American follower, Dorothy Olsen.
Crowley took Olsen back to Tunisia for a magical retreat in Nefta,
where he also wrote To Man (1924), a declaration of his own status as
a prophet entrusted with bringing
Thelema to humanity. After
spending the winter in Paris, in early 1925 Crowley and Olsen returned
to Tunis, where he wrote The Heart of the Master (1938) as an account
of a vision he experienced in a trance. In March Olsen became
pregnant, and Hirsig was called to take care of her; she miscarried,
following which Crowley took Olsen back to France. Hirsig later
distanced herself from Crowley, who then denounced her.
According to Crowley, Reuss had named him head of the O.T.O. upon his
death, but this was challenged by a leader of the German O.T.O.,
Heinrich Tränker. Tränker called the Hohenleuben Conference in
Thuringia, Germany, which Crowley attended. There, prominent members
Karl Germer and Martha Küntzel championed Crowley's leadership,
but other key figures like Albin Grau, Oskar Hopfer, and Henri Birven
backed Tränker by opposing it, resulting in a split in the
O.T.O. Moving to Paris, where he broke with Olsen in 1926,
Crowley went through a large number of lovers over the following
years, with whom he experimented in sex magic. Throughout, he was
dogged by poor health, largely caused by his heroin and cocaine
addictions. In 1928, Crowley was introduced to young Englishman
Israel Regardie, who embraced
Thelema and became Crowley's secretary
for the next three years. That year, Crowley also met Gerald
Yorke, who began organising Crowley's finances but never became a
Thelemite. He also befriended Thomas Driberg; Driberg did not
Thelema either. It was here that Crowley also published
one of his most significant works, Magick in Theory and Practice,
which received little attention at the time.
In December 1928 Crowley met the Nicaraguan Maria Teresa Sanchez.
Crowley was deported from France by the authorities, who disliked his
reputation and feared that he was a German agent. So that she
could join him in Britain, Crowley married Sanchez in August
1929. Now based in London, Mandrake Press agreed to publish his
autobiography in a limited edition six-volume set, also publishing his
novel Moonchild and book of short stories The Stratagem. Mandrake went
into liquidation in November 1930, before the entirety of Crowley's
Confessions could be published. Mandrake's owner P.R. Stephenson
meanwhile wrote The Legend of Aleister Crowley, an analysis of the
media coverage surrounding him.
Berlin and London: 1930–38
In April 1930, Crowley moved to Berlin, where he took Hanni Jaegar as
his magical partner; the relationship was troubled. In September
he went to
Lisbon in Portugal to meet the poet Fernando Pessoa. There,
he decided to fake his own death, doing so with Pessoa's help at the
Boca do Inferno
Boca do Inferno rock formation. He then returned to Berlin, where
he reappeared three weeks later at the opening of his art exhibition
at the Gallery Neumann-Nierendorf. Crowley's paintings fitted with the
fashion for German Expressionism; few of them sold, but the press
reports were largely favourable. In August 1931, he took Bertha
Busch as his new lover; they had a violent relationship, and often
physically assaulted one another. He continued to have affairs
with both men and women while in the city, and met with famous
Aldous Huxley and Alfred Adler. After befriending
him, in January 1932 he took the communist
Gerald Hamilton as a
lodger, through whom he was introduced to many figures within the
Berlin far left; it is possible that he was operating as a spy for
British intelligence at this time, monitoring the communist
I have been over forty years engaged in the administration of the law
in one capacity or another. I thought that I knew of every conceivable
form of wickedness. I thought that everything which was vicious and
bad had been produced at one time or another before me. I have learnt
in this case that we can always learn something more if we live long
enough. I have never heard such dreadful, horrible, blasphemous and
abominable stuff as that which has been produced by the man (Crowley)
who describes himself to you as the greatest living poet.
Justice Swift, in Crowley's libel case.
Crowley left Busch and returned to London, where he took Pearl
Brooksmith as his new Scarlet Woman. Undergoing further nasal
surgery, it was here in 1932 that he was invited to be guest of honour
at Foyles' Literary Luncheon, also being invited by
Harry Price to
speak at the National Laboratory of Psychical Research. In need
of money, he launched a series of court cases against people whom he
believed had libelled him, some of which proved successful. He gained
much publicity for his lawsuit against Constable and Co for publishing
Nina Hamnett's Laughing Torso (1932) – a book he thought libelled
him – but lost the case. The court case added to Crowley's
financial problems, and in February 1935 he was declared bankrupt.
During the hearing, it was revealed that Crowley had been spending
three times his income for several years.
Crowley developed a platonic friendship with Deidre Patricia
O'Doherty; she offered to bear his child, who was born in May 1937.
Named Randall Gair, Crowley nicknamed him Aleister Atatürk.
Crowley continued to socialise with friends, holding curry parties in
which he cooked particularly spicy food for them. In 1936, he
published his first book in six years,
The Equinox of the Gods, which
contained a facsimile of
The Book of the Law
The Book of the Law and was considered to be
volume III, number 3, of
The Equinox periodical. The work sold well,
resulting in a second print run. In 1937 he gave a series of
public lectures on yoga in Soho. Crowley was now living largely
off contributions supplied by the O.T.O.'s
Agape Lodge in California,
led by rocket scientist John Whiteside "Jack" Parsons. Crowley
was intrigued by the rise of
Nazism in Germany, and influenced by his
friend Martha Küntzel believed that
Adolf Hitler might convert to
Thelema; when the Nazis abolished the German O.T.O. and imprisoned
Germer, who fled to the US, Crowley then lambasted Hitler as a black
Second World War
Second World War and death: 1939–47
Crowley specified that
Grady McMurtry succeed his chosen successor as
Head of O.T.O., Karl Germer.
