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The Alchon
Alchon
Huns, also known as the Alchono, Alxon, Alkhon, Alkhan, Alakhana and Walxon, were a nomadic people who established states in Central Asia
Central Asia
and South Asia
South Asia
during the 5th and 6th centuries CE. They were first mentioned as being located in Paropamisus, and later expanded south-east, into the Punjab
Punjab
and central India, as far as Eran and Kausambi. The Alchon
Alchon
invasion of South Asia
South Asia
greatly weakened, and contributed to the fall of, the Gupta Empire. The names of the Alchon kings are known from their extensive coinage and from inscriptions in Buddhist
Buddhist
stupas. To the Indians, they were one of the Hūṇa peoples (or Hunas),[1] whose origins are controversial. The Hunas
Hunas
may have been linked to the Huns
Huns
that invaded Europe
Europe
from Central Asia
Central Asia
during the same period.[dubious – discuss] Their invasion of India
India
follows numerous other invasions in the preceding centuries, such as those of the Indo-Greeks, the Indo-Scythians
Indo-Scythians
or the Kushans.[2] The Xionites
Xionites
and Hephthalites
Hephthalites
of Central Asia
Central Asia
appear to have been precursors of the Huna peoples collectively. One of four major Huna states in South Asia, the Alchon
Alchon
empire was preceded by that of the Kidarites, about half a century earlier,[3][4] and the Hephthalites, and succeeded by the Nezak. The term 'Hun' may cause confusion. The word has three basic meanings: 1) the Huns
Huns
proper, that is, Attila's people; 2) groups associated with the Huna people
Huna people
who invaded northern India; 3) a vague term for Hun-like people. Here the word has the second meaning with elements of the third.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Gandhara 1.2 First Hunnic War: Central India

1.2.1 First Battle of Eran
Eran
(510 CE) 1.2.2 Defeat (515 CE)

1.3 Second Hunnic War: to Malwa
Malwa
and retreat 1.4 Retreat to Kabulistan

2 Religion and ethics

2.1 Persecution of Buddhism 2.2 Shivaism and Sun cult

3 Consequences on India 4 Sources

4.1 Talagan copper scroll

5 Alchon
Alchon
Tegins 6 Coinage 7 See also 8 References 9 External links

History[edit]

Portrait of king Khingila, founder of the Alchon
Alchon
Huns, c. 430 - 490 CE.

The Alchon
Alchon
Huns
Huns
emerged in Kapisa
Kapisa
around 380, taking over Kabulistan from the Sassanian
Sassanian
Persians, at the same time the Kidarites
Kidarites
(Red Huns) ruled in Bactria
Bactria
and Ghandara. They are said to have taken control of Kabul
Kabul
in 388.[1] Gandhara[edit] Around 430 king Khingila, the most notable Alchon
Alchon
ruler, emerges and takes control of the routes across the Hindu Kush
Hindu Kush
from the Kidarites.[1] As the Alchons took control, diplomatic missions were established in 457 with China.[5] In 460, the Alchons conquered Taxila. Between 460-470 CE, as they took over Gandhara
Gandhara
and Punjab, the Huna apparently undertook the mass destruction of Buddhist
Buddhist
monasteries and stupas at Taxila, a high center of learning, which never recovered from the destruction. The rest of the 5th century marks a period of territorial expansion and eponymous kings (Tegins), several of which appear to have overlapped and ruled jointly.[citation needed] First Hunnic War: Central India[edit] In the First Hunnic War (496-515),[6] the Alchon
Alchon
reached their maximum territorial extent, with king Toramana
Toramana
pushing deep into Indian territory, reaching Gujarat
Gujarat
and Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
in Central India, and ultimately contributing to the downfall of the Gupta Empire.[7] To the south, the Sanjeli inscriptions
Sanjeli inscriptions
indicate that Toramana penetrated at least as far as northern Gujarat
Gujarat
, and possibly to the port of Bharukaccha.[8] To the east, far into Central India, the city of Kausambi, where seals with Toramana's name were found, was probably sacked by the Alkhons in 497-500, before they moved to occupy Malwa.[6][9][10][11] These territories may have been taken from Gupta Emperor Budhagupta.[12] Alternatively, they may have been captured during the rule of his successor Narasimhagupta.[13] First Battle of Eran
Eran
(510 CE)[edit] A particularly decisive encounter occurred in Malwa, where a local Gupta ruler, probably a Governor, named Bhanugupta
Bhanugupta
was in charge. In the Bhanugupta
Bhanugupta
Eran
Eran
inscription, this local ruler reports that he participated in a great battle in 510 CE at Eran, where he suffered severe casualties.[13] Bhanugupta
Bhanugupta
was probably vanquished by Toramana at this 510 CE Eran
Eran
battle, so that the western Gupta province of Malwa
Malwa
fell into the hands of the Hunas
Hunas
at that point.[13] According to a 6th-century CE Buddhist
Buddhist
work, the Manjusri-mula-kalpa, Bhanugupta
Bhanugupta
lost Malwa
Malwa
to the "Shudra" Toramana, who continued his conquest to Magadha, forcing Narasimhagupta
Narasimhagupta
Baladitya to make a retreat to Bengal. Toramana
Toramana
"possessed of great prowess and armies" then conquered the city of "Tirtha" in the Gauda country (modern Bengal).[14] Toramana
Toramana
is said to have crowned a new king in Benares, named Prakataditya, who is also presented as a son of Narasimha Gupta.[15][13]

