The acute accent ( ´ ) is a diacritic used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin, Cyrillic, and Greek scripts.
1.1 History 1.2 Pitch
1.3 Stress 1.4 Height 1.5 Length
1.5.1 Long vowels 1.5.2 Short vowels
1.6 Palatalization 1.7 Tone 1.8 Disambiguation 1.9 Emphasis 1.10 Letter extension 1.11 Other uses 1.12 English
2 Technical notes
2.1 Microsoft Windows
2.1.1 Microsoft Office
2.2 Macintosh OS X 2.3 Keyboards 2.4 Internet 2.5 Limitations
3 Notes 4 See also 5 External links
An early precursor of the acute accent was the apex, used in Latin
inscriptions to mark long vowels.
Blackfoot uses acute accents to show the place of stress in a word:
Bulgarian: stress, which is variable in Bulgarian, is not usually
indicated in Bulgarian except in dictionaries and sometimes in
homonyms that are distinguished only by stress. However, Bulgarian
usually uses the grave accent to mark the vowel in a stressed
syllable, unlike Russian, which uses the acute accent.
Catalan uses it in stressed vowels: é, í, ó, ú.
Dutch uses it to mark stress (vóórkomen – voorkómen, meaning
occur and prevent respectively) or a more closed vowel (hé – hè,
equivalent to English hey and heh) if it is not clear from context.
Sometimes, it is simply used for disambiguation, as in één – een,
meaning "one" and "a(n)".
Italian The accent is used to indicate the stress in a word, or
whether the vowel is "open" or "wide", or "closed", or "narrow". For
example, pèsca= Peach ("open" or "wide" vowel, = pehscah, as in
"pen"); while pésca = fishing ("closed" or "narrow" vowel payscah, as
Lakota. For example, kákhi "in that direction" but kakhí "take
something to someone back there".
Leonese uses it for marking stress or disambiguation.
Height The acute accent marks the height of some stressed vowels in various Romance languages.
To mark high vowels:
Bislama. The acute is used only on é, but only in one of the two
orthographies. It distinguishes é [e] from e [ɛ]. The orthography
after 1995 (which has no diacritics), does not distinguish these
Catalan. The acute marks the quality of the vowels é [e] (as opposed
to è [ɛ]), and ó [o] (as opposed to ò [ɔ]).
French. The acute is used only on é. It is known as accent aigu, in
contrast to the accent grave which is the accent sloped the other way.
It distinguishes é [e] from è [ɛ], ê [ɛ], and e [ə]. Unlike
other Romance languages, the accent marks do not imply stress in
Italian. The acute accent (sometimes called accento chiuso, "closed
accent" in Italian) is compulsory only in words of more than one
syllable stressed on their final vowel (and a few other words). Words
ending in stressed -o are never marked with an acute accent (ó), but
with a grave accent (ò). Therefore, only é and è are normally
contrasted, typically in words ending in -ché, such as perché
("why/because"); in the conjugated copula è ("is"); in ambiguous
monosyllables such as né ('neither') vs. ne ('of it') and sé
('itself') vs. se ('if'); and some verb forms, e.g. poté ("he/she/it
could" (past tense)). The symbol ó can be used in the body of a word
for disambiguation, for instance between bótte ("barrel") and bòtte
("beating"), though this is not mandatory: in fact standard Italian
keyboards lack a dedicated ó key.
Occitan. The acute marks the quality of the vowels é [e] (as opposed
to è [ɛ]), ó [u] (as opposed to ò [ɔ]) and á [ɔ/e] (as opposed
to à [a]).
To mark low vowels:
Portuguese. The vowels á /a/, é /ɛ/ and ó /ɔ/ are stressed low vowels, in opposition to â /ɐ/, ê /e/ and ô /o/ which are stressed high vowels. However, the accent is only used in words whose stressed syllable is in an unpredictable location within the word: where the location of the stressed syllable is predictable, no accent is used, and the height of the stressed vowel cannot then usually be determined solely from the word's spelling.
Length Long vowels
Ligurian: in the official orthography, é is used for short [e], and ó is used for short [u].
A graphically similar, but not identical, mark is indicative of a
palatalized sound in several languages.
In Polish, such a mark is known as a kreska (English: stroke) and is
an integral part of several letters: four consonants and one vowel.
