Judaism describes seven names which are so holy that, once
written, should not be erased: The
Tetragrammaton (whether written
Adonai ), El ("God"),
Elohim ("Gods"), Shaddai
God Almighty"), Ehyeh , and Tzevaot (" Hosts"). Other names are
considered mere epithets or titles reflecting different aspects of
God, but chumrah sometimes dictates special care such as the writing
of "G-d" instead of "God" in English or saying Ṭēt -Vav (טו, lit.
"9-6") instead of Yōd -Hē (יה, lit. "10-5" but also "
Jah ") for
the number fifteen in Hebrew .
The name of
God used most often in the
Hebrew Bible is the
Tetragrammaton YHWH (Hebrew : י ה ו ה). It is frequently
Yahweh and written in most English
editions of the
Bible as "the Lord" owing to the Jewish tradition of
reading it as
Adonai ("My Lord") out of respect.
The documentary hypothesis proposes that the
Torah was compiled from
various original sources, two of which (the
Jahwist and the
are named for their usual names for
God (YHWH and Elohim
* 1 Seven Names of
* 1.1 YHWH
* 1.2 El
* 1.5 Elohai
* 1.7 Tzevaot
* 2 Other names and titles
* 2.2 Adoshem
* 2.4 Ehyeh asher ehyeh
* 2.5 Elah
* 2.8 Eternal One
* 2.9 HaShem
* 3 Uncommon or esoteric names
* 4 Writing divine names
* 5 Kabbalistic use
* 6 English names
* 7 See also
* 8 Notes
* 9 References
* 9.1 Citations
* 9.2 Bibliography
* 10 External links
SEVEN NAMES OF GOD
The seven names of
God that, once written, cannot be erased because
of their holiness are the
Tetragrammaton , El ,
El Shaddai , and Tzevaot . In addition, the name Jah
—because it forms part of the Tetragrammaton—is similarly
Rabbi Jose considered "Tzevaot" a common name and Rabbi
Ishmael that "Elohim" was. All other names, such as "Merciful",
"Gracious" and "Faithful", merely represent attributes that are also
common to human beings. An early depiction of the
Tetragrammaton: a passage of the
Ketef Hinnom silver scrolls with the
Priestly Blessing from the
Book of Numbers
Book of Numbers (c. 600 BCE).
Tetragrammaton in Paleo-Hebrew (fl. 1100 BCE – CE
500), Aramaic (fl. 1100 BCE – CE 200), and modern Hebrew scripts.
Portion of column 19 of the
Psalms Scroll (Tehilim) from Qumran
Cave 11. The
Tetragrammaton in paleo-Hebrew can be clearly seen six
times in this portion. Main articles:
Yahweh , and
Lord § Religion
The name of
God used most often in the
Hebrew Bible is YHWH (י ה
ו ה), also known as the
Tetragrammaton (Greek for "four-letter
"). Hebrew is a right-to-left abjad , so the word's letters Yōd , Hē
, Vav , Hē are usually taken for consonants and expanded to
Jehovah in English.
The exact pronunciation is uncertain because—although there is
nothing in the
Torah to prohibit the saying of the name and Ruth
shows it was being pronounced as late as the 5th century BCE —it
had ceased to be spoken aloud by at least the 3rd century BCE during
Judaism and vowel points were not written until the
early medieval period. The
Masoretic Text uses vowel points of Adonai
Elohim (depending on the context) marking the pronunciation as
Yəhōwāh (יְ הֹ וָ ה, ( listen )); however, scholarly
consensus is that this is not the original pronunciation. (For a
discussion of subtle pronunciation changes between what is preserved
in the Hebrew Scriptures and what is read, see
Qere and Ketiv
Qere and Ketiv .)
Tetragrammaton first appears in Genesis and occurs 6828 times
in total in the Stuttgart edition of the
Masoretic Text . It is
thought to be an archaic third-person singular imperfect tense of the
verb "to be" (i.e., " was being"). This agrees with the passage in
God names Himself as "I Will Be What I Will Be " using
the first-person singular imperfect tense.