Toramana
Toramana
sacked Kausambi
Kausambi
and occupied Malwa.

The Eran
Eran
"Varaha" boar, under the neck of which can be found an inscription mentioning the rule of Toramana.[16]

A rare gold coin of Toramana
Toramana
in the style of the Guptas. The obverse legend reads: "The lord of the Earth, Toramana, having conquered the Earth, wins Heaven".[17][18]

Having conquered the territory of Malwa
Malwa
from the Guptas, Toramana
Toramana
was mentioned in a famous inscription in Eran, confirming his rule on the region.[13] The Eran
Eran
boar inscription of Toramana
Toramana
(in Eran, Malwa, 540 km south of New Delhi, state of Madhya Pradesh) of his first regnal year indicates that eastern Malwa
Malwa
was included in his dominion. The inscription is written under the neck of the boar, in 8 lines of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
in the Brahmi
Brahmi
script. The first line of the inscription, in which Toramana
Toramana
is introduced as Mahararajadhidaja ("The Great King of Kings"),[12] reads:

"In year one of the reign of the King of Kings Sri-Toramana, who rules the world with splendor and radiance..." —  Eran
Eran
boar inscription of Toramana.[16]

On his gold coins minted in India
India
in the style of the Gupta Emperors, Toramana
Toramana
presented himself confidently as:

""Avanipati Torama(no) vijitya vasudham divam jayati" "The lord of the Earth, Toramana, having conquered the Earth, wins Heaven" —  Toramana
Toramana
gold coin legend.[17][18]

Defeat (515 CE)[edit] Toramana
Toramana
was finally defeated by local Indian rulers. The local ruler Bhanugupta
Bhanugupta
is sometimes credited with vanquishing Toramana, as his 510 CE inscription in Eran, recording his participation to "a great battle", is vague enough to allow for such an interpretation. The "great battle" to which Bhanagupta participated according to the inscription is not detailed, and it is impossible to know what it was, or which way it ended, and interpretations vary.[19][20][21] Mookerji and others actually consider, in view of the inscription as well as the Manjusri-mula-kalpa, that Bhanugupta
Bhanugupta
was, on the contrary, vanquished by Toramana
Toramana
at the 510 CE Eran
Eran
battle, so that the western Gupta province of Malwa
Malwa
fell into the hands of the Hunas
Hunas
at that point,[13][15] so that Toramana
Toramana
could be mentioned in the Eran
Eran
boar inscription, as the ruler of the region.[13] Toramana
Toramana
however was finally vanquished with certainty by an Indian ruler of the Aulikara dynasty of Malwa, after nearly 20 years in India. According to the Rishtal stone-slab inscription, discovered in 1983, king Prakashadharma defeated Toramana
Toramana
in 515 CE.[22][23][6] The First Hunnic War thus ended with a Hunnic defeat, and Hunnic troops apparently retreated to the area of Punjab.[6] The Manjusri-mula-kalpa simply states that Toramana
Toramana
died in Benares
Benares
as he was returning westward from his battles with Narasimhagupta.[13] Second Hunnic War: to Malwa
Malwa
and retreat[edit]