When appearing in consonants, it indicates palatalization, similar to
the use of the háček in Czech and other Slavic languages (e.g.
sześć [ˈʂɛɕtɕ] "six"). However, in contrast to the háček
which is usually used for postalveolar consonants, the kreska denotes
alveolo-palatal consonants. In traditional Polish typography, the
kreska is more nearly vertical than the acute accent, and placed
slightly right of center. A similar rule applies to the Belarusian
Catalan. Examples: són "they are" vs. son "tiredness", més "more" vs. mes "month". Danish. Examples: én "one" vs. en "a/an"; fór "went" vs. for "for"; véd "know(s)" vs. ved "by"; gǿr "bark(s)" vs. gør "do(es)"; dǿr "die(s)" vs. dør "door"; allé "alley" vs. alle "everybody". Furthermore, it is also used for the imperative form of verbs ending in -ere, which lose their final e and might be mistaken for plurals of a noun (which most often end in -er): analysér is the imperative form of at analysere "to analyse", analyser is "analyses", plural of the noun analyse "analysis". Using an acute accent is always optional, never required. Dutch. Examples: één "one" vs. een "a/an"; vóór "before" vs. voor "for"; vóórkomen "to exist/to happen" vs. voorkómen "to prevent/to avoid". Using an acute accent is mostly optional. Modern Greek. Although all polysyllabic words have an acute accent on the stressed syllable, in monosyllabic words the presence or absence of an accent may disambiguate. The most common case is η, the feminine definite article ("the"), versus ή, meaning "or". Other cases include που ("who"/"which") versus πού ("where") and πως ("that", as in "he told me that...") versus πώς ("how"). Norwegian. It is used to indicate stress on a vowel otherwise not expected to have stress. Most words are stressed on the first syllable and diacritical marks are rarely used. Although incorrect, it is frequently used to mark the imperative form of verbs ending in -ere as it is in Danish: kontrollér is the imperative form of "to control", kontroller is the noun "controls". The simple past of the verb å fare, "to travel", can optionally be written fór, to distinguish it from for (preposition "for" as in English), fôr "feed" n./"lining", or fòr (only in Nynorsk) "narrow ditch, trail by plow (all the diacritics in these examples are optional.) Portuguese. Examples: avô "grandfather" vs. avó "grandmother", nós "subject pronoun we" vs. nos "oblique case". Spanish. Covers various question word / relative pronoun pairs where the first is stressed and the second is a clitic, such as cómo (interrogative "how") and como (non-interrogative "how", comparative "like", "I eat"), differentiates qué (what) from que (that), dónde and donde "where", and some other words such as tú "you" and tu "your," té "tea" and te "you" (direct/indirect object), él "he/him" and el ("the", masculine), sólo "only" (as in "solamente") and solo "alone". This usage of the acute accent is called tilde diacrítica. Russian. Acute accents (technically, stress marks) are used in dictionaries to indicate the stressed syllable. They may also be optionally used to disambiguate both between minimal pairs, such as за́мок (read as zámak, means "castle") and замо́к (read as zamók, means "lock"), and between question words and relative pronouns such as что ("what", stressed, or "that", unstressed), similarly to Spanish. This is rare, however, as usually meaning is determined by context and no stress mark is written. The same rules apply to Ukrainian, Rusyn, Belarusian and Bulgarian.
Emphasis In Dutch, the acute accent can also be used to emphasize an individual word within a sentence. For example, Dit is ónze auto, niet die van jullie, "This is our car, not yours." In this example, ónze is merely an emphasized form of onze. Also in family names like Piét, Piél, Plusjé, Hofsté. In Danish, the acute accent can also be used for emphasis, especially on the word der (there), as in Der kan ikke være mange mennesker dér, meaning "There can't be many people there" or Dér skal vi hen meaning "That's where we're going". Letter extension
In Faroese, the acute accent is used on five of the vowels (a, i, o, u and y), but these letters, á, í, ó, ú and ý are considered separate letters with separate pronunciations.
á: long [ɔa], short [ɔ] and before [a]: [õ] í/ý: long [ʊiː], short [ʊi] ó: long [ɔu], [ɛu] or [œu], short: [œ], except Suðuroy: [ɔ]
When ó is followed by the skerping -gv, it is pronounced [ɛ], except in Suðuroy where it is [ɔ]
ú: long [ʉu], short [ʏ]
When ú is followed by the skerping -gv, it is pronounced [ɪ]
In Hungarian, the acute accent marks a difference in quality on two vowels, apart from vowel length:
The (short) vowel a is open back rounded (ɒ), but á is open front unrounded (a) (and long). Similarly, the (short) vowel e is open-mid front unrounded (ɛ), while (long) é is close-mid front unrounded (e). Despite this difference, these two pairs are arranged as equal in collation, just like the other pairs (see above) that only differ in length.