Judaism teaches that the name is forbidden to all except
the High Priest , who should only speak it in the
Holy of Holies
Holy of Holies of
the Temple in
Yom Kippur . He then pronounces the name
"just as it is written". As each blessing was made, the people in the
courtyard were to prostrate themselves completely as they heard it
spoken aloud. As the Temple has been destroyed since CE 70, most
Jews never pronounce YHWH but instead read
Adonai ("My Lord")
during prayer and while reading the
Torah and as HaShem ("The Name")
at other times. Similarly, the
Vulgate used Dominus ("The Lord") and
most English translations of the
Bible write "the Lord" for YHWH and
"the Lord God" for
Adonai YHWH instead of transcribing the name. (The
Septuagint apparently originally used the Hebrew letters themselves
amid its Greek text but all surviving editions instead write either
Kyrios for occurrences of the name.)
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El (deity) §
El appears in Ugaritic , Phoenician and other 2nd and 1st millennium
BCE texts both as generic "god" and as the head of the divine
pantheon. In the
Hebrew Bible El (Hebrew: אל) appears very
occasionally alone (e.g. Genesis 33:20, el elohe yisrael, "El the God
of Israel", and Genesis 46:3, ha'el elohe abika, "El the
God of thy
father"), but usually with some epithet or attribute attached (e.g.
Elyon , "Most High El", El Shaddai, "El of Shaddai ", El `Olam
"Everlasting El", El Hai, "Living El", El Ro'i "El my Shepherd", and
El Gibbor "El of Strength"), in which cases it can be understood as
the generic "god". In theophoric names such as
Gabriel ("Strength of
God"), Michael ("Who is like God?"), Raphael ("God's medicine"), Ariel
("God's lion"), Daniel ("God's Judgment"),
Israel ("one who has
struggled with God"),
God is with us"), and
God Listens") it is usually interpreted and translated as
"God", but it is not clear whether these "el"s refer to the deity in
general or to the god El in particular.
A common name of
God in the
Hebrew Bible is
Elohim (Hebrew :
אלהים (help ·info )). Despite the -im ending common to
many plural nouns in Hebrew, the word
Elohim when referring to
grammatically singular, and takes a singular verb in the Hebrew Bible.
The word is identical to the usual plural of el meaning gods or
magistrates, and is cognate to the 'lhm found in Ugaritic , where it
is used for the pantheon of Canaanite gods , the children of El and
conventionally vocalized as "Elohim" although the original Ugaritic
vowels are unknown. When the
Hebrew Bible uses elohim not in reference
to God, it is plural (for example, Exodus 20:2). There are a few other
such uses in Hebrew, for example
Behemoth . In
Modern Hebrew , the
singular word ba'alim ("owner", "lord", or "husband") looks plural,
but likewise takes a singular verb.
A number of scholars have traced the etymology to the Semitic root
*yl, "to be first, powerful", despite some difficulties with this
Elohim is thus the plural construct "powers". Hebrew grammar
allows for this form to mean "He is the Power (singular) over powers
(plural)", just as the word Ba'alim means "owner" (see above). "He is
lord (singular) even over any of those things that he owns that are
Theologians who dispute this claim cite the hypothesis that plurals
of majesty came about in more modern times. Richard Toporoski, a
classics scholar, asserts that plurals of majesty first appeared in
the reign of
Diocletian (CE 284–305). Indeed,
Gesenius states in
his book Hebrew Grammar the following:
The Jewish grammarians call such plurals … plur. virium or
virtutum; later grammarians call them plur. excellentiae,
magnitudinis, or plur. maiestaticus. This last name may have been
suggested by the we used by kings when speaking of themselves (compare
1 Maccabees 10:19 and 11:31); and the plural used by
God in Genesis
1:26 and 11:7; Isaiah 6:8 has been incorrectly explained in this way).
It is, however, either communicative (including the attendant angels :
so at all events in Isaiah 6:8 and Genesis 3:22), or according to
others, an indication of the fullness of power and might implied. It
is best explained as a plural of self-deliberation. The use of the
plural as a form of respectful address is quite foreign to Hebrew.
Mark S. Smith has cited the use of plural as possible evidence to
suggest an evolution in the formation of early Jewish conceptions of
monotheism , wherein references to "the gods" (plural) in earlier
accounts of verbal tradition became either interpreted as multiple
aspects of a single monotheistic
God at the time of writing, or
subsumed under a form of monolatry , wherein the god(s) of a certain
city would be accepted after the fact as a reference to the
Israel and the plural deliberately dropped.
The plural form ending in -im can also be understood as denoting
abstraction, as in the Hebrew words chayyim ("life") or betulim
("virginity"). If understood this way,
Elohim means "divinity" or
"deity". The word chayyim is similarly syntactically singular when
used as a name but syntactically plural otherwise.