Second World War
Second World War broke out, Crowley wrote to the Naval
Intelligence Division offering his services, but they declined. He
associated with a variety of figures in Britain's intelligence
community at the time, including Dennis Wheatley, Roald Dahl, Ian
Fleming, and Maxwell Knight, and claimed to have been behind the
"V for Victory" sign first used by the BBC; this has never been
proven. In 1940, his asthma worsened, and with his
German-produced medication unavailable, he returned to using heroin,
once again becoming addicted. As the Blitz hit London, Crowley
relocated to Torquay, where he was briefly hospitalised with asthma,
and entertained himself with visits to the local chess club.
Tiring of Torquay, he returned to London, where he was visited by
American Thelemite Grady McMurtry, to whom Crowley awarded the title
of "Hymenaeus Alpha". He stipulated that though Germer would be
his immediate successor, McMurty should succeed Germer as head of the
O.T.O. after the latter's death. With O.T.O. initiate Lady Frieda
Harris, Crowley developed plans to produce a tarot card set, designed
by him and painted by Harris. Accompanying this was a book, published
in a limited edition as The Book of Thoth by
Chiswick Press in
1944. To aid the war effort, he wrote a proclamation on the
rights of humanity, Liber Oz, and a poem for the liberation of France,
Le Gauloise. Crowley's final publication during his lifetime was
a book of poetry, Olla: An Anthology of Sixty Years of Song.
Another of his projects, Aleister Explains Everything, was
posthumously published as Magick Without Tears.
In April 1944 Crowley briefly moved to
Aston Clinton in
Buckinghamshire, where he was visited by the poet Nancy
Cunard, before relocating to
Hastings in Sussex, where he took up
residence at the Netherwood boarding house. He took a young man
Kenneth Grant as his secretary, paying him in magical teaching
rather than wages. He was also introduced to John Symonds, whom
he appointed to be his literary executor; Symonds thought little of
Crowley, later publishing negative biographies of him.
Corresponding with the illusionist Arnold Crowther, it was through him
that Crowley was introduced to Gerald Gardner, the future founder of
Gardnerian Wicca. They became friends, with Crowley authorising
Gardner to revive Britain's ailing O.T.O. Another visitor was
Eliza Marian Butler, who interviewed Crowley for her book The Myth of
the Magus. Other friends and family also spent time with him,
among them Doherty and Crowley's son Aleister Atatürk. On 1
December 1947, Crowley died at Netherwood of chronic bronchitis
aggravated by pleurisy and myocardial degeneration, aged 72. His
funeral was held at a
Brighton crematorium on 5 December; about a
dozen people attended, and
Louis Wilkinson read excerpts from the
Gnostic Mass, The Book of the Law, and "Hymn to Pan". The funeral
generated press controversy, and was labelled a
Black Mass by the
tabloids. Crowley's ashes were sent to
Karl Germer in the US, who
buried them in his garden in Hampton, New Jersey.
Beliefs and thought
Main article: Thelema
Aleister Crowley's rendition of the Unicursal Hexagram, the symbol of
Crowley's belief system, Thelema, has been described by scholars as a
religion, and more specifically as both a new religious
movement, and as a "magico-religious doctrine". It has also
been characterised as a form of esotericism and modern Paganism.
Although holding The Book of the Law—which was composed in 1904—as
its central text,
Thelema took shape as a complete system in the years
In his autobiography, Crowley claimed that his purpose in life had
been to "bring oriental wisdom to Europe and to restore paganism in a
purer form", although what he meant by "paganism" was unclear.
Crowley's thought was not always cohesive, and was influenced by a
variety of sources, ranging from eastern religious movements and
practices like Hindu yoga and Buddhism, scientific naturalism, and
various currents within Western esotericism, among them ceremonial
magic, alchemy, astrology, Rosicrucianism, Kabbalah, and the
Tarot. He was steeped in the esoteric teachings he had learned
from the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, although pushed further
with his own interpretations and strategies than the Golden Dawn had
done. Crowley incorporated concepts and terminology from South
Asian religious traditions like yoga and
Tantra into his Thelemic
system, believing that there was a fundamental underlying resemblance
between Western and Eastern spiritual systems. The historian Alex
Owen noted that Crowley adhered to the "modus operandi" of the
Decadent movement throughout his life.
Crowley believed that the twentieth century marked humanity's entry to
the Aeon of Horus, a new era in which humans would take increasing
control of their destiny. He believed that this Aeon follows on from
the Aeon of Osiris, in which paternalistic religions like
Christianity, Islam, and
Buddhism dominated the world, and that this
in turn had followed the Aeon of Isis, which had been maternalistic
and dominated by goddess worship. He believed that
the proper religion of the Aeon of Horus, and also deemed himself
to be the prophet of this new Aeon.
