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The Aq Qoyunlu
Aq Qoyunlu
or Ak Koyunlu, also called the White Sheep Turkomans (Persian: آق‌ قویونلو‎ Āq Quyūnlū; Turkish: Ak Koyunlu), was a Persianate[3] Sunni[2] Oghuz Turkic tribal federation that ruled present-day Azerbaijan, Armenia, Eastern Turkey, part of Iran, and northern Iraq
Iraq
from 1378 to 1501.[4]

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Contents

1 History 2 Governance 3 Aq Qoyunlu
Aq Qoyunlu
Ahmed Bey 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 Sources

History[edit] According to chronicles from the Byzantine Empire, the Aq Qoyunlu
Aq Qoyunlu
are first attested in the district of Bayburt south of the Pontic mountains from at least the 1340s,[5] and most of their leaders, including the dynasty's founder, Qara Osman,[6] married Byzantine princesses.[7] The Aq Qoyunlu
Aq Qoyunlu
Turkomans first acquired land in 1402, when Timur granted them all of Diyar Bakr
Diyar Bakr
in present-day Turkey. For a long time, the Aq Qoyunlu
Aq Qoyunlu
were unable to expand their territory, as the rival Kara Koyunlu
Kara Koyunlu
or "Black Sheep Turkomans" kept them at bay. However, this changed with the rule of Uzun Hasan, who defeated the Black Sheep Turkoman leader Jahān Shāh in 1467. After the defeat of a Timurid leader, Abu Sa'id, Uzun Hasan
Uzun Hasan
was able to take Baghdad
Baghdad
along with territories around the Persian Gulf. He expanded into Iran
Iran
as far east as Khorasan. However, around this time, the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
sought to expand eastwards, a serious threat that forced the Aq Qoyunlu
Aq Qoyunlu
into an alliance with the Karamanids
Karamanids
of central Anatolia. As early as 1464, Uzun Hasan
Uzun Hasan
had requested military aid from one of the Ottoman Empire's strongest enemies, Venice. Despite Venetian promises, this aid never arrived and, as a result, Uzun Hassan was defeated by the Ottomans at the Battle of Otlukbeli in 1473,[8] though this did not destroy the Aq Qoyunlu. When Uzun Hasan
Uzun Hasan
died early in 1478, he was succeeded by his son Khalil Mirza, but the latter was defeated by a confederation under his younger brother Ya'qub at the Battle of Khoy in July.[9] Ya'qub, who reigned from 1478 to 1490, sustained the dynasty for a while longer. However, during the first four years of his reign there were seven pretenders to the throne who had to be put down.[10] Following Ya'qub's death, civil war again erupted, the Aq Qoyunlus destroyed themselves from within, and they ceased to be a threat to their neighbors.

Historical Hasankeyf
Hasankeyf
in Aq Qoyunlu
Aq Qoyunlu
territory.

