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Agape
Agape
( Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
ἀγάπη, agápē) is a Greco- Christian
Christian
term referring to love, "the highest form of love, charity" and "the love of God for man and of man for God".[1] The word is not to be confused with philia, brotherly love, as it embraces a universal, unconditional love that transcends and persists regardless of circumstance. The noun form first occurs in the Septuagint, but the verb form goes as far back as Homer, translated literally as affection, as in "greet with affection" and "show affection for the dead".[2] Other ancient authors have used forms of the word to denote love of a spouse or family, or affection for a particular activity, in contrast to eros (an affection of a sexual nature). Within Christianity, agape is considered to be the love originating from God or Christ
Christ
for mankind.[3] In the New Testament, it refers to the covenant love of God for humans, as well as the human reciprocal love for God; the term necessarily extends to the love of one's fellow man.[4] Some contemporary writers have sought to extend the use of agape into non-religious contexts.[5] [6] The concept of agape has been widely examined within its Christian context.[7] It has also been considered in the contexts of other religions,[8] religious ethics,[9] and science.[10]

Contents

1 Early Uses 2 Christianity

2.1 Meal

3 See also

3.1 Judaism 3.2 Other religions

4 References 5 Further reading 6 External links

Early Uses[edit] There are few instances of the word agape in polytheistic Greek literature. Bauer's Lexicon mentions a sepulchral inscription, most likely to honor a polytheistic army officer held in "high esteem" by his country.[11] Christianity[edit]

Fresco
Fresco
of a female figure holding a chalice at an early Christian Agape
Agape
feast. Catacomb of Saints Marcellinus and Peter, Via Labicana, Rome

See also: 1 Corinthians 13 A journalist in Time magazine describes John 3:16 as "one of the most famous and well-known Bible verses. It has been called the ' Gospel
Gospel
in a nutshell' because it is considered a summary of the central doctrines of Christianity."[12] The verb translated "loved" in this verse is ἠγάπησεν (ēgapēsen), past tense of "agapaō".

For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life. — John 3:16, KJV

The word agape received a broader usage under later Christian
Christian
writers as the word that specifically denoted Christian
Christian
love or charity (1 Corinthians 13:1–8), or even God himself. The expression "God is love" (ὁ θεὸς ἀγάπη ἐστίν) occurs twice in the New Testament: 1 John 4:8,16. Agape
Agape
was also used by the early Christians to refer to the self-sacrificing love of God for humanity, which they were committed to reciprocating and practicing towards God and among one another (see kenosis). Agape
Agape
has been expounded on by many Christian
Christian
writers in a specifically Christian
Christian
context. C. S. Lewis
C. S. Lewis
uses agape in The Four Loves to describe what he believes is the highest level of love known to humanity: a selfless love that is passionately committed to the well-being of others.[13] The Christian
Christian
use of the term comes directly from the canonical Gospels' accounts of the teachings of Jesus. When asked what was the great commandment, " Jesus
Jesus
said unto him, Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind. This is the first and great commandment. And the second is like unto it, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. On these two commandments hang all the law and the prophets." (Matthew 22:37-40) In Judaism, the first "love the LORD thy God" is part of the Shema.

The Sermon on the Mount, Carl Bloch, 1877

In the Sermon on the Mount, Jesus
Jesus
said:

You have heard that it was said, 'You shall love (agapēseis) your neighbor and hate your enemy.' But I say to you, Love
Love
(agapāte) your enemies and pray for those who persecute you, so that you may be sons of your Father
Father
who is in heaven; for he makes his sun rise on the evil and on the good, and sends rain on the just and on the unjust. For if you love those who love you, what reward have you? — Matthew 5:43-46, RSV

Tertullian
Tertullian
remarks in his 2nd century defense of Christians that Christian
Christian
love attracted pagan notice: "What marks us in the eyes of our enemies is our loving kindness. 'Only look,' they say, 'look how they love one another' " (Apology 39). Anglican theologian O.C. Quick writes that this agape within human experience is "a very partial and rudimentary realization," and that "in its pure form it is essentially divine."

If we could imagine the love of one who loves men purely for their own sake, and not because of any need or desire of his own, purely desires their good, and yet loves them wholly, not for what at this moment they are, but for what he knows he can make of them because he made them, then we should have in our minds some true image of the love of the Father
Father
and Creator of mankind.[14]

In the New Testament, the word agape is often used to describe God's love. However, other forms of the word are used in a negative context, such as the various forms of the verb agapaō. Examples include:

2 Timothy 4:10— "for Demas hath forsaken me, having loved [agapēsas] this present world...". John 12:43— "For they loved [ēgapēsan] the praise of men more than the praise of God." John 3:19— "And this is the condemnation, that light is come into the world, and men loved [ēgapēsan] darkness rather than light, because their deeds were evil."