Thelema revolves around the
idea that human beings each have their own
True Will that they should
discover and pursue, and that this exists in harmony with the Cosmic
Will that pervades the universe. Crowley referred to this process
of searching and discovery of one's
True Will to be "the Great Work"
or the attaining of the "knowledge and conversation of the Holy
Guardian Angel". His favoured method of doing so was through the
performance of the Abramelin operation, a ceremonial magic ritual
obtained from a 17th-century grimoire. The moral code of "Do What
Thou Wilt" is believed by Thelemites to be the religion's ethical law,
although the historian of religion Marco Pasi noted that this was not
anarchistic or libertarian in structure, as Crowley saw individuals as
part of a wider societal organism.
Magick and theology
Crowley believed in the objective existence of magic, which he chose
to spell "Magick", an older archaic spelling of the word. He
provided various different definitions of this term over his
career. In his book Magick in Theory and Practice, Crowley
defined Magick as "the Science and Art of causing change to occur in
conformity with Will". He also told his disciple
Karl Germer that
"Magick is getting into communication with individuals who exist on a
higher plane than ours.
Mysticism is the raising of oneself to their
level." Crowley saw Magick as a third way between religion and
The Equinox the subtitle of "The Method of Science;
the Aim of Religion". Within that journal he expressed positive
sentiments toward science and the scientific method, and urged
magicians to keep detailed records of their magical experiments, "The
more scientific the record is, the better." His understanding of
magic was also influenced by the work of the anthropologist James
Frazer, in particular the view that magic was a precursor to science
in a cultural evolutionary framework. Unlike Frazer, however,
Crowley did not see magic as a survival from the past that required
eradication, but rather he believed that magic had to be adapted to
suit the new age of science.
"To [Crowley] the greatest aim of the magician was to merge with a
higher power connected to the wellsprings of the universe, but he did
not trouble himself too much to define that power consistently;
sometimes it was God, sometimes the One, sometimes a goddess, and
sometimes one's own
Holy Guardian Angel or higher self. In the last
analysis he was content for the nature of divinity to remain a
mystery. As a result he wrote at times like an atheist, at times like
a monotheist, and at others like a polytheist."
Ronald Hutton 
Sexuality played an important role in Crowley's ideas about magick and
his practice of it, and has been described as being central to
Thelema. He outlined three forms of sex magick—the autoerotic,
homosexual, and heterosexual—and argued that such acts could be used
to focus the magician's will onto a specific goal such as financial
gain or personal creative success. For Crowley, sex was treated
as a sacrament, with the consumption of sexual fluids interpreted as a
Eucharist. This was often manifested as the Cakes of Light, a
biscuit containing either menstrual blood or a mixture of semen and
vaginal fluids. The
Gnostic Mass is the central religious
ceremony within Thelema.
Crowley's theological beliefs were not clear. The historian Ronald
Hutton noted that some of Crowley's writings could be used to argue
that he was an atheist, while some support the idea that he was a
polytheist, and others would bolster the idea that he was a
mystical monotheist. On the basis of the teachings in The Book of
the Law, Crowley described a pantheon of three deities taken from the
ancient Egyptian pantheon: Nuit, Hadit, and Ra-Hoor-Khuit. In
1928, he made the claim that all "true" deities were "derived" from
Both during his life and after it, Crowley has been widely described
as a Satanist, usually by detractors. Crowley stated he did not
consider himself a Satanist, nor did he worship Satan, as he did not
accept the Christian world view in which
Satan was believed to
exist. He nevertheless used Satanic imagery, for instance by
describing himself as "the Beast 666" and referring to the Whore of
Babylon in his work, while in later life he sent "Antichristmas cards"
to his friends. In his writings, Crowley occasionally identified
Satan and designated him as "Our Lord God the Devil" at one
occasion. The scholar of religion Gordan Djurdjevic stated that
Crowley "was emphatically not" a Satanist, "if for no other reason
than simply because he did not identify himself as such". Crowley
nevertheless expressed anti-Christian sentiment, stating that he hated
Christianity "as Socialists hate soap", an animosity likely
stemming from his experiences among the Plymouth Brethren. He was
also accused of advocating human sacrifice, largely because of a
passage in Book 4 in which he stated that "A male child of perfect
innocence and high intelligence is the most satisfactory victim" and
added that he had sacrificed about 150 every year. This was a
tongue-in-cheek reference to ejaculation, something not realised by
his critics, thus reflecting their own "ignorance and prejudice"
Crowley considered himself to be one of the outstanding figures of his
time. The historian
Ronald Hutton stated that in Crowley's youth,
he was "a self-indulgent and flamboyant young man" who "set about a
deliberate flouting and provocation of social and religious norms",
while being shielded from an "outraged public opinion" by his
inherited wealth. Hutton also described Crowley as having both an
"unappeasable desire" to take control of any organisation that he
belonged to, and "a tendency to quarrel savagely" with those who
challenged him. Crowley biographer
Martin Booth asserted that
Crowley was "self-confident, brash, eccentric, egotistic, highly
intelligent, arrogant, witty, wealthy, and, when it suited him,
cruel". Similarly, Richard Spence noted that Crowley was "capable
of immense physical and emotional cruelty". Biographer Lawrence
Sutin noted that Crowley exhibited "courage, skill, dauntless energy,
and remarkable focus of will" while at the same time showing a "blind
arrogance, petty fits of bile, [and] contempt for the abilities of his
fellow men". The Thelemite
Lon Milo DuQuette
Lon Milo DuQuette noted that Crowley
"was by no means perfect" and "often alienated those who loved him
Crowley enjoyed being outrageous and flouting conventional
