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ADOBE AIR (formerly ADOBE INTEGRATED RUNTIME) is a cross-platform runtime system developed by Adobe Systems for building desktop applications and mobile applications , programmed using Adobe Flash , ActionScript
ActionScript
and optionally Apache Flex . The runtime supports installable applications on Windows , OS X and mobile operating systems like Android , iOS and BlackBerry Tablet OS . It also originally ran on Linux
Linux
, but support was discontinued as of version 2.6 in 2011.

Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
is a runtime environment that allows Adobe Flash content and ActionScript
ActionScript
3.0 coders to construct applications and video games that run outside a web browser , and behave as a native application on supported platforms. An application developed for Flash Player or HTML5 and deployed in a browser does not require installation, while AIR applications require installation from an installer file (Windows and OS X) or the appropriate App Store (iOS and Android). AIR applications have unrestricted access to local storage and file systems , while browser-based applications only have access to individual files selected by users.

Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
internally uses the Flash Player rendering engine and ActionScript
ActionScript
3.0 as the primary programming language. Flash applications must specifically be built for Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
to use additional features provided, such as multi-touch , file system integration, native client extensions, integration with Taskbar or Dock , and access to accelerometer and GPS
GPS
devices. HTML5 applications may run on the WebKit engine included in AIR.

Notable applications built with Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
include eBay Desktop, Pandora One desktop, TweetDeck , the former Adobe Media Player , Angry Birds
Angry Birds
, and Machinarium , among other multimedia and task management applications. According to Adobe, over 100,000 unique applications were built on AIR, and over 1 billion installations of the same were logged from users across the world, as of May 2014. Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
was voted as the Best Mobile Application Development product at the Consumer Electronics Show for two consecutive years (CES 2014 and CES 2015).

CONTENTS

* 1 Features

* 1.1 Desktop features * 1.2 Mobile features * 1.3 3D Graphics * 1.4 AIR Native Extensions

* 2 Availability

* 2.1 Desktop platforms * 2.2 Mobile platforms

* 3 Application development

* 3.1 Development tools

* 3.1.1 SDKs * 3.1.2 Software

* 3.2 JavaScript applications

* 4 Release history

* 4.1 "Apollo" 1.0 betas

* 4.2 1.x

* 4.2.1 Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
1.0 * 4.2.2 Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
1.1 * 4.2.3 Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
1.5 * 4.2.4 Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
1.5.1 * 4.2.5 Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
1.5.2 * 4.2.6 Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
1.5.3

* 4.3 2.x

* 4.3.1 AIR 2.0 * 4.3.2 AIR 2.5 * 4.3.3 AIR 2.6 * 4.3.4 AIR 2.7

* 4.4 3.x

* 4.4.1 AIR 3.0 * 4.4.2 AIR 3.1 * 4.4.3 AIR 3.2 * 4.4.4 AIR 3.3 * 4.4.5 AIR 3.4 * 4.4.6 AIR 3.5 * 4.4.7 AIR 3.6 * 4.4.8 AIR 3.7 * 4.4.9 AIR 3.8 * 4.4.10 AIR 3.9 * 4.4.11 AIR 4.0

* 4.5 Synchronized version numbers with Flash Player

* 4.5.1 AIR 13.0 * 4.5.2 AIR 14.0 * 4.5.3 AIR 15.0 * 4.5.4 AIR 16.0 * 4.5.5 AIR 17.0 * 4.5.6 AIR 18.0 * 4.5.7 AIR 19.0 * 4.5.8 AIR 20.0 * 4.5.9 AIR 21.0 * 4.5.10 AIR 22.0 * 4.5.11 AIR 23.0 * 4.5.12 AIR 24.0 * 4.5.13 AIR 25.0 * 4.5.14 AIR 26.0

* 5 References * 6 External links

FEATURES

Using AIR, developers can access the full Adobe Flash functionality, including text , vector graphics , raster graphics , video , audio , camera , and microphone capability. Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
also includes additional features such as file system integration, native client extensions, desktop integration and access to connected devices. AIR enables applications to work with data in different ways, including using local files, local SQLite databases (for which AIR has built-in support), a database server, or the encrypted local store included with AIR.