The defeat of the Alchon
Alchon
under Mihirakula
Mihirakula
by King Yashodharman
Yashodharman
at Sondani
Sondani
in 528 CE.

Pillar of Yashodharman
Yashodharman
at Sondani, Mandsaur, claiming victory over Mihirakula
Mihirakula
of the Alchons in 528 CE.

The Second Hunnic War started in 520, when Alchon
Alchon
king Mihirakula, son of Toramana, is recorded in his military encampment on the borders of the Jhelum
Jhelum
by Chinese monk Song Yun.[6] At the head of the Alchon, Mihirakula
Mihirakula
is then recorded in Gwalior, Central India
India
as "Lord of the Earth" in the Gwalior
Gwalior
inscription of Mihirakula.[6] According to some accounts, Mihirakula
Mihirakula
invaded India
India
as far as the Gupta capital Pataliputra, which was sacked and left in ruins.[24][25]

Mihirakula
Mihirakula
was finally defeated in 528 by king Yasodharman.

Finally however, Mihirakula
Mihirakula
was defeated in 528 by an alliance of Indian principalities led by Yasodharman, the Aulikara king of Malwa, in the battle of Sondani
Sondani
in Central India, which resulted in the loss of Alchon
Alchon
possessions in the Punjab
Punjab
and north India
India
by 542. The Sondani
Sondani
inscription in Sondani, near Mandsaur, records the submission by force of the Hunas, and claim that Yasodharman
Yasodharman
had rescued the earth from "rude and cruel kings of the [Kali] age, who delight in viciousness",[26] and that he "had bent the head of Mihirakula".[6] In a part of the inscription at Sondani, Yasodharman
Yasodharman
thus praises himself for having defeated king Mihirakula:[16]

"He (Yasodharman) to whose two feet respect was paid, with complimentary presents of the flowers from the lock of hair on the top of (his) head, by even that (famous) king Mihirakula, whose forehead was pained through being bent low down by the strength of (his) arm in (the act of compelling) obeisance" —  Sondani
Sondani
pillar inscription[27]

The Gupta Empire
Gupta Empire
emperor Narasimhagupta
Narasimhagupta
is also credited in helping repulse Mihirakula, after the latter had conquered most of India, according to the reports of Chinese monk Xuanzang.[28][29] In a fanciful account, Xuanzang, who wrote a century later in 630 CE, reported that Mihirakula
Mihirakula
had conquered all India
India
except for an island where the king of Magadha
Magadha
named Baladitya (who could be Gupta ruler Narasimhagupta
Narasimhagupta
Baladitya) took refuge, but that Mihirakula
Mihirakula
was finally captured by the Indian king, who later spared his life on intercession of his mother, as she perceived the Hun ruler "as a man of remarkable beauty and vast wisdom".[29] Mihirakula
Mihirakula
is then said to have returned to Kashmir
Kashmir
to retake the throne.[30][31] This ended the Second Hunnic War c. 534, after an occupation which therefore lasted nearly 15 years.[6] Retreat to Kabulistan[edit]

"Alchon-Nezak Crossover" coinage, 580-680. Nezak-style bust on the obverse, and Alchon
Alchon
tamga within double border on the reverse.[32]