In many of the passages in which elohim occurs in the
Bible it refers
to non-Israelite deities, or in some instances to powerful men or
judges, and even angels (Exodus 21:6,
Psalms 8:5) as a simple plural
in those instances.
Elohai or Elohei ("My God") is a form of
Elohim along with the
first-person singular pronoun enclitic . It appears in the names "God
Abraham " (Elohai Avraham); "
God of Abraham,
Isaac , and
(Elohai Avraham, Elohai Yitzchak ve Elohai Yaʿaqov); and "
Leah , and
Rachel " (Elohai Sara, Elohai Rivka,
Leah ve Elohai Rakhel).
El Shaddai (Hebrew : אל שדי (help ·info ),
pronounced ) is one of the names of
God in Judaism, with its
etymology coming from the influence of the
Ugaritic religion on modern
El Shaddai is conventionally translated as "
While the translation of El as "god " in
Ugarit /Canaanite language is
straightforward, the literal meaning of Shaddai is the subject of
Tzevaot or Sabaoth (צבאות, ( listen ), lit. "Armies")
appears in reference to armies or armed hosts of men in Exodus but
is not used as a divine epithet in the
Joshua , or Judges . In
First Book of Samuel ,
David uses the name YHWH Tzavaot and
immediately glosses it as "the
God of the armies of Israel". The same
name appears in the prophets along with YHWH Elohe Tzevaot, Elohey
Adonai YHWH Tzevaot. These are usually translated in the
King James Version
King James Version as the "Lord of Hosts" or "Lord
God of Hosts". In
its later uses, however, it often denotes
God in His role as leader of
the heavenly hosts .
Jah and Theophory in the
The abbreviated form
Jah (/dʒɑː/ ) or Yah (/jɑː/ ( listen );
יהּ, Yahu) appears in the
Psalms and Isaiah . It is a common
element in Hebrew theophoric names such as
Elijah and also appears in
the forms yahu ("Jeremiah "), yeho ("
Joshua "), and yo ("John ",
ultimately from the biblical "
Yohanan "). It also appears 24 times in
Psalms as a part of
Hallelujah ("Praise Jah").
OTHER NAMES AND TITLES
Shefa Tal - A Kabbalistic explanation of the Priestly Blessing
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Adonai (אֲדֹנָי, lit. "My Lords") is the plural form of
adon ("lord") along with the first-person singular pronoun enclitic .
As with Elohim, Adonai's grammatical form is usually explained as a
plural of majesty . In the
Hebrew Bible , it is only used to refer to
God. As the pronunciation of the
Tetragrammaton came to be avoided in
Hellenistic period ,
Jews began to read "Adonai" at its
appearances in scripture and to say "Adonai" in its place in prayer.
Owing to the expansion of chumra (the idea of "building a fence around
Adonai itself has come to be too holy to say for
Orthodox Jews, leading to its replacement by HaShem ("The Name").
The singular forms adon and adoni ("my lord") are used in scripture
as royal titles, as in the
First Book of Samuel , and for
distinguished persons. The
Phoenicians used it as a title of Tammuz ,
the origin of the Greek
Adonis , and is also used in scripture to
God (e.g. Ps 114:7.)
Deuteronomy 10:17 has the proper name
Yahweh alongside the
superlative constructions "god of gods" elōhê ha-elōhîm and "lord
of lords" adōnê ha-adōnîm (כִּי יְ ה וָ ה
אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶם הוּא אֱלֹהֵי הָֽאֱלֹהִים
וַאֲדֹנֵי הָאֲדֹנִים ; KJV: "For the LORD your
God of gods, and Lord of lords").