Developers can access additional functionality by building AIR Native Extensions , which can access full device functionality being programmed in the native language.

DESKTOP FEATURES

On desktop platforms, AIR supports:

* Window management – Opening multiple windows, minimizing, maximizing and resizing AIR windows. * Menu bar – Adding a native menu bar to AIR windows, with sub menus and custom menu items. * File
File
management – Discovering drives, files and folders on the PC, creating and deleting files, renaming, copying and moving files. * Console applications – Executing native applications with command-line arguments, and receiving feedback via standard I/O some are distributed for free or even as open source, while others are sold commercially.

Native extensions may be programmed in the native language on each platform, allowing access to the full set of platform APIs provided by the developer. ( C++
C++
for Windows, Java for Android, Objective-C for iOS).

AVAILABILITY

AIR is a cross-platform technology and AIR applications can be repackaged with few or no changes for many popular desktop and mobile platforms. Different installation options exist for each platform.

AIR applications may be published with or without the AIR runtime. Applications packaged with the AIR runtime are larger in file size, and are known as "captive runtime" applications. If the runtime is not embedded in the app, it must be installed separately.

In January 2009, Adobe claimed that there were over 100 million installations of Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
worldwide, and that "the majority of AIR runtime installations occur at the time the first AIR application is installed by a user". In May 2014, Adobe claimed that over 100,000 unique applications were built on AIR, and over 1 billion installations of the same were logged from users across the world.

DESKTOP PLATFORMS

The latest version of Adobe AIR, version 24, contains Adobe Flash Player 24, and is available for Windows 7 and later, as well as OS X 10.7. Official support for desktop Linux
Linux
distributions ceased in June 2011 with version 2.6.

PLATFORM INSTALLER FILE SUPPORT APP STORE SUPPORT

Windows .air , .exe and .msi None

OS X .air and .dmg With captive runtime

Android .apk Google Play
Google Play

iOS .ipa iTunes Store

PlayBook .bar BlackBerry App World

MOBILE PLATFORMS

Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
applications can be published as native phone applications on certain mobile operating systems, such as Android (ARM Cortex-A8 and above ) and Apple iOS .

APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT

Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
runs Flash applications within a contained Flash Player instance. It runs web applications via WebKit rendering engine . Multiple instances of the browser can be started within a single AIR application, but JavaScript content executes with some security limitations.

AIR does not provide direct access to native GUI elements such as navigation bars or controls. Native extensions can be used to access additional native resources.

DEVELOPMENT TOOLS

SDKs

The AIR SDK is available as a free standalone download for software developers to make AIR applications. SDK users do not need to install any commercial software to use the SDK, although several options are available. AIR apps can be compiled from the command line using the AIR compiler included in the SDK; the compiler can also be called from an IDE to eliminate the need for the command line.

AIR can also be used with Adobe Flex
Adobe Flex
. Flex is an integrated collection of stylable graphical user interface , data manipulation and networking components, and applications built upon it are known as "Flex" applications. Flex GUIs are defined in MXML, similar to how Android and Microsoft Visual Studio define GUIs; however, Flex does not give access to native GUI components.

AIR applications built without the Flex framework allow greater flexibility and performance, and are known as "pure ActionScript" applications. Video games built on the AIR platform are typically pure-Actionscript projects. Various open-source component frameworks are available for pure ActionScript
ActionScript
projects, such as MadComponents, that provide UI Components at significantly smaller SWF file sizes.

Software

Adobe distributes three commercial software products for developing of AIR applications in ActionScript:

* Adobe Flash Builder (enterprise application development & debugging) * Adobe Flash Professional CS4 or newer (graphics design, animation "> jQuery , and ExtJS were updated to run in Adobe AIR's application sandbox. Some frameworks like MooTools were already compatible.

Dreamweaver CS4/CS3 requires an additional extension to compile AIR applications, as does Flash CS3 in the form of an update.