In Icelandic the acute accent is used on all 6 of the vowels (a, e, i, o, u and y), and, like in Faroese, these are considered separate letters.
A sample extract of Icelandic.
é: long [jeɛː], short [jɛ]
All can be either short or long, but note that the pronunciation of é
is not the same short and long.
Etymologically, vowels with an acute accent in these languages
correspond to their
In Kashubian and Polish, the acute on "ó", historically used to indicate a lenghthening of "o" [ɔ], now indicates higher pronunciation, [o] and [u], respectively. In Turkmen, the letter ý is a consonant: [j].
In Emilian-Romagnol, é ó denote both length and height. In Romagnol
they represent [eː, oː], while in Emilian they represent [e, o].
Many Norwegian words of French origin retain an acute accent, such as
allé, kafé, idé, komité. Popular usage can be sketchy and often
neglects the accent, or results in the grave accent erroneously being
used in its place. Likewise, in Swedish, the acute accent is used only
for the letter e, mostly in words of French origin and in some names.
It is used both to indicate a change in vowel quantity as well as
quality and that the stress should be on this, normally unstressed,
syllable. Examples include café ("café") and resumé ("résumé",
noun). There are two pairs of homographs that are differentiated only
by the accent: armé ("army") versus arme ("poor; pitiful", masculine
gender) and idé ("idea") versus ide ("winter quarters").
Ǵǵ and Źź are used in Pashto in the
As with other diacritical marks, a number of (usually French)
loanwords are sometimes spelled in English with an acute accent as
used in the original language: these include attaché, blasé,
canapé, cliché, communiqué, café, décor, déjà vu, détente,
élite, entrée, exposé, mêlée, fiancé, fiancée, papier-mâché,
passé, pâté, piqué, plié, repoussé, résumé, risqué, sauté,
roué, séance, naïveté, toupée and touché. Retention of the
accent is common only in the French ending é or ée, as in these
examples, where its absence would tend to suggest a different
pronunciation. Thus the French word résumé is commonly seen in
English as resumé, with only one accent (but also with both or none).
Acute accents are sometimes added to loanwords where a final e is not
silent, for example, maté from Spanish mate, the Maldivian capital
Malé, saké, and
It can mark stress on an unusual syllable: for example, caléndar to indicate [kəˈlɛn.dɚ] (rather than the standard [ˈkæl.ən.dɚ]). It can disambiguate stress where the distinction is metrically important: for example, rébel (as opposed to rebél), or áll trádes, to show that the phrase is pronounced as a spondee, rather than the more natural iamb. It can indicate the sounding of an ordinarily silent letter: for example, pickéd to indicate the pronunciation [ˈpɪkɪd], rather than standard [pɪkt] (the grave accent is more common for this last purpose).
The layout of some European PC keyboards, combined with problematic keyboard-driver semantics, causes some users to use an acute accent or a grave accent instead of an apostrophe when typing in English (e.g. typing John`s or John´s instead of John's). Technical notes
description character Unicode HTML
acute above ◌́ combining, accent U+0301 ́
◌́ combining, tone U+0341 ́
´ spacing, symbol U+00B4 ´ ´
ˊ spacing, letter U+02CA ˊ
double acute ◌̋ combining U+030B ̋
˝ spacing, top U+02DD ˝
˶ spacing, middle U+02F6 ˶
acute below ◌̗ combining U+0317 ̗
ˏ spacing, letter U+02CF ˏ
additional diacritic Latin
— Á á U+00C1 U+00E1 Á á
Ǽ ǽ U+01FC U+01FD Ǽ ǽ
Ć ć U+0106 U+0107 Ć ć
É é U+00C9 U+00E9 É é
Ǵ ǵ U+01F4 U+01F5 Ǵ ǵ
Í í U+00CD U+00ED Í í
Ḱ ḱ U+1E30 U+1E31 Ḱ ḱ
Ĺ ĺ U+0139 U+013A Ĺ ĺ
Ḿ ḿ U+1E3E U+1E3F Ḿ ḿ
Ń ń U+0143 U+0144 Ń ń
Ó ó U+00D3 U+00F3 Ó ó
Ǿ ǿ U+01FE U+01FF Ǿ ǿ
Ṕ ṕ U+1E54 U+1E55 Ṕ ṕ
Ŕ ŕ U+0154 U+0155 Ŕ ŕ
Ś ś U+015A U+015B Ś ś
Ú ú U+00DA U+00FA Ú ú
Ẃ ẃ U+1E82 U+1E83 Ẃ ẃ
Ý ý U+00DD U+00FD Ý ý
Ź ź U+0