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Up until the mid-twentieth century, the use of the word Adoshem,
combining the first two syllables of "Adonai" with the last syllable
of "Hashem"', was quite common. This was discouraged by
HaLevi Segal in his commentary to the
Shulchan Aruch . His rationale
was that it is disrespectful to combine a Name of
God with another
word. It took a few centuries for the word to fall into almost
complete disuse. Despite being obsolete in most circles, it is used
occasionally in conversation in place of
Jews who do not
wish to say
Adonai but need to specify the substitution of that
particular word. It is also used when quoting from the liturgy in a
non-liturgical context. For example, Shlomo Carlebach performed his
Shema Yisrael " with the words
Shema Yisrael Adoshem Elokeinu
Adoshem Eḥad instead of
Baal (/ˈbeɪəl/ ), properly Baʿal, meant "owner " and, by
extension, "lord", "master ", and "husband " in Hebrew and the other
Northwest Semitic languages
Northwest Semitic languages . In some early contexts and theophoric
names , it and Baali (/ˈbeɪəlaɪ/ ; "My Lord") were treated as
Adon and Adonai. After the time of
Jezebel 's attempt to promote the worship of the
Lord of Tyre
Melqart , however, the name became particularly
associated with the Canaanite storm god
Baʿal Haddu and was gradually
avoided as a title for Yahweh. Several names that included it were
rewritten as bosheth ("shame"). The prophet
Hosea in particular
Israelites for continuing to use the term:
"It will come about in that day," declares the Lord , "That you will
call Me Ishi And will no longer call Me Baali."
EHYEH ASHER EHYEH
I Am that I Am
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Ehyeh asher ehyeh (Hebrew : אֶהְיֶה אֲשֶׁר
אֶהְיֶה) is the first of three responses given to
he asks for God's name in the
Book of Exodus
Book of Exodus . The King James Version
Bible translates the Hebrew as "
I Am that I Am " and uses it as
a proper name for God. The Aramaic
Targum Onkelos leaves the phrase
untranslated and is so quoted in the
Talmud (B. B. 73a.)
Ehyeh is the first-person singular imperfect form of hayah, "to be".
Ehyeh is usually translated "I will be", since the imperfect tense in
Hebrew denotes actions that are not yet completed (e.g. Exodus 3:12,
"Certainly I will be with thee."). Asher is an ambiguous pronoun
which can mean, depending on context, "that", "who", "which", or
Although Ehyeh asher ehyeh is generally rendered in English "I am
that I am", better renderings might be "I will be what I will be" or
"I will be who I will be", or "I shall prove to be whatsoever I shall
prove to be" or even "I will be because I will be". Other renderings
include: Leeser, “I Will Be that I Will Be”; Rotherham, "I Will
Become whatsoever I please", New World Translation (2013 Edition): "I
Will Become What I Choose to Become." Greek,
Ego eimi ho on (ἐγώ
εἰμι ὁ ὤν), "I am The Being" in the
Septuagint , and Philo
Revelation or, "I am The Existing One"; Lat., ego sum qui
sum, "I am Who I am."
Elah (Aramaic: אֱלָה; pl. "elim") is the Aramaic word for God.
The origin of the word is uncertain and it may be related to a root
word, meaning "reverence". Elah is found in the
Tanakh in the books of
Ezra , Jeremiah (Jer 10:11, the only verse in the entire book written
in Aramaic), and Daniel . Elah is used to describe both pagan gods
and the Jews' God. The word 'Elah - إله' is also an Arabic word
which means god. The name is etymologically related to
* Elah Yisrael,
* Elah Yerushelem,
* Elah Shemaya,
God of my fathers, (Daniel 2:23)
* Elah Elahin,
God of gods (Daniel 2:47)
Book of Genesis
Book of Genesis ,
Hagar is said to call the name of
spoke to her through his angel . In Hebrew, her phrase "
El Roi " is
taken as an epithet of
God of Seeing") although the King James
Version translates it as a statement: "Thou
God seest me."
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Elyon (Hebrew: עליון) occurs in combination with El,
Elohim and alone. It appears chiefly in poetic and later
Biblical passages. The modern Hebrew adjective "`Elyon" means
"supreme" (as in "Supreme Court") or "Most High". El
Elyon has been
traditionally translated into English as '
God Most High'. The
Phoenicians used what appears to be a similar name for God,
Έλιον. It is cognate to the Arabic `Aliyy.
"The Eternal One" is increasingly used, particularly in Reform and
Reconstructionist communities seeking to use gender-neutral language .
In the Torah, "
Hashem Kel Olam" ("the Everlasting God") is used at
Genesis 21:33 to refer to God.
"HaShem" redirects here. For other people with similar names, see
It is common Jewish practice to restrict the use of the names of God
to a liturgical context. In casual conversation some Jews, even when
not speaking Hebrew, will call
God HaShem (השם), which is Hebrew
for "the Name" (cf.