Around the middle of the 6th century CE, the Alchons withdrew to Kashmir
Kashmir
and, pulling back from Punjab
Punjab
and Gandhara, went back west across the Khyber pass
Khyber pass
where they resettled in Kabulistan. There, their coinage suggests that they merged with the Nezak – as coins in Nezak style now bear the Alchon
Alchon
tamga mark.[32][16] During the 7th century, continued military encounters are reported between the Hunas
Hunas
and the northern Indian states which followed the disappearance of the Gupta Empire. For example, Prabhakaravardhana, the Vardhana dynasty
Vardhana dynasty
king of Thanesar
Thanesar
in northern India
India
and father of Harsha, is reported to have been "A lion to the Huna deer, a burning fever to the king of the Indus
Indus
land".[33] The Alchons in India
India
declined rapidly around the same time that the Hephthalites, a related group to the north, were defeated by an alliance between the Sassanians and the Western Turkic Kaghanate.[citation needed] Eventually, the Nezak-Alchons were replaced by the Turk shahi dynasty.[34] Religion and ethics[edit]

The period of Huna rule corresponds to the last stages of Greco- Buddhist
Buddhist
art. 7th century, Ghorband District, Afghanistan.

The four Alchon
Alchon
kings Khingila, Toramana, Javukha, and Mehama
Mehama
are mentioned as donors to a Buddhist
Buddhist
stupa in the Talagan copper scroll inscription dated to 492-493 CE, that is, at a time before the Hunnic wars in India
India
started.[35] This corresponds to a time when the Alchons had recently taken control of Taxila
Taxila
(around 460 CE), at the center of the Buddhist
Buddhist
regions of northwestern India.[citation needed] Persecution of Buddhism[edit]

Meditating Buddha
Buddha
from the Gupta era, 5th century CE.

Later however, the attitude of the Alchons towards Buddhism
Buddhism
is reported as very negative. Mihirakula
Mihirakula
in particular is remembered by Buddhist
Buddhist
sources to have been a "terrible persecutor of their religion" in Gandhara
Gandhara
in northern Pakistan.[36] Under his reign, over a thousand Buddhist
Buddhist
monasteries throughout Gandhara
Gandhara
are said to have been destroyed.[37] In particular the Chinese monk Xuanzang, writing in 630 CE, explained that Mihirakula
Mihirakula
ordered the destruction of Buddhism
Buddhism
and the expulsion of monks.[31] Indeed, the Buddhist
Buddhist
art of Gandhara, in particular Greco- Buddhist
Buddhist
art, becomes essentially extinct around that period. When Xuanzang
Xuanzang
visited northwestern Indian c. 630 CE, he reported that Buddhism
Buddhism
had drastically declined, and that most of the monasteries were deserted and left in ruins.[38] Although the Guptas were traditionally a Brahmanical
Brahmanical
dynasty,[39] around the period of the invasions of the Alchon, the Gupta rulers had apparently been favouring Buddhism. Narasimhagupta
Narasimhagupta
Baladitya, Mihirakula's supposed nemesis, was, according to contemporary writer Paramartha, brought up under the influence of the Mahayanist philosopher, Vasubandhu.[39] He built a sangharama at Nalanda
Nalanda
and also a 300 ft (91 m) high vihara with a Buddha
Buddha
statue within which, according to Xuanzang, resembled the "great Vihara
Vihara
built under the Bodhi tree". According to the Manjushrimulakalpa
Manjushrimulakalpa
(c. 800 CE), king Narasimhsagupta became a Buddhist
Buddhist
monk, and left the world through meditation (Dhyana).[39] The Chinese monk Xuanzang
Xuanzang
also noted that Narasimhagupta
Narasimhagupta
Baladitya's son, Vajra, who commissioned a sangharama as well, "possessed a heart firm in faith".[40]:45[41]:330

Khingila
Khingila
with solar symbol.

Alchon
Alchon
king with small male figure wearing solar nimbus.