John Symonds noting that he "was in revolt against
the moral and religious values of his time". Crowley's political
thought was studied by academic Marco Pasi, who noted that for
Crowley, socio-political concerns were subordinate to metaphysical and
spiritual ones. He was neither on the political left nor right
but perhaps best categorised as a "conservative revolutionary" despite
not being affiliated with the German-based conservative revolutionary
movement. Pasi described Crowley's affinity to the extreme
Nazism and Marxism–Leninism, which aimed to violently
overturn society: "What Crowley liked about
Nazism and communism, or
at least what made him curious about them, was the anti-Christian
position and the revolutionary and socially subversive implications of
these two movements. In their subversive powers, he saw the
possibility of an annihilation of old religious traditions, and the
creation of a void that Thelema, subsequently, would be able to
fill." Crowley described democracy as an "imbecile and nauseating
cult of weakness", and commented that The Book of the Law
proclaimed that "there is the master and there is the slave; the noble
and the serf; the 'lone wolf' and the herd". In this attitude he
was influenced by the work of
Friedrich Nietzsche and by Social
Darwinism. Although he had contempt for most of the British
aristocracy, he regarded himself as an aristocrat and styled himself
as Laird Boleskine, once describing his ideology as "aristocratic
Views on race and gender
Crowley was bisexual, and exhibited a sexual preference for
women, with his homosexual relationships being fewer and
clustered in the early part of his life. In particular he had an
attraction toward "exotic women", and claimed to have fallen in
love on multiple occasions; Kaczynski stated that "when he loved, he
did so with his whole being, but the passion was typically
short-lived". Even in later life, Crowley was able to attract
young bohemian women to be his lovers, largely due to his
charisma. During homosexual anal intercourse, he usually played
the passive role, which Booth believed "appealed to his
masochistic side". Crowley argued that homosexual and bisexual
people should not suppress their sexual orientation, commenting
that a person "must not be ashamed or afraid of being homosexual if he
happens to be so at heart; he must not attempt to violate his own true
nature because of public opinion, or medieval morality, or religious
prejudice which would wish he were otherwise." On other issues he
adopted a more conservative attitude; he opposed abortion on moral
grounds, believing that no woman following her
True Will would ever
Lawrence Sutin stated that "blatant bigotry is a persistent
minor element in Crowley's writings". Sutin thought Crowley "a
spoiled scion of a wealthy Victorian family who embodied many of the
John Bull racial and social prejudices of his upper-class
contemporaries", noting that he "embodied the contradiction that
writhed within many Western intellectuals of the time: deeply held
racist viewpoints courtesy of society, coupled with a fascination with
people of colour". Crowley insulted his close Jewish friend
Victor Neuburg using anti-Semitic slurs and he had mixed opinions
about Jews as a group. Although he praised their "sublime" poetry and
stated that they exhibited "imagination, romance, loyalty, probity and
humanity", he also thought that centuries of persecution had led some
Jews to exhibit "avarice, servility, falseness, cunning and the
rest". He was also known to praise various ethnic and cultural
groups, for instance he thought that the Chinese people exhibited a
"spiritual superiority" to the English, and praised Muslims for
exhibiting "manliness, straightforwardness, subtlety, and
Crowley also exhibited a "general misogyny" that Booth believed arose
from his bad relationship with his mother. Sutin noted that
Crowley "largely accepted the notion, implicitly embodied in Victorian
sexology, of women as secondary social beings in terms of intellect
and sensibility". Crowley described women as "moral inferiors"
who had to be treated with "firmness, kindness and justice".
Legacy and influence
"[H]e is today looked upon as a source of inspiration by many people
in search of spiritual enlightenment and/ or instructions in magical
practice. Thus, while during his life his books hardly sold and his
disciples were never very numerous, nowadays all his important works
are constantly in print, and the people defining themselves as
"thelemites" (that is, followers of Crowley's new religion) number
several thousands all over the world. Furthermore, Crowley's influence
over magically oriented new religious movements has in some cases been
very deep and pervasive. It would be difficult to understand, for
instance, some aspects of Anglo-Saxon neo-paganism and contemporary
satanism without a solid knowledge of Crowley's doctrines and ideas.
In other fields, such as poetry, alpinism and painting, he may have
been a minor figure, but it is only fair to admit that, in the limited
context of occultism, he has played and still plays a major role."
Marco Pasi, 2003.
Crowley has remained an influential figure, both amongst occultists
and in popular culture, particularly that of Britain, but also of
other parts of the world. In 2002, a
BBC poll placed Crowley
seventy-third in a list of the 100 Greatest Britons. Richard
Cavendish has written of him that "In native talent, penetrating
intelligence and determination,
Aleister Crowley was the best-equipped
magician to emerge since the seventeenth century."  The scholar
of esotericism Egil Asprem described him as "one of the most
well-known figures in modern occultism". The scholar of
Wouter Hanegraaff asserted that Crowley was an extreme
representation of "the dark side of the occult", adding that he
was "the most notorious occultist magician of the twentieth
century". The philosopher John Moore opined that Crowley stood
out as a "Modern Master" when compared with other prominent occult
figures like George Gurdjieff, P.D. Ouspensky, Rudolf Steiner, or
Helena Blavatsky, also describing him as a "living embodiment" of
Oswald Spengler's "Faustian Man". Biographer Tobias Churton
considered Crowley "a pioneer of consciousness research". Hutton
noted that Crowley had "an important place in the history of modern
Western responses to Oriental spiritual traditions", while Sutin
thought that he had made "distinctly original contributions" to the
study of yoga in the West.