Leviticus 24:11 and
Deuteronomy 28:58). Likewise,
when quoting from the
Tanakh or prayers, some pious
Jews will replace
Adonai with HaShem. For example, when making audio recordings of
prayer services, HaShem will generally be substituted for Adonai.
A popular expression containing this phrase is Baruch HaShem, meaning
God " (literally, "Blessed be the Name").
Talmudic authors, ruling on the basis of
Gideon 's name for an altar
("YHVH-Shalom", according to Judges 6:24), write that "the name of God
is 'Peace'" (Pereq ha-Shalom, Shab. 10b); consequently, a Talmudic
opinion (Shabbat, 10b) asserts that one would greet another with the
word shalom (help ·info ) in order for the word to not be forgotten
in the exile . But one is not permitted to greet another with the word
shalom (help ·info ) in unholy places such as a bathroom, because
of holiness of the name. Furthermore, in Arabic same thing "Shalam-
Salam -سَلام" which means 'Peace'.
Shekhinah ( שכינה (help ·info )) is the presence or
God which has descended to "dwell" among humanity.
The term never appears in the
Hebrew Bible ; later rabbis used the
word when speaking of
God dwelling either in the
Tabernacle or amongst
the people of Israel. The root of the word means "dwelling". Of the
principal names of God, it is the only one that is of the feminine
gender in Hebrew grammar. Some believe that this was the name of a
female counterpart of God, but this is unlikely as the name is always
mentioned in conjunction with an article (e.g.: "the Shekhina
descended and dwelt among them" or "He removed Himself and His
Shekhina from their midst"). This kind of usage does not occur in
Semitic languages in conjunction with proper names.
The Arabic form of the word "Sakīnah سكينة" is also mentioned
in the Quran. This mention is in the middle of the narrative of the
Saul to be king and is mentioned as descending with the Ark
of the Covenant , here the word is used to mean "security" and is
derived from the root sa-ka-na which means dwell: And (further) their
Prophet said to them: "A Sign of his authority is that there shall
come to you the Ark of the Covenant, with (an assurance) therein of
security from your Lord, and the relics left by the family of Moses
and the family of Aaron, carried by angels. In this is a Symbol for
you if ye indeed have faith."
UNCOMMON OR ESOTERIC NAMES
* Abir – "Strong One"
* Adir – "Strong One"
Adon Olam – "Master of the World"
* Aibishter – "The Most High" (
* Aleim – sometimes seen as an alternative transliteration of
Elohim, "A'lim " "عليم" in Arabic means who intensively knows,
"A'alim" "عالم" means who knows, the verb is "A'lima" علم means
" knows ", while "Allahomma" "اللهم" in Arabic equals to "O'God"
and used to supplicate him for something.
* Aravat (or Avarat) – "Father of Creation"; mentioned once in 2
Enoch , "On the tenth heaven is God, in the Hebrew tongue he is called
* Avinu Malkeinu (help ·info ) – "Our Father, Our King"
* Bore (help ·info ) – "The Creator"
* Dibbura or Dibbera - "The Word" - used primarily in the
Palestinian Targums of the Pentateuch (Aramaic); e.g. Num 7:89, The
Word spoke to
Moses from between the cherubim in the holy of holies.