The 12th century Kashmiri historian Kalhana too painted a dreary picture of Mihirakula's cruelty, as well as his persecution of the Buddhist
Buddhist
faith:

"In him, the northern region brought forth, as it were, another god of death, bent in rivalry to surpass... Yama
Yama
(the god of death residing in the southern regions). People knew of his approach by noticing the vultures, crows and other birds flying ahead eager to feed on those who were being slain within his army's reach. The royal Vetala
Vetala
(demon) was day and night surrounded by thousands of murdered human beings, even in his pleasure houses. This terrible enemy of mankind had no pity for children, no compassion for women, no respect for the aged" — 12th century Kashmiri historian Kalhana[29]

Shivaism and Sun cult[edit] The Alchons are generally described as sun worshipers, a traditional cult of steppe nomads, due to the appearance of sun symbols on some of their coins, combined to the probable influence they received from the cult of Surya
Surya
in India.[42] Mihirirakula is also said to have been an ardent worshiper of Shiva,[43][44] although he may have been selectively attracted by the destructive powers of the Indian deity.[29] Consequences on India[edit] See also: Classical India
India
and Decline of Buddhism
Buddhism
in India

Sanjeli

Eran

Gwalior

Sondani

Choti Sadri

Kura

Kausambi ( Toramana
Toramana
seals)

Rishtal

Find spots indicating epigraphic inscriptions related to local control by the Alchon.[6]

These invasions, although only spanning a few decades, had long term effects on India, and in a sense brought an end to Classical Indian civilization.[29] Soon after the invasions, the Gupta Empire, already weakened by these invasions and the rise of local rulers, ended as well.[45] Following the invasions, northern India
India
was left in disarray, with numerous smaller Indian powers emerging after the crumbling of the Guptas.[46] The Huna invasions are said to have seriously damaged India's trade with Europe
Europe
and Central Asia.[29] In particular, Indo-Roman trade relations, which the Gupta Empire
Gupta Empire
had greatly benefited from. The Guptas had been exporting numerous luxury products such as silk, leather goods, fur, iron products, ivory, pearl or pepper from centers such as Nasik, Paithan, Pataliputra
Pataliputra
or Benares
Benares
etc. The Huna invasion probably disrupted these trade relations and the tax revenues that came with it.[47] Furthermore, Indian urban culture was left in decline, and Buddhism, gravely weakened by the destruction of monasteries and the killing of monks, started to collapse.[29] Great centers of learning were destroyed, such as the city of Taxila, bringing cultural regression.[29] During their rule of 60 years, the Alchons are said to have altered the hierarchy of ruling families and the Indian cast system. For example, the Hunas
Hunas
are often said to have become the precursors of the Rajputs.[29] On the artistic side however, the Alchon
Alchon
Huns
Huns
may have played a role, just like the Western Satraps
Western Satraps
centuries before them, in helping spread the art of Gandhara
Gandhara
to the western Deccan
Deccan
region.[48] Sources[edit]

The Talagan copper scroll.

Ancient sources refer to the Alchons and associated groups ambiguously with various names, such as Huna in Indian texts, and Xionites
Xionites
in Greek texts. Xuanzang
Xuanzang
chronicled with more detail some of the later history of the Alchons.[28] Modern archeology has provided valuable insight into reconstructing the history of the Alchons. The most significant cataloguing of the Alchon
Alchon
dynasty came in 1967 by Robert Göbl's analysis of the coinage of the "Iranian Huns".[49] This work documented the names of partial chronology of Alchon
Alchon
kings, beginning with Khingila. Talagan copper scroll[edit] The next significant contribution to our understanding of Alchon history came in 2006 when Gudrun Melzer and Lore Sander published their finding of the "Talagan copper scroll", also known as the "Schøyen Copper Scroll", dated to 492/3 that mentions the four Alchon kings Khingila, Toramana, Javukha, and Mehama
Mehama
(who was reigning at the time) as donors to a Buddhist
Buddhist
reliquary stupa.[50][51] In 2012, the Kunsthistorisches Museum
Kunsthistorisches Museum
completed a reanalysis of previous finds together with a large number of new coins that appeared on the antiquities market during the Second Afghan Civil War.[34] This work redefines the timeline and narrative of the Alchons and related peoples, and is the current authoritative work on the Iranian Huns.[citation needed] Alchon
Alchon
Tegins[edit] The rulers of the Alchons practiced skull deformation, as evidenced from their coins, a practice shared with the Huns
Huns
that migrated into Europe. The names of the first Alchon
Alchon
rulers do not survive. Starting from 430 CE, names of Alchon
Alchon
kings, assuming the title "Tegin", survive on coins[49] and religious inscriptions:[50]