Thelema continued to develop and spread following Crowley's death. In
1969, the O.T.O. was reactivated in California under the leadership of
Grady Louis McMurtry; in 1985 its right to the title was
unsuccessfully challenged in court by a rival group, the Society Ordo
Templi Orientis, led by Brazilian Thelemite Marcelo Ramos Motta.
Another American Thelemite was the filmmaker Kenneth Anger, who had
been influenced by Crowley's writings from a young age. In the
Kenneth Grant propagated a tradition known as
Thelema through his organisation, the Typhonian O.T.O.,
later renamed the Typhonian Order. Also in Britain, an occultist
Amado Crowley claimed to be Crowley's son; this has been
refuted by academic investigation. Amado argued that
Thelema was a
false religion created by Crowley to hide his true esoteric teachings,
which Amado claimed to be propagating.
Several Western esoteric traditions other than
Thelema were also
influenced by Crowley, with Djurdjevic observing that "Crowley's
influence on twentieth-century and contemporary esotericism has been
enormous". Gerald Gardner, founder of Gardnerian Wicca, made use
of much of Crowley's published material when composing the Gardnerian
ritual liturgy, and the Australian witch
Rosaleen Norton was also
heavily influenced by Crowley's ideas. More widely, Crowley
became "a dominant figure" in the modern Pagan community. L. Ron
Hubbard, the American founder of Scientology, was involved in Thelema
in the early 1940s (with Jack Parsons), and it has been argued that
Crowley's ideas influenced some of Hubbard's work. The scholars
of religion Asbjørn Dyrendel, James R. Lewis, and Jesper Petersen
noted that despite the fact that Crowley was not a Satanist, he "in
many ways embodies the pre-
Satanist esoteric discourse on
Satanism through his lifestyle and his philosophy", with his "image
and ought" becoming an "important influence" on the later development
of religious Satanism. For instance, two prominent figures in
Anton LaVey and Michael Aquino, were influenced by
Crowley also had a wider influence in British popular culture. After
his time in Cefalu which had brought him to public attention in
Britain, various "literary Crowleys" appeared; characters in fiction
based upon him. One of the earliest was the character of the poet
Shelley Arabin in John Buchan's 1926 novel The Dancing Floor. In
his novel The Devil Rides Out, the writer
Dennis Wheatley used Crowley
as a partial basis for the character of Damien Morcata, a portly bald
defrocked priest who engages in black magic. The occultist Dion
Fortune used Crowley as a basis for characters in her books The
Secrets of Doctor Taverner (1926) and The Winged Bull (1935). He
was included as one of the figures on the cover art of The Beatles'
Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band
Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band (1967), and his motto
of "Do What Thou Wilt" was inscribed on the vinyl of Led Zeppelin's
Led Zeppelin III (1970).
Led Zeppelin co-founder Jimmy Page
bought Boleskine in 1971, and part of the band's film The Song Remains
the Same was filmed in the grounds. He sold it in 1992. David
Bowie made reference to Crowley in the lyrics of his song "Quicksand"
Ozzy Osbourne and his lyricist
Bob Daisley wrote a
song titled "Mr Crowley" (1980).  Crowley began to receive
scholarly attention from academics in the late 1990s.
Main article: List of works by Aleister Crowley
^ Booth 2000, pp. 4–5; Sutin 2000, p. 15; Kaczynski 2010,
^ Booth 2000, pp. 2–3; Sutin 2000, pp. 31–23; Kaczynski
2010, pp. 4–8; Churton 2011, pp. 14–15.
^ Booth 2000, p. 3; Sutin 2000, pp. 18–21; Kaczynski 2010,
pp. 13–16; Churton 2011, pp. 17–21.
^ Booth 2000, p. 3; Kaczynski 2010, p. 13–14; Churton
2011, p. 17.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 3–4, 6, 9–10; Sutin 2000, pp. 17–23;
Kaczynski 2010, pp. 11–12, 16.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 6–7; Kaczynski 2010, p. 16; Churton
2011, p. 24.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 12–14; Sutin 2000, p. 25–29; Kaczynski
2010, pp. 17–18; Churton 2011, p. 24.
^ Booth 2000, p. 15; Sutin 2000, pp. 24–25; Kaczynski
2010, p. 19; Churton 2011, pp. 24–25.
^ Booth 2000, p. 10; Sutin 2000, p. 21.
^ Sutin 2000, pp. 27–30; Kaczynski 2010, pp. 19, 21–22.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 32–39; Sutin 2000, pp. 32–33;
Kaczynski 2010, p. 27; Churton 2011, pp. 26–27.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 15–16; Sutin 2000, pp. 25–26;
Kaczynski 2010, p. 23.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 26–27; Sutin 2000, p. 33; Kaczynski
2010, pp. 24, 27; Churton 2011, p. 26.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 39–43; Sutin 2000, pp. 30–32, 34;
Kaczynski 2010, pp. 27–30; Churton 2011, pp. 26–27.
^ Booth 2000, p. 49; Sutin 2000, pp. 34–35; Kaczynski
2010, p. 32; Churton 2011, pp. 27–28.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 51–52; Sutin 2000, pp. 36–37;
Kaczynski 2010, p. 23.
^ Kaczynski 2010, p. 35.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 50–51; Kaczynski 2010, pp. 33–35.