RELEASE HISTORY

"APOLLO" 1.0 BETAS

Adobe made a public preview release of AIR (then called Apollo) along with a software development kit (SDK) and extension for developing Apollo applications with the Flex framework, on March 19, 2007.

On June 10, 2007, Apollo was renamed to AIR and a public beta release of the runtime was launched. Public beta 2 of AIR SDK was released on October 1, 2007. Public beta 3, was released on December 12, 2007.

1.X

Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
1.0

Version 1.0 of the Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
runtime and SDK was released on February 25, 2008.

Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
1.1

Version 1.1 of Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
was released on June 16, 2008. This release included a number of new features including:

* Additional languages including Chinese Traditional, Chinese Simplified, French, German, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Brazilian Portuguese, Russian, and Spanish * Ability to localize the name, description local database error messages of the application * A new option that allows an application to be updated from an old certificate to a new one while preserving the identity of the application (for example from a self-signed certificate to a chained certificate) * A new property for detecting the space available on a drive * A new property for detecting whether the hosting operating system's window manager allows transparency

In addition, version 1.1 works on Microsoft Windows XP Tablet PC Edition and 64-bit editions of Windows Vista Home Premium, Business, Ultimate, and Enterprise.

Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
1.5

Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
1.5 was released on November 17, 2008. New capabilities included:

* Ability to encrypt the local database * Inclusion of Flash Player 10 features * An updated version of WebKit with performance improvements due to a new JavaScript interpreter * Five new languages including Czech, Dutch, Swedish, Turkish and Polish * A Linux
Linux
version was released on December 18, 2008.

Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
1.5.1

Released on February 24, 2009, AIR 1.5.1 was primarily a compatibility update that includes bug fixes and security updates.

Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
1.5.2

Released on July 30, 2009, AIR 1.5.2 introduced a number of minor new features and compatibility issues. Some of the important fixes included:

* When using the full-screen interactive mode an application using the 1.5.2 namespace can capture the keyDown event and call the preventDefault() method of the event * SWF content embedded within an HTML container could now be displayed with certain wmode settings.

Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
1.5.3

Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
1.5.3 was released on December 8, 2009. It included fixes for a number of compatibility and security related issues. The BBC iPlayer Desktop manager v1.5.15695.18135 is the first version to use AIR 1.5.3.

2.X

AIR 2.0

The Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
2 public beta was released on November 16, 2009 followed by the beta 2 on February 2, 2010 and the release candidate on May 11, 2010. In addition, Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
for Android was announced on February 12, 2010. AIR 2 was officially released for Windows, Mac OS and Linux
Linux
on June 10, 2010 and Android on October 8, 2010. It dropped the ability to run on PowerPC
PowerPC
Macs.

AIR 2.5

Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
2.5 was released on October 24, 2010 at the Adobe MAX 2010 conference.

AIR 2.6

Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
2.6 was released on February 24, 2011 for Android devices. Another update was released on March 22, 2011 for updated iOS interoperability.

AIR 2.7

Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
2.7 was released on June 14, 2011. Ability to run on Linux was dropped.

3.X

AIR 3.0

Adobe released Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
3.0 on October 3, 2011. AIR 3.0 added the ability to run on native 64-bit CPU architecture and use hardware accelerated graphics rendering, captive runtime, native extensions, JPEG-XR image format, LZMA compression for SWF files, and H.264 encoding.

AIR 3.1

Adobe released Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
3.1 on November 11, 2011.

AIR 3.2

Adobe released Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
3.2 on March 28, 2012.

AIR 3.3

Adobe released Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
3.3 on June 8, 2012.

AIR 3.4

Adobe released Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
3.4 on August 21, 2012.

AIR 3.5

Adobe released Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
3.5 on November 6, 2012.

AIR 3.6

Adobe released Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
3.6 on February 12, 2013.

AIR 3.7

Adobe released Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
3.7 on April 9, 2013.

AIR 3.8

Adobe released Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
3.8 on July 24, 2013.

AIR 3.9

Adobe released Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
3.9 on October 8, 2013.