Karl Barth
Karl Barth
distinguishes agape from eros on the basis of its origin and unconditional character. In agape, humanity does not merely express its nature, but transcends it. Agape
Agape
identifies with the interests of the neighbor "in utter independence of the question of his attractiveness" and with no expectation of reciprocity.[15] Meal[edit] Main article: Agape
Agape
feast The word agape is used in its plural form (agapai) in the New Testament to describe a meal or feast eaten by early Christians, as in Jude 1:12 and 2nd Peter 2:13. See also[edit]

Agape
Agape
feast Agapism Brotherly love (philosophy) Charity (virtue)
Charity (virtue)
(Latin: caritas) Compassionate love Greek words for love Love
Love
styles Loving-kindness The Four Loves Theological virtues

Judaism[edit]

Jewish views on love Chesed, Hebrew word, given the association of kindness and love Sephirot
Sephirot
of Kabbalah Dveikut

Other religions[edit]

Mettā, Pali word (Sanskrit: Maitrī), "loving-kindness" or "friendliness" Ishq, Arabic word, "divine love" or "lustless love"

References[edit]

^ H. G. Liddell; Robert Scott (October 2010). An Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon: Founded Upon the Seventh Edition of Liddell and Scott's Greek-English Lexicon. Benediction Classics. p. 4. ISBN 978-1-84902-626-0.  ^ Henry George Liddell; Robert Scott (1901). A Lexicon Abridged from Liddell and Scott's Greek-English Lexicon. Oxford : Clarendon Press. p. 6.  ^ Cf. Matt 3:17, Mark 10:21 ^ "agape." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011. Web. 17 Sep. 2011. ^ Oord, Thomas Jay (December 2005). "The love racket: Defining love and agape for the love-and-science research program" (PDF). Zygon. 40 (4): 919–938. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9744.2005.00717.x.  ^ Oord, Thomas Jay (2010). Defining Love: A Philosophical, Scientific, and Theological Engagement. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Brazos Press. ISBN 1-58743-257-9.  ^ Nygren, Anders ([1938–39] 1953). Eros and Agape, Part I: A Study of the Christian
Christian
Idea of Love; Part II The History of the Christian Idea of Love, trans. P.S. Watson. Harper & Row. ^ Templeton, John (1999). Agape
Agape
Love: Tradition In Eight World Religions, Templeton Foundation Press. Description. ^ Grant, Colin (1996). "For the Love
Love
of God: Agape". Journal of Religious Ethics. 4 (10): 3–21. JSTOR 40016679.  ^ From Post, Stephen G. et al.(2002). Altruism and Altruistic Love: Science, Philosophy, and Religion in Dialogue, Oxford: Contents.:   • Post, Stephen G. "The Tradition of Agape," ch.4, pp. 51–68.   • Browning, Don S. "Science and Religion on the Nature of Love," pp. 335–45. ^ Danker, Frederick William (2001). A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian
Christian
Literature. University of Chicago Press.  ^ John 3:16 in Pop Culture. Time. Retrieved 22 May 2009. ^ Kreeft, Peter. "Love". Retrieved May 22, 2009.

Lewis, C. S. (June 5, 2002) [1960]. The Four Loves. London: Fount. ISBN 0-00-628089-7. 

^ Quick, O.C. Doctrines of the Creed, Scribners, 1938 p. 55. ^ Church Dogmatics, as translated by G. W Bromiley (1958), p. 745.

Further reading[edit]

Drummond, Henry (1884). "The Greatest Thing in the World". Address first delivered in Northfield, England. Hein, David. " Christianity
Christianity
and Honor." The Living Church, August 18, 2013, pp. 8–10. Heinlein, Robert A. (1973). Time Enough for Love. New York: Ace Books. ISBN 0-7394-1944-7.  Kierkegaard, Søren (1998) [1847]. Works of Love. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-05916-7.  Oord, Thomas Jay (2010). The Nature of Love: A Theology. St. Louis, Mo.: Chalice Press. ISBN 978-0-8272-0828-5.  Outka, Gene H. (1972). Agape: An Ethical Analysis. Description & Contents. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-02122-4

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Agape

Look up agape in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Agape
Agape
feast.

"Agape" at Balashon—Hebrew Language Detective Deus Caritas Est—Former Pope Benedict XVI's 2005 encyclical letter contrasts agape and eros. Study Love - An exhaustive, non-denominational breakdown of the itemized Christian
Christian
definition of agape in 1 Cor. 13:4–7.

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Parent

father mother

Child

son daughter

Sibling

brother sister

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Agape
Agape
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v t e

The Four Loves
The Four Loves
by C. S. Lewis

Greek words for love: Agape Storgē

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