^ Symonds 1997, p. 13; Booth 2000, pp. 53–56; Sutin 2000,
pp. 50–52; Kaczynski 2010, p. 35, 42–45, 50–51;
Churton 2011, p. 35.
^ Crowley 1989, p. 139.
^ Symonds 1997, p. 14; Booth 2000, pp. 56–57; Kaczynski
2010, p. 36; Churton 2011, p. 29.
^ Sutin 2000, p. 38; Kaczynski 2010, p. 36; Churton 2011,
^ Booth 2000, pp. 59–62; Sutin 2000, p. 43; Churton 2011,
^ Booth 2000, pp. 64–65; Sutin 2000, pp. 41–47;
Kaczynski 2010, pp. 37–40, 45; Churton 2011, pp. 33–24.
^ Spence 2008, pp. 19–20; Sutin 2000, p. 37; Kaczynski
2010, p. 35; Churton 2011, pp. 30–31.
^ Spence 2008, pp. 19–20; Churton 2011, pp. 30–31.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 57–58; Sutin 2000, pp. 37–39;
Kaczynski 2010, p. 36.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 58–59; Sutin 2000, p. 41; Kaczynski
2010, pp. 40–42.
^ Symonds 1997, pp. 14–15; Booth 2000, pp. 72–73; Sutin
2000, pp. 44–45; Kaczynski 2010, pp. 46–47.
^ Symonds 1997, p. 15; Booth 2000, pp. 74–75; Sutin 2000,
pp. 44–45; Kaczynski 2010, pp. 48–50.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 78–79; Sutin 2000, pp. 35–36.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 81–82; Sutin 2000, pp. 52–53;
Kaczynski 2010, pp. 52–53.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 82–85; Sutin 2000, pp. 53–54;
Kaczynski 2010, pp. 54–55.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 85, 93–94; Sutin 2000, pp. 54–55;
Kaczynski 2010, pp. 60–61; Churton 2011, p. 35.
^ Spence 2008, pp. 22–28; Churton 2011, pp. 38–46.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 98–103; Sutin 2000, pp. 64–66;
Kaczynski 2010, pp. 54–55, 62–64, 67–68; Churton 2011,
^ Booth 2000, pp. 103–05; Sutin 2000, pp. 70–71;
Kaczynski 2010, pp. 70–71; Churton 2011, p. 55.
^ Symonds 1997, p. 29; Booth 2000, pp. 107–11; Sutin 2000,
pp. 72–73; Kaczynski 2010, pp. 68–69; Churton 2011,
^ Booth 2000, pp. 114–15; Sutin 2000, pp. 44–45;
Kaczynski 2010, pp. 61, 66, 70.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 115–16; Sutin 2000, p. 71–72;
Kaczynski 2010, p. 64.
^ Symonds 1997, p. 37; Booth 2000, pp. 115–16; Sutin 2000,
pp. 67–69; Kaczynski 2010, pp. 64–67.
^ Booth 2000, p. 116; Sutin 2000, pp. 73–75; Kaczynski
2010, pp. 70–73; Churton 2011, pp. 53–54.
^ Booth 2000, p. 118; Sutin 2000, pp. 73–75; Kaczynski
2010, pp. 74–75; Churton 2011, p. 57.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 118–23; Sutin 2000, pp. 76–79;
Kaczynski 2010, pp. 75–80; Churton 2011, pp. 58–60.
^ Spence 2008, p. 27.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 127–37; Sutin 2000, pp. 80–86;
Kaczynski 2010, pp. 83–90; Churton 2011, pp. 64–70.
^ Spence 2008, p. 32.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 137–39; Sutin 2000, pp. 86–90;
Kaczynski 2010, pp. 90–93; Churton 2011, pp. 71–75.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 139–44; Sutin 2000, pp. 90–95;
Kaczynski 2010, pp. 93–96; Churton 2011, pp. 76–78.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 144–47; Sutin 2000, pp. 94–98;
Kaczynski 2010, pp. 96–98; Churton 2011, pp. 78–83.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 148–56; Sutin 2000, pp. 98–104;
Kaczynski 2010, pp. 98–108; Churton 2011, p. 83.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 159–63; Sutin 2000, pp. 104–08;
Kaczynski 2010, pp. 109–15; Churton 2011, pp. 84–86.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 164–67; Sutin 2000, pp. 105–07;
Kaczynski 2010, pp. 112–13; Churton 2011, p. 85.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 171–77; Sutin 2000, pp. 110–16;
Kaczynski 2010, pp. 119–24; Churton 2011, pp. 89–90.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 181–82; Sutin 2000, pp. 118–20;
Kaczynski 2010, p. 124; Churton 2011, p. 94.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 182–83; Sutin 2000, pp. 120–22;
Kaczynski 2010, pp. 124–26; Churton 2011, pp. 96–98.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 184–88; Sutin 2000, pp. 122–25;
Kaczynski 2010, pp. 127–29.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 184–88; Sutin 2000, pp. 125–33.
^ Booth 2000, p. 188; Sutin 2000, p. 139; Kaczynski 2010,
^ Booth 2000, pp. 189, 194–95; Sutin 2000, pp. 140–141;
Kaczynski 2010, p. 130; Churton 2011, p. 108.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 195–96; Sutin 2000, p. 142; Kaczynski
2010, p. 132; Churton 2011, p. 108.