The early Safavids, who were followers of the Safaviyya
Safaviyya
religious order, began to undermine the allegiance of the Aq Qoyunlu. The Safavids and the Aq Qoyunlu
Aq Qoyunlu
met in battle in the city of Nakhchivan in 1501 and the Safavid leader Ismail I
Ismail I
forced the Aq Qoyunlu
Aq Qoyunlu
to withdraw.[11] In his retreat from the Safavids, the Aq Qoyunlu
Aq Qoyunlu
leader Alwand destroyed an autonomous state of the Aq Qoyunlu
Aq Qoyunlu
in Mardin. The last Aq Qoyunlu leader, Murad, brother of Alwand, was also defeated by the same Safavid leader. Though Murād briefly established himself in Baghdad
Baghdad
in 1501, he soon withdrew back to Diyar Bakr, signaling the end of the Aq Qoyunlu
Aq Qoyunlu
rule. Governance[edit] The leaders of Aq Qoyunlu
Aq Qoyunlu
were from the Begundur or Bayandur clan of the Oghuz Turks[12] and were considered descendants of the semi-mythical founding father of the Oghuz, Oghuz Khan.[13] The Bayandurs behaved like statesmen rather than warlords and gained the support of the merchant and feudal classes of Transcaucasia
Transcaucasia
(present day Azerbaijan).[13] With the conquest of Iran, not only did the Aq Qoyunlu
Aq Qoyunlu
center of power shift eastward, but Iranian influences were soon brought to bear on their method of government and their culture.[14] In the Iranian provinces Uzun Hassan maintained the preexisting administrative system along with its officials, whose families had in some cases served under different dynasties for several generations.[15] There were only four top civil posts, all held by Iranians, in Uzun Hassan's time: those of the vizier, who headed the great council (divan); the mostawfi al-mamalek, who was in charge of the financial administration; the mohrdar, who affixed the state seal; and the marakur "stable master", who looked after the royal court.[14] In letters from the Ottoman Sultans, when addressing the kings of Aq Qoyunlu, such titles as Arabic: ملك الملوك الأيرانية‎ "King of Iranian Kings", Arabic: سلطان السلاطين الإيرانية‎ "Sultan of Iranian Sultans", Persian: شاهنشاه ایران خدیو عجم‎ Shāhanshāh-e Irān Khadiv-e Ajam "Shahanshah of Iran
Iran
and Ruler of Persia", Jamshid shawkat va Fereydun
Fereydun
rāyat va Dārā derāyat "Powerful like Jamshid, flag of Fereydun
Fereydun
and wise like Darius" have been used.[16] Uzun Hassan also held the title Padishah-i Irān " Padishah
Padishah
of Iran",[17] which was re-adopted again in the Safavid times through his distaff grandson Ismail I, founder of the Safavid Empire. Aq Qoyunlu
Aq Qoyunlu
Ahmed Bey[edit]

Aq Qoyunlu
Aq Qoyunlu
Castle
Castle
in Diyâr-ı Bekir.

Amidst the struggle for power between Uzun Hasan's grandsons Baysungur (son of Yaqub) and Rustam (son of Maqsud), their cousin Ahmed Bey appeared on the stage. Ahmed Bey
Ahmed Bey
was the son of Uzun Hasan's eldest son Uğurlu Muhammad, who, in 1475, escaped to the Ottoman Empire, where the sultan, Mehmed the Conqueror, received Uğurlu Muhammad with kindness and gave him his daughter in marriage, of whom Ahmed Bey
Ahmed Bey
was born.[18] According to Hasan Rumlu's Ahsan al-tavarikh, in 1496-7, Hasan Ali Tarkhani went to the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
to tell Sultan Bayezid II
Bayezid II
that Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and Persian Iraq
Iraq
were defenceless and suggested that Ahmed Bey, heir to that kingdom, should be sent there with Ottoman troops. Beyazid agreed to this idea, and by May 1497 Ahmad Bey faced Rustam near Araxes and defeated him.[18] See also[edit]

List of rulers of Aq Qoyunlu Turkmen invasions of Georgia Diarbakriya, the most important primary source about the dynasty.

Notes[edit]

^ ... and dedicated it to the Aqqoyunlu Sultan Yaʿqub (r. 1478–90), who himself wrote poetry in Azeri Turkish. [1]

References[edit]