Khingila
Khingila
(c. 430 - 490 CE) Javukha/Zabocho (c. mid 5th - early 6th CE) Mehama
Mehama
(c. 461 - 493 CE) Lakhana Udayaditya (c. 490's CE) Aduman Toramana
Toramana
(c. 490 - 515 CE) Mihirakula
Mihirakula
(c. 515 - 540 CE) Toramana
Toramana
II (c. 530 - 570 CE) Narana/Narendra (c. 570 - 600 CE)

Coinage[edit] The earliest Alchon
Alchon
Hun coins were based on Sasanian designs, often with the simple addition of the Alchon
Alchon
tamgha and a mention "alchon" or "alkhan".[52] Soon however coinage of the Alchon
Alchon
becomes original and differs from predecessors in that it is devoid of Iranian (Sasanian) symbolism.[1] The rulers are depicted with elongated skulls, a result of artificial cranial deformation.[1] After their invasion of India
India
the coins of the Alchon
Alchon
were numerous and varied, as they issued copper, silver and gold coins sometimes roughly following the Gupta pattern. The Alchon
Alchon
empire in India
India
must have been quite significant and rich, with the ability to issue an important volume of gold coins.[53]

Silver drachm of Khingila
Khingila
(early portrait) without headdress, mid-late 5th century.[54]

Silver drachm of Khingila
Khingila
(mature portrait), legend: "Khiggilo Alchono".[55]

Silver drachm of Javukha, mid-late 5th century.

Silver drachm of Mehama
Mehama
legend: “ṣāhi mehama", mid-late 5th century.

Silver drachm of Lakhana, late 5th-early 6th centuries.

Gold dinar of Adomano, Kushano-Sasanian
Kushano-Sasanian
style, mid-late 5th century.

Silver drachm of Mihirakula, early-mid 6th century.

Bronze drachm of Toramana
Toramana
II wearing trident crown, late-phase Gandharan style. mid 6th century.

Silver stater of Toramana
Toramana
II, Kashmir
Kashmir
style, mid-late 6th century.

Bronze drachm of Narana-Narenda (possibly Toramana
Toramana
II) wearing trident crown, late 6th century.

Khingila
Khingila
as a young king, without headdress. Artificial cranial deformation clearly visible.[56]

Vishnu nicolo seal
Vishnu nicolo seal
representing Vishnu
Vishnu
with a worshipper (probably Mihirakula), 4th–6th century CE. The inscription in cursive Bactrian reads: "Mihira, Vishnu
Vishnu
and Shiva". British Museum.

See also[edit]

Xionites Kidarites Hephthalites Nezak

References[edit]