^ Booth 2000, p. 190; Sutin 2000, p. 142; Kaczynski 2010,
^ Booth 2000, pp. 241–42; Sutin 2000, pp. 177–79;
Kaczynski 2010, pp. 136–37, 139, 168–69.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 201–15; Sutin 2000, pp. 149–58;
Kaczynski 2010, pp. 138–49; Churton 2011, pp. 111–12.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 217–19; Sutin 2000, pp. 158–62;
Kaczynski 2010, pp. 151–52.
^ Booth 2000, p. 221; Sutin 2000, pp. 162–63; Churton
2011, p. 114.
^ Spence 2008, pp. 33–35; Churton 2011, p. 115.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 221–32; Sutin 2000, pp. 164–69;
Kaczynski 2010, pp. 153–54; Churton 2011, pp. 115–18.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 232–35; Sutin 2000, pp. 169–71;
Kaczynski 2010, pp. 155–56; Churton 2011, pp. 118–21.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 235–36, 239; Sutin 2000, pp. 171–72;
Kaczynski 2010, pp. 159–60; Churton 2011, p. 121.
^ Kaczynski 2010 p. 160
^ Booth 2000, p. 246; Sutin 2000, p. 179; Kaczynski 2010,
pp. 159–60, 173–74.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 236–37; Sutin 2000, pp. 172–73;
Kaczynski 2010, pp. 159–60; Churton 2011, p. 125.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 239–40; Sutin 2000, pp. 173–74;
Kaczynski 2010, pp. 157–60.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 240–41; Sutin 2000, pp. 173, 175–76;
Kaczynski 2010, p. 179; Churton 2011, p. 128.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 251–52; Sutin 2000, p. 181; Kaczynski
2010, p. 172.
^ Kaczynski 2010, pp. 173–75.
^ Sutin 2000, pp. 195–96; Kaczynski 2010, pp. 189–90;
Churton 2011, pp. 147–48.
^ Booth 2000, p. 243.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 249–51; Sutin 2000, p. 180; Churton
2011, pp. 129–36.
^ Booth 2000, p. 252.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 255–62; Sutin 2000, pp. 184–87;
Kaczynski 2010, pp. 179–80; Churton 2011, pp. 129–30,
^ Booth 2000, pp. 267–68; Sutin 2000, pp. 196–98;
Churton 2011, pp. 146–47.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 244–45; Sutin 2000, pp. 179, 181;
Kaczynski 2010, pp. 176, 191–92; Churton 2011, p. 131.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 246–47; Sutin 2000, pp. 182–83;
Churton 2011, p. 141.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 254–55; Churton 2011, p. 172.
^ Kaczynski 2010, p. 178.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 247–48; Sutin 2000, p. 175; Kaczynski
2010, p. 183; Churton 2011, p. 128.
^ Crowley 1983. p. 32.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 263–64; Kaczynski 2010, pp. 172–73;
Churton 2011, p. 146.
^ Sutin 2000, p. 207; Kaczynski 2010, pp. 185–89.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 265–67; Sutin 2000, pp. 192–93;
Kaczynski 2010, pp. 183–84; Churton 2011, p. 144.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 270–72; Sutin 2000, pp. 198–99;
Kaczynski 2010, pp. 182–83, 194; Churton 2011, p. 148.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 274–82; Sutin 2000, pp. 199–204;
Kaczynski 2010, pp. 193–203; Churton 2011, pp. 149–52.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 282–83; Sutin 2000, pp. 205–06;
Kaczynski 2010, pp. 205–08; Churton 2011, p. 160.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 283–84.
^ Kaczynski 2010, pp. 210–11.
^ Booth 2000, p. 285; Sutin 2000, pp. 206–07; Kaczynski
2010, pp. 211–13; Churton 2011, p. 160.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 286–89; Sutin 2000, pp. 209–12;
Kaczynski 2010, pp. 217–28; Churton 2011, pp. 161–62.
^ Booth 2000, p. 289; Sutin 2000, p. 212; Kaczynski 2010,
p. 225; Churton 2011, p. 163.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 291–92; Sutin 2000, pp. 213–15;
Kaczynski 2010, pp. 229–34; Churton 2011, p. 164.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 293–94; Sutin 2000, p. 215; Kaczynski
2010, pp. 234; Churton 2011, p. 164.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 289–90; Sutin 2000, pp. 213–14;
Kaczynski 2010, pp. 229–30; Churton 2011, pp. 163–64.
^ Sutin 2000, pp. 207–08; Kaczynski 2010, pp. 213–15;
Churton 2011, p. 158.
^ Booth 2000, p. 297; Kaczynski 2010, pp. 235–37.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 297–301; Sutin 2000, pp. 217–22;
Kaczynski 2010, pp. 239–248; Churton 2011, pp. 165–66.
^ Booth 2000, p. 301; Sutin 2000, pp. 222–24; Kaczynski
2010, pp. 247–50; Churton 2011, p. 166.
^ Booth 2000, p. 302; Sutin 2000, pp. 224–25; Kaczynski
2010, p. 251.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 302–305; Sutin 2000, pp. 225–26;
Kaczynski 2010, pp. 251–25.
^ Booth 2000, p. 306; Sutin 2000, p. 228; Kaczynski 2010,
^ Booth 2000, pp. 308–09; Sutin 2000, pp. 232–34;
Kaczynski 2010, pp. 261–65.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 309–10; Sutin 2000, pp. 234–235;
Kaczynski 2010, p. 264.