^ a b Javadi & Burrill 2012. ^ a b Michael M. Gunter, Historical dictionary of the Kurds (2010), p. 29 ^ Aq Qoyunlu, R. Quiring-Zoche, Encyclopaedia Iranica, (December 15, 1986);"Christian sedentary inhabitants were not totally excluded from the economic, political, and social activities of the Āq Qoyunlū state and that Qara ʿOṯmān had at his command at least a rudimentary bureaucratic apparatus of the Iranian-Islamic type.." "With the conquest of Iran, not only did the Āq Qoyunlū center of power shift eastward, but Iranian influences were soon brought to bear on their method of government and their culture..""[1] ^ electricpulp.com. "AQ QOYUNLŪ – Encyclopaedia Iranica". www.iranicaonline.org. Retrieved 25 March 2018.  ^ Sinclair, T.A. (1989). Eastern Turkey: An Architectural & Archaeological Survey, Volume I. Pindar Press. p. 111. ISBN 9780907132325.  ^ Minorsky, Vladimir (1955). "The Aq-qoyunlu and Land Reforms (Turkmenica, 11)". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. 17 (3): 449. doi:10.1017/S0041977X00112376.  ^ Robert MacHenry. The New Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, 1993, ISBN 0-85229-571-5, p. 184. ^ Eagles 2014, p. 46. ^ Woods, John E. (1999) The Aqquyunlu: Clan, Confederation, Empire, University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City, p. 128, ISBN 0-87480-565-1 ^ Woods, John E. (1999) The Aqquyunlu: Clan, Confederation, Empire, University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City, p. 125, ISBN 0-87480-565-1 ^ Thomas & Chesworth 2015, p. 585. ^ C.E. Bosworth and R. Bulliet, The New Islamic Dynasties: A Chronological and Genealogical Manual , Columbia University Press, 1996, ISBN 0-231-10714-5, p. 275. ^ a b Charles van der Leeuw. Azerbaijan: A Quest of Identity, a Short History, Palgrave Macmillan, ISBN 0-312-21903-2, p. 81 ^ a b Rosemarie Quiring-Zoche, "Aq Qoyunlu" Archived October 7, 2007, at the Wayback Machine., Encyclopedia Iranica. ^ Jean Aubin. "Etudes Safavides: Shah
Shah
Ismail I
Ismail I
et les notables de l' Iraq
Iraq
Persan", JESHO 2, 1959, pp. 37-81. ^ Muʾayyid S̲ābitī, ʻAlī (1967). Asnad va Namahha-yi Tarikhi (Historical documents and letters from early Islamic period towards the end of Shah
Shah
Ismaʻil Safavi's reign.). Iranian culture & literature. Kitābkhānah-ʾi Ṭahūrī. , pp. 193, 274, 315, 330, 332, 422 and 430. See also: Abdul Hussein Navai, Asnaad o Mokatebaat Tarikhi Iran
Iran
(Historical sources and letters of Iran), Tehran, Bongaah Tarjomeh and Nashr-e-Ketab, 2536, pages 578,657, 701-702 and 707 ^ H.R. Roemer, "The Safavid Period", in Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. VI, Cambridge University Press 1986, p. 339: "Further evidence of a desire to follow in the line of Turkmen rulers is Ismail's assumption of the title 'Padishah-i-Iran', previously held by Uzun Hasan." ^ a b Vladimir Minorsky. "The Aq-qoyunlu and Land Reforms (Turkmenica, 11)", Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, 17/3 (1955): 458.

Sources[edit]

Bosworth, Clifford (1996) The New Islamic Dynasties: A Chronological and Genealogical Manual (2nd ed.) Columbia University Press, New York, ISBN 0-231-10714-5 Morby, John (2002) Dynasties of the World: A Chronological and Genealogical Handbook (2nd ed.) Oxford University Press, Oxford, England, ISBN 0-19-860473-4 Woods, John E. (1999) The Aqquyunlu: Clan, Confederation, Empire (2nd ed.) University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City, ISBN 0-87480-565-1 Javadi, H.; Burrill, K. (May 24, 2012). "AZERBAIJAN x. Azeri Turkish Literature". Encyclopaedia Iranica.  Eagles, Jonathan (2014). Stephen the Great and Balkan Nationalism: Moldova and Eastern European History. I.B. Tauris.  Thomas, David; Chesworth, John A., eds. (2015). Christian-Muslim Relations. A Bibliographical History:Central and Eastern Europe, Asia, Africa and South America. Vol. 7. Brill. 

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