^ a b c d e The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Attila, Michael Maas p.286 ^ Concise Encyclopeida Of World History by Carlos Ramirez-Faria ^ History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Ahmad Hasan Dani, B. A. Litvinsky, Unesco
Unesco
p.119 sq ^ The Huns, Hyun Jin Kim, Routledge, 2015 p.50 sq ^ Early Buddhist
Buddhist
Transmission and Trade Networks by Jason Neelis ^ a b c d e f g h i Hans Bakker
Hans Bakker
24th Gonda lecture ^ Jason Neelis (19 November 2010). Early Buddhist
Buddhist
Transmission and Trade Networks: Mobility and Exchange Within and Beyond the Northwestern Borderlands of South Asia. BRILL. pp. 162–. ISBN 90-04-18159-8.  ^ The World of the Skandapurāṇa by Hans Bakker
Hans Bakker
p.34 ^ Indian History, Allied Publishers p.81 ^ Dynastic History of Magadha, Cir. 450-1200 A.D., by Bindeshwari Prasad Sinha p.70 ^ Geography from Ancient Indian Coins & Seals, by Parmanand Gupta p.175 ^ a b Dynastic History of Magadha, Cir. 450-1200 A.D. by Bindeshwari Prasad Sinha p.79 ^ a b c d e f g h The Gupta Empire, Radhakumud Mookerji, Motilal Banarsidass Publ., 1959 p.120 ^ "After the successful conclusion of the Eran
Eran
episode, the conquering Hunas
Hunas
ultimately burst out of Eastern Malwa
Malwa
and swooped down upon the very heart of the Gupta empire. The eastern countries were overrun and the city of the Gaudas was occupied. The Manjusrimulakalpa gives a scintillating account of this phase of Toramana’s conquest. It says that after Bhanugupta's defeat and discomfiture, Toramana
Toramana
led the Hunas
Hunas
against Magadha
Magadha
and obliged Baladitya (Narasimha-gupta Baladitya, the reigning Gupta monarch) to retire to Bengal. This great monarch (Toramana), Sudra by caste and possessed of great prowess and armies took hold of that position (bank of the Ganges) and commanded the country round about. That powerful king then invested the town called Tirtha in the Gauda country." in The Hūṇas in India, Volume 58, Upendra Thakur, Chowkhamba Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Series Office, 1967, p.122 ^ a b Early history of Jammu region, Raj Kumar, Gyan Publishing House, 2010 p.538 ^ a b c d Coin Cabinet of the Kunsthistorisches Museum
Kunsthistorisches Museum
Vienna ^ a b CNG Coins ^ a b The Identity of Prakasaditya by Pankaj Tandon, Boston University ^ Archaeological Excavations in Central India: Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
and Chhattisgarh, by Om Prakash Misra p.7 ^ Encyclopaedia of Indian Events & Dates by S. B. Bhattacherje A15 ^ The Classical Age by R.K. Pruthi p.262 ^ The World of the Skandapurāṇa, by Hans Bakker
Hans Bakker
p.34 sq ^ Ojha, N.K. (2001). The Aulikaras
Aulikaras
of Central India: History and Inscriptions, Chandigarh: Arun Publishing House, ISBN 81-85212-78-3, pp.48-50 ^ Personal and Geographical Names in the Gupta Inscriptions by Tej Ram Sharma p.232 ^ Dynastic History of Magadha, Cir. 450-1200 A.D. by Bindeshwari Prasad Sinha p.64 ^ "The earth betook itself (for succour), when it was afflicted by kings of the present age, who manifested pride; who were cruel through want of proper training; who,from delusion, transgressed the path of good conduct; (and) who were destitute of virtuous delights" Punjab Monitor, April 2013 [1], from Fleet, John F. Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum: Inscriptions of the Early Guptas. Vol. III. Calcutta: Government of India, Central Publications Branch, 1888, 147-148. ^ Punjab
Punjab
Monitor, April 2013 [2], from Fleet, John F. Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum: Inscriptions of the Early Guptas. Vol. III. Calcutta: Government of India, Central Publications Branch, 1888, 147-148. ^ a b Malwa
Malwa
Through the Ages, from the Earliest Times to 1305 A.D, Kailash Chand Jain p.249 ^ a b c d e f g h i The First Spring: The Golden Age of India