^ Churton 2011, pp. 178–82.
^ Booth 2000, p. 307; Sutin 2000, p. 218; Kaczynski 2010,
^ Booth 2000, pp. 313–16; Sutin 2000, pp. 235–40;
Kaczynski 2010, pp. 269–74.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 317–19; Sutin 2000, pp. 240–41;
Kaczynski 2010, pp. 275–76.
^ Booth 2000, p. 321.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 321–22; Sutin 2000, p. 240; Kaczynski
2010, p. 277; Churton 2011, p. 186.
^ Booth 2000, p. 322; Kaczynski 2010, p. 277.
^ Booth 2000, p. 323; Sutin 2000, p. 241; Kaczynski 2010,
p. 278; Churton 2011, pp. 187–89.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 323–34; Kaczynski 2010, pp. 281–82,
^ Booth 2000, p. 325; Sutin 2000, pp. 243–44.
^ Kaczynski 2010, p. 341.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 326–30; Sutin 2000, pp. 245–47;
Kaczynski 2010, pp. 283–84.
^ Sutin 2000, p. 247; Churton 2011, p. 186.
^ Sutin 2000, pp. 247–48; Spence 2008, pp. 67–76;
Kaczynski 2010, pp. 284–87, 292–92; Churton 2011,
^ Spence 2008, pp. 82–89; Churton 2011, pp. 195–97.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 330–33; Sutin 2000, pp. 251–55;
Kaczynski 2010, pp. 288–91, 295–97; Churton 2011,
^ Booth 2000, p. 333; Sutin 2000, pp. 255–57; Kaczynski
2010, pp. 298–301.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 333–35; Sutin 2000, pp. 257–61;
Kaczynski 2010, pp. 304–09.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 336–38; Sutin 2000, pp. 261–62;
Kaczynski 2010, pp. 309–13.
^ Booth 2000, p. 338; Sutin 2000, p. 263; Kaczynski 2010,
^ Booth 2000, pp. 339–40; Sutin 2000, pp. 264–66;
Kaczynski 2010, p. 320.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 342–44; Sutin 2000, pp. 264–67;
Kaczynski 2010, pp. 320–30.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 344–45; Sutin 2000, pp. 267–72;
Kaczynski 2010, pp. 330–31.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 346–50; Sutin 2000, pp. 274–76;
Kaczynski 2010, pp. 338–43.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 344–45; Sutin 2000, pp. 274–76;
Kaczynski 2010, pp. 340–41.
^ Booth 2000, p. 351; Sutin 2000, p. 273; Kaczynski 2010,
^ Booth 2000, pp. 351–52; Sutin 2000, p. 277; Kaczynski
2010, p. 347.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 355–56; Sutin 2000, p. 278; Kaczynski
2010, p. 356; Churton 2011, p. 246.
^ Booth 2000, p. 357; Sutin 2000, p. 277; Kaczynski 2010,
^ Booth 2000, pp. 356–60; Sutin 2000, pp. 278–79;
Kaczynski 2010, pp. 356–358; Churton 2011, p. 246.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 360–63; Sutin 2000, pp. 279–80;
Kaczynski 2010, pp. 358–59; Churton 2011, pp. 246–48.
^ Booth 2000, p. 365.
^ Booth 2000, p. 368; Sutin 2000, p. 286; Kaczynski 2010,
^ Booth 2000, pp. 365–66; Sutin 2000, pp. 280–81;
Kaczynski 2010, pp. 365, 372.
^ Booth 2000, p. 367; Kaczynski 2010, p. 359.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 366, 369–70; Sutin 2000, pp. 281–82;
Kaczynski 2010, pp. 361–62; Churton 2011, pp. 251–52.
^ Booth 2000, p. 368; Sutin 2000, pp. 286–87.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 372–73; Sutin 2000, p. 285; Kaczynski
2010, pp. 365–66; Churton 2011, p. 252.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 371–72; Sutin 2000, pp. 286–87;
Kaczynski 2010, pp. 362–65, 371–72.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 373–74; Sutin 2000, pp. 287–88;
Kaczynski 2010, pp. 366–68.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 376–78; Sutin 2000, pp. 293–94;
Kaczynski 2010, pp. 373–76; Churton 2011, pp. 255–56.
^ Booth 2000, p. 379; Sutin 2000, pp. 290–91; Kaczynski
2010, pp. 377–78; Churton 2011, pp. 258–59.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 380–85; Sutin 2000, pp. 298–301;
Kaczynski 2010, pp. 379–80, 384–87; Churton 2011,
^ Booth 2000, pp. 385–94; Sutin 2000, pp. 301–306;
Kaczynski 2010, pp. 381–84, 397–92; Churton 2011,
^ Booth 2000, pp. 394–95; Sutin 2000, pp. 307–08;
Kaczynski 2010, pp. 392–94; Churton 2011, pp. 261–62.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 395–96; Sutin 2000, p. 308; Kaczynski
2010, pp. 396–97; Churton 2011, pp. 263–64.
^ Booth 2000, pp. 399–401; Sutin 2000, p. 310; Kaczynski
2010, p. 397; Churton 2011, p. 270.
^ Booth 2000, p. 403; Sutin 2000, pp. 310–11; Kaczynski
2010, p. 398.
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Invention of Satanism. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.
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Anger. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-016700-4.
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