AIR 4.0

Adobe released Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
4.0 on January 14, 2014. It was released to beta on October 30, 2013, code named Jones.

SYNCHRONIZED VERSION NUMBERS WITH FLASH PLAYER

Adobe applied a new numbering scheme for the Flash products versions to synchronize them with the version numbering of the Flash Player, starting from Flash Player 13.

AIR 13.0

Adobe released Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
13.0 on April 8, 2014. It was numbered 13 to synchronize itself with the version numbering of Flash Player.

AIR 14.0

Adobe released Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
14.0 on June 10, 2014.

AIR 15.0

Adobe released Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
15.0 on September 9, 2014. It includes improvements to Stage3D
Stage3D
technology, AIR Gamepad enhancements, and a new packaging engine for iOS apps that reduces compile times from minutes to seconds.

AIR 16.0

Adobe released Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
16.0 on January 13, 2015.

AIR 17.0

Adobe released Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
17.0 on March 12, 2015.

AIR 18.0

Adobe released Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
18.0 on June 9, 2015.

AIR 19.0

Adobe released Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
19.0 on September 21, 2015.

AIR 20.0

Adobe released Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
20.0 on December 08, 2015. Android SDK (API Level 21) has been upgraded in the AIR Runtime, applications built using this AIR SDK and later will only support Android OS 4.0 or greater.

AIR 21.0

Adobe released Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
21.0 on March 10, 2016.

AIR 22.0

Adobe released Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
22.0 on June 16, 2016.

AIR 23.0

Adobe released Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
23.0 on September 13, 2016.

AIR 24.0

Adobe released Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
24.0 on December 13, 2016.

AIR 25.0

Adobe released Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
25.0 on March 14, 2017.

AIR 26.0

Adobe released Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
26.0 on June 13, 2017.