* Ehiyeh sh'Ehiyeh – "I Am That I Am": a modern Hebrew version of
"Ehyeh asher Ehyeh "
Ein Sof – "Endless, Infinite", Kabbalistic name of God
* El ha-Gibbor – "
God the Hero" or "
God the Strong" or "
Allah jabbar" "الله جبار" in Arabic means "the God
is formidable and invincible"
* Emet – "Truth"
* HaKadosh, Barukh Hu (Hebrew); Kudsha, Brikh Hu (Aramaic);
تبارک القدوس (Arabic) – "The Holy One, Blessed Be He"
* HaRachaman – "The Merciful One"; "Rahman - رحمن" In (Arabic)
Israel – "Holy One of Israel"
* Magen Avraham – "Shield of Abraham"
* Makom or HaMakom – literally "The Place", perhaps meaning "The
* Malbish Arumim – "Clother of the Naked"
* Matir Asurim – "Freer of the Captives"
* Mechayeh HaKol In Arabic "Al-muhyi al-kull - محيي الكل"
– "Life giver to All" (Reform version of Mechayeh Metim)
* Mechayeh Metim – "Life giver to the Dead"
* Melech HaMelachim–"The
King of Kings
King of Kings " or Melech Malchei
HaMelachim "The King, King of Kings", to express superiority to the
earthly rulers title. Arabic version of it is مالك الملك
* Melech HaOlam–"The King of the World"
* Memra d'Adonai-"The Word of the LORD" (plus variations such as "My
Word") - restricted to the Aramaic Targums; (the written
Tetragrammaton is represented in various ways such as YYY, YWY, YY,
but pronounced as the Hebrew "Adonai")
* Mi She'amar V'haya Ha`olam - "He who spoke, and the world came
Shalom – "Maker of Peace"
* Pokeach Ivrim – "Opener of Blind Eyes"
* Ribono shel\'Olam – "Master of the World". Arabic version of it
is رب العلمين
* Ro'eh Yisra'el – "Shepherd of Israel"
* Rofeh Cholim – "Healer of the Sick"
* Shomer Yisrael – "Guardian of Israel" (
* Somech Noflim – "Supporter of the Fallen"
Israel – "Rock of
* Uri Gol – "The New LORD for a New Era" (Judges 5:14)
* YHWH-Niss"i (Adonai-
Nissi ) – "The LORD Our Banner" (Exodus
* YHWH-Rapha – "The LORD that Healeth" (Exodus 15:26)
* YHWH-Ro'i – "The LORD My Shepherd" (
Shalom – "The LORD Our Peace" (Judges 6:24)
* YHWH-Shammah (Adonai-shammah) – "The LORD Is Present" (Ezekiel
* YHWH-Tsidkenu – "The LORD Our Righteousness" (Jeremiah 23:6)
* YHWH-Yireh (Adonai-jireh) – "The LORD Will Provide" (Genesis
* Yotsehr 'Or – "Fashioner of Light"
* Zokef kefufim – "Straightener of the Bent"
WRITING DIVINE NAMES
Psalms in Hebrew and
Latin . Manuscript on parchment , 12th
In Jewish tradition the sacredness of the divine name or titles must
be recognized by the professional sofer (scribe) who writes Torah
scrolls , or tefillin and mezuzah . Before transcribing any of the
divine titles or name he prepares mentally to sanctify them. Once he
begins a name he does not stop until it is finished, and he must not
be interrupted while writing it, even to greet a king. If an error is
made in writing it may not be erased, but a line must be drawn round
it to show that it is canceled, and the whole page must be put in a
genizah (burial place for scripture) and a new page begun.
One of the most important names is that of the
Ein Sof (אין סוף
"Endless"), which first came into use after CE 1300. The
forty-two-lettered name contains the combined names אהיה יהוה
אדוני הויה, that when spelled out contains 42 letters. The
equivalent in value of YHWH (spelled יוד הא ואו הא = 45) is
the forty-five-lettered name.
The seventy-two-lettered name is derived from three verses in Exodus
(14:19–21) beginning with "Vayyissa", "Vayyabo" and "Vayyet"
respectively. Each of the verses contains 72 letters, and when
combined they form 72 names, known collectively as the Shemhamphorasch
. The kabbalistic book
Sefer Yetzirah explains that the creation of
the world was achieved by the manipulation of these sacred letters
that form the names of God.
The words "God" and "Lord" are written by some
Jews as "G-d" and
"L-rd" as a way of avoiding writing any name of
God in full out of
Deuteronomy 12:3–4 reads, "And ye shall overthrow their
altars, and break their pillars, and burn their groves with fire; and
ye shall hew down the graven images of their gods, and destroy the
names of them out of that place. Ye shall not do so unto the Lord your
God." From this it is understood that one should not erase or blot out
the name of God. The general halachic opinion is that this only
applies to the sacred Hebrew names of God, but not to other
euphemistic references; there is a dispute whether the word "God" in
English or other languages may be erased.
* Names of
* Names of
God in Christianity
* Names of
God in Islam
Naming taboo (a similar prohibition in
Sacred Name Bibles
* ^ The
Tetragrammaton is also sometimes transcribed as YHVH or
* ^ The World English
Bible translation: "Behold,
Boaz came from
Bethlehem , and said to the reapers, "
Yahweh be with you." They
answered him, "
Yahweh bless you." The book is traditionally ascribed
to the prophet
Samuel who lived in the 11th text-transform:
lowercase;">BCE. A date of the 6th or 5th century BCE for the passage
is, however, more common among subscribers to the Documentary
Hypothesis regarding the development of the biblical canon .