India
by Abraham Eraly p.48 sq ^ Rise and Fall of the Imperial Guptas by Ashvini Agrawal p.245 ^ a b Early Buddhist
Buddhist
Transmission and Trade Networks by Jason Neelis p.168 ^ a b CNG Coins ^ Ancient Indian History and Civilization by Sailendra Nath Sen p.253 ^ a b Klaus Vondrovec (2014). Coinage of the Iranian Huns
Huns
and Their Successors from Bactria
Bactria
to Gandhara
Gandhara
(4th to 8th Century CE). ISBN 978-3-7001-7695-4.  ^ A Note on the Schoyen copper scroll Bactrian or Indian? by Etienne de la Vaissiere [3] ^ Grousset, Rene (1970), The Empire
Empire
of the Steppes, Rutgers University Press, p. 71, ISBN 0-8135-1304-9  ^ Behrendt, Kurt A. (2004). Handbuch der Orientalistik. BRILL. ISBN 9789004135956.  ^ The Spread of Buddhism
Buddhism
by Ann Heirman,Stephan Peter Bumbacher p.60 sq ^ a b c A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India
India
by Upinder Singh p.521 ^ Sankalia, Hasmukhlal Dhirajlal (1934). The University of Nālandā. B. G. Paul & co.  ^ Sukumar Dutt (1988) [First published in 1962]. Buddhist
Buddhist
Monks And Monasteries of India: Their History And Contribution To Indian Culture. George Allen and Unwin Ltd., London. ISBN 81-208-0498-8.  ^ Faiths Across Time: 5,000 Years of Religious History by J. Gordon Melton p.455 ^ Foreign Influence on Ancient India
India
by Krishna Chandra Sagar p.270 ^ Studies in the Buddhistic Culture of India
India
During the Seventh and Eighth Centuries by Lal Mani Joshi p.320 ^ Ancient Indian History and Civilization by Sailendra Nath Sen p.221 ^ A Comprehensive History Of Ancient India
India
p.174 ^ Longman History & Civics ICSE 9 by Singh p.81 ^ Brancaccio, Pia (2010). The Buddhist
Buddhist
Caves at Aurangabad: Transformations in Art and Religion. BRILL. p. 107. ISBN 9004185259.  ^ a b Robert Göbl (1967). Dokumente zur Geschichte der iranischen Hunnen in Baktrien und Indien. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. GGKEY:4TALPN86ZJB.  ^ a b Gudrun Melzer; Lore Sander (2006). Jens Braarvig, ed. A Copper Scroll Inscription from the Time of the Alchon
Alchon
Huns. Buddhist manuscripts. 3. Hermes Pub. pp. 251–278. together with the great Íahi Khiãgila, together with the god-king Toramana, together with the mistress of a great monastery Sasa, together with the great sahi Mehama, together with Sadavikha, together with the great king Javukha, the son of Sadavikha, during the reign of Mehama.  ^ For an image of the copper scroll: Coin Cabinet of the Kunsthistorisches Museum
Kunsthistorisches Museum
Vienna Showcase 8 ^ Notes on the Evolution of Alchon
Alchon
Coins, by Pankaj Tandon ^ Pankaj Tandon , Boston University, The Identity of Prakāśāditya p.668 ^ CNG coins ^ For reference CNG Coins ^ CNG Coins

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Alchon
Alchon
Huns.

http://pro.geo.univie.ac.at/projects/khm/showcases/showcase11?language=en http://grifterrec.rasmir.com/huns/huns.html

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Pala dynasty Kamboja-Pala dynasty

Kalyani Chalukyas Medieval Cholas Pandyan Kingdom(Under Cholas) Chera Perumals of Makkotai Rashtrakuta

References and sources for table

References

^ Samuel ^ Samuel ^ Michaels (2004) p.39 ^ Hiltebeitel (2002) ^ Michaels (2004) p.39 ^ Hiltebeitel (2002) ^ Micheals (2004) p.40 ^ Michaels (2004) p.41

Sources

Flood, Gavin D. (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press  Hiltebeitel, Alf (2002), Hinduism. In: Joseph Kitagawa, "The Religious Traditions of Asia: Religion, History, and Culture", Routledge  Michaels, Axel (2004), Hinduism. Past and present, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press  Samuel, Geoffrey (2010), The Origins of Yoga
Yoga
and Tantra. Indic Religions to the Thirteenth Century, Cambridge University Press 

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