REFERENCES

* ^ "Download Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
27 Beta". Adobe. Adobe Systems . Retrieved 2017-06-22. * ^ " Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
for Android". * ^ " Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
for iOS". * ^ "End of Support Notice". BlackBerry Ltd. April 15, 2014. Retrieved April 18, 2014. * ^ " Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
and Linux: Increasing Distribution on Devices". Adobe Blog website. Adobe Inc. Retrieved June 14, 2011. We will no longer be releasing our own versions of Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
and the AIR SDK for desktop Linux, but expect that one or more of our partners will do so. The last Adobe release of AIR for desktop Linux
Linux
is AIR 2.6. By focusing on the porting kit and support of partner implementations, we expect to provide broader support for AIR across Linux-based PCs and devices, whereas our own desktop Linux
Linux
releases have accounted for less than 0.5% of lifetime AIR downloads. * ^ A B "Tech specs and system requirements Adobe AIR". Adobe Systems . Retrieved January 12, 2017. * ^ " Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
1.1 EULA" (PDF). Adobe Systems. February 4, 2008. Retrieved March 15, 2011. * ^ "Adobe AIR: Browser vs. Desktop". Adobe Systems. Retrieved March 15, 2011. * ^ Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
3, Adobe * ^ * ^ Top 10 Apps Worth Installing Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
For, LifeHacker
LifeHacker
* ^ A B 10 impressive Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
apps, CNET * ^ Flash Games Showcased at Adobe MAX- Rovio’s Angry Birds
Angry Birds
& Epic Games, Adobe Digital Media Blog * ^ Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
showcase apps for mobile developers, Adobe Developer Connection * ^ 60+ Useful Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
Applications You Should Know, HongKiat.com * ^ A B AIR app installs cross a billion, Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
and Adobe Flash Player Team Blog * ^ A B 1 Billion AIR Installations, Ben Forta * ^ Compass Intelligence Announces Winners of the 2014 Mobility Awards, Compass Intelligence * ^ Compass Intelligence Announces Winners of the 2015 Mobility Awards, Compass Intelligence * ^ A B Using native extensions for Adobe AIR, Adobe Help Center * ^ Basics of native windows in AIR, Adobe Help Center * ^ Creating native menus (AIR), Adobe Help Center * ^ Working with files, Adobe Help Center * ^ Communicating with native processes in AIR, Adobe Help Center * ^ Using workers for concurrency, Adobe Help Center * ^ Creating your first HTML-based AIR application with the AIR SDK, Adobe Help Center * ^ Copy and paste, Adobe Help Center * ^ Drag and drop in AIR, Adobe Help Center * ^ Touch, multitouch and gesture input, ActionScript
ActionScript
3.0 Developer's Guide, Adobe * ^ Accelerometer input, ActionScript
ActionScript
3.0 Developer’s Guide, Adobe * ^ Using the Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
Geolocation APIs on Android, Adobe Developer Connection * ^ https://www.adobe.com/devnet/air/articles/android-air-devices-as-gamepads.html * ^ Native extensions for Adobe AIR, AIR Devnet * ^ help.adobe.com/en_US/air/extensions/air_extensions.pdf * ^ https://www.adobe.com/devnet/air/native-extensions-for-air.html?PID=3662453 * ^ A B Generating a Windows installer for your AIR captive runtime application, Adobe Developer Connection * ^ Ludwig, Adrian (January 28, 2009). "AIR passes 100 million installations". Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
Team Blog. Adobe Systems. Retrieved March 15, 2011. * ^ http://helpx.adobe.com/air/kb/install-air-2-64-bit.html * ^ A B Packaging a desktop native installer, Adobe Help Center * ^ "Post Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
app to Mac app store". * ^ A B Using Flash Builder 4.5 to package applications for Google Android devices, Adobe Developer Connection * ^ A B Using Flash Builder 4.5 to package applications for Apple iOS devices, Adobe Developer Connection * ^ A B Using Flash Builder 4.5 to package applications for BlackBerry Tablet OS devices, Adobe Developer Connection * ^ "Flash Player 10.1 – Installations and updates". Archived from the original on October 8, 2010. Retrieved November 19, 2010. * ^ iOS features in Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
2.6, Adobe Devnet * ^ Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
SDK Download Page, Adobe.com * ^ Adobe Flex
Adobe Flex
SDK Download Page, Adobe.com * ^ Optimizing performance of applications for connected TVs, Adobe Developer Connection * ^ Top 10 Performance Killers in your AIR Application, FlexWiz * ^ Flex versus ActionScript
ActionScript
– the debate gets new life, Greg's Ramblings * ^ Pure ActionScript
ActionScript
+ MadComponents vs. Flash Builder 4.5, MobileAppDev * ^ Flex 4.5 vs Pure AS3, Michael Crosby * ^ Creating an application user interface, Adobe Developer Connection * ^ "Getting started with Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
for HTML/JavaScript developers". Adobe Systems. August 24, 2010. Retrieved March 15, 2011.

* ^ "ADOBE® AIR™ 1.5 Security White Paper" (PDF). Adobe Systems. 2008. p. 6. Retrieved March 24, 2011. * ^ "Adobe - AIR: Tools for Ajax". Adobe Systems. Archived from the original on April 14, 2011. Retrieved March 15, 2011. * ^ " Adobe Flash - Downloads". Adobe Systems. November 17, 2008. Archived from the original on March 3, 2011. Retrieved March 15, 2011. Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
1.5 Update for Flash CS4 Professional * ^ " Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
1.1 FAQ" (PDF). Adobe Systems. June 16, 2008. Retrieved March 15, 2011. * ^ "Adobe release AIR for Linux". Heinz Heise . December 18, 2008. Archived from the original on August 12, 2011. Retrieved March 15, 2011. * ^ "AIR for Linux:Release Notes". Adobe Systems. March 31, 2008. Archived from the original on May 27, 2008. Retrieved March 15, 2011. * ^ Hu, Michael (October 24, 2010). " Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
2.5 is Now Available!". Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
Team Blog. Adobe Systems. Archived from the original on December 6, 2010. Retrieved March 15, 2011. * ^ " Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
Team Blog". Adobe Systems. Archived from the original on May 13, 2011. Retrieved April 20, 2011. * ^ " Adobe AIR
Adobe AIR
Team Bl