Gesenius : "124i Further, אֲדֹנִים, as well as the
singular אָדוֹן, (lordship) lord, e.g. אֲדֹנִים
קָשֶׁה a cruel lord, Is 194; אֲדֹנֵי
הָאָ֫רֶץ the lord of the land, Gn 4230, cf. Gn 3219; so
especially with the suffixes of the 2nd and 3rd persons
אֲדֹנֶ֫יךָ, אֲדֹנַ֫יִךְ ψ 4512,
אֲדֹנָיו, font-family: Alef, 'SBL BibLit', 'SBL Hebrew',
David CLM', 'Frenk Ruehl CLM', 'Hadasim CLM', Shofar, '
Ezra SIL SR', Cardo, 'Noto Sans Hebrew', David, FreeSerif, 'Times New
Roman', FreeSans, Arial;" dir="rtl">אֲדֹנֵ֫ינוּ (except
1 S 1616); but in 1st sing. always אֲדֹנִי. So also
בְּעָלִים (with suffixes) lord, master (of slaves, cattle,
or inanimate things; but in the sense of maritus, always in the
singular), e.g. בְּעָלָיו Ex 2129, Is 13,
-webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em; list-style-type:
* ^ Maimonides. Mishneh Torah, Yesodei ha-
* ^ EJ (2005) , p. 179.
* ^ Rich, Tracey R. (1996), "The Name of G-d",
retrieved 31 Aug 2015 .
* ^ "Yahweh".. 2017-04-30.
* ^ "If an error is made in writing it, it may not be erased, but a
line must be drawn round it to show that it is canceled...", "Names of
God", 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
* ^ A B Maimonides. "Yesodei ha-
Torah - Chapter 6". Mishneh
Sefer Madda. Translated by Eliyahu Touger. Chabad.org. Retrieved
Rabbi Jose , Soferim, 4:1, Yer. R.H., 1:1; Ab. R.N., 34.
Ishmael , Sanh. , 66a.
* ^ Sheb. 35a.
* ^ Num. 6:23–27.
* ^ Byrne, Máire (2011), The Names of
God in Judaism,
Christianity, and Islam: A Basis for Interfaith Dialogue, A&C Black,
p. 24 .
* ^ Ruth 2:4.
* ^ Ruth 2:4 (WEB ).
* ^ Harris, Stephen L. (1985), Understanding the Bible: A Reader's
Introduction, 2nd ed., Palo Alto: Mayfield, p. 21 .
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Karaite Korner, retrieved 5 June 2015 .
* ^ Gen. 2:4.
* ^ A B Exod. 3:14.
* ^ "The Tetragrammaton—The Unpronounceable Four-Letter Name of
God", My Jewish Learning, retrieved 17 September 2014 .
* ^ "Hebrew Name for God—Adonai", Hebrew for Christians,
retrieved 21 May 2014 .
* ^ "Adonai", Theopedia .
Origen , Commentary on
Jerome , Prologus Galeatus.
* ^ K. van der Toorn, Bob Becking, Pieter Willem van der Horst,
"Dictionary of deities and demons in the Bible", pp.274-277.
Books.google.com.au. Retrieved 2011-12-05.
* ^ KJV margin at Gen.33:20
* ^ Genesis 46:3
* ^ K. van der Toorn, Bob Becking, Pieter Willem van der Horst,
"Dictionary of deities and demons in the Bible", pp.277-279.
Books.google.com.au. Retrieved 2011-12-05.
Mark S. Smith (2008).
God in Translation: Deities in
Cross-Cultural Discourse in the Biblical World. Coronet Books
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* ^ R. Toporoski, "What was the origin of the royal "we" and why is
it no longer used?", (
The Times , May 29, 2002. Ed. F1, p. 32)
* ^ Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar (A. E. Cowley, ed., Oxford, 1976,
* ^ Mark S. Smith,
God in Translation: Deities in Cross-Cultural
Discourse in the Biblical World, vol. 57 of Forschungen zum Alten
Testament, Mohr Siebeck, 2008, ISBN 978-3-16-149543-4 , p. 19.; Smith,
Mark S. (2002), "The Early History of God:
Yahweh and the Other
Deities in Ancient Israel" (Biblical Resource Series)
* ^ Exod. 6:26, 7:4, 12:41.
* ^ 1 Sam. 17:45.
* ^ Oxford English Dictionary, 1st ed. "Jah, n." Oxford University
Press (Oxford), 1900.
* ^ Ps. 68:4.
* ^ Is. 12:2, 26:4, & 38:11.
* ^ E.g., Ps. 150:1.
* ^ "Lord", International Standard
Bible Encyclopedia, p. 157 .
* ^ "
Adonai and Adoni (Psalm 110:1)", Focus on the Kingdom,
Restoration Fellowship , retrieved 5 June 2015 .
* ^ 1 Sam. 29:8.
Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary (1885), "Baal, n."
* ^ Oxford Dictionaries (2015), "Baal"
* ^ A B Merriam-Webster Online (2015), "baal".
* ^ Webb's Easy
Bible Names Pronunciation Guide (2012), "Baal".
* ^ Cleghorn & al. (2011) , p. 87.
* ^ Herrmann (1999) , p. 132.
* ^ Pope (2006) .
* ^ DULAT (2015) , "bʕl (II)".
* ^ A B BEWR (2006) , "Baal".
* ^ A B Encyclopaedia Judaica, 2nd ed., Vol. VII, p. 675 .
* ^ ZPBD (1963) .
* ^ Hos. 2:16.
* ^ Uittenbogaard, Arie, Ishi The amazing name Ishi : meaning and
etymology, Abarim Publications, retrieved 21 May 2014 .
* ^ Hos. 2:16 (NASB ).
* ^ A B Seidner, 4.
* ^ Seidner, 5.
* ^ New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures, Watchtower Bible
and Tract Society of New York, Inc. Exodus 3:14 footnote, "Exodus 3:14
* ^ The Divine Name in the Hebrew Scriptures "NWT 2013 Appendix A".
* ^ "Exodus 3:14 LXX". Bibledatabase.net. Retrieved 2014-05-21.
* ^ Yonge.
Philo Life Of
Moses Vol.1 :75
* ^ Life of
Moses I 75, Life of
Moses II 67,99,132,161 in F.H.
Philo Works Vol. VI, Loeb Classics, Harvard 1941
* ^ Rev.1:4,1:8.4:8 UBS Greek Text Ed.4
* ^ Torrey 1945, 64; Metzger 1957, 96; Moore 1992, 704,
* ^ Gen. 16:13.
* ^ Gen. 16:13 KJV .
* ^ Matthew Berke, GOD AND GENDER IN JUDAISM,
First Things , June
1995; Mel Scult, The Radical American
Judaism of Mordecai M. Kaplan,
Indiana University Press
Indiana University Press , 2013. p. 195.
* ^ Gen 21:33.
* ^ A name for
God that simply means "the Name."
* ^ Greenbaum, Elisha. "Thank G-d!". Chabad.org. Archived from the
original on 15 February 2015. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
Rabbi Adah ben Ahabah and
Rabbi Haninuna (possibly citing
* ^ "H46 - \'abiyr - Strong\'s Hebrew Lexicon (KJV)". Blue Letter
Bible. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
* ^ "H117 - \'addiyr - Strong\'s Hebrew Lexicon (KJV)". Blue Letter
Bible. Retrieved 21 November 2017.
* ^ Names of
God Archived 2011-04-13 at the
Wayback Machine .
* ^ Encyclopaedia Judaica, 2nd ed., Vol. VI, Keter Publishing
House, p. 232 .
* ^ "Shaimos guidelines". Shaimos.org. Archived from the original
on 2011-12-27. Retrieved 2011-12-05.
* Britannica Encyclopedia of World Religions, New York:
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* Diccionario de la Lengua Ugarítica, 3rd ed., Leiden: translated
from the Spanish for E.J. Brill as A Dictionary of the Ugaritic
Language in the Alphabetic Tradition (Ser. Handbuch der Orientalistik
, Vol. 112), 2015, ISBN 978-90-04-28864-5 .
* "Names of God", Encyclopedia of Judaism, Infobase Publishing,
2005, p. 179, ISBN 0816069824 .
* The Zondervan Pictorial
Bible Dictionary, Grand Rapids: Zondervan
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* Cleghorn, T.L.; et al. (2011), Comprehensive Articulatory
Phonetics: A Tool for Mastering the World\'s Languages, 2nd ed., ISBN
* Herrmann, Wolfgang (1999), "Baal", Dictionary of Deities and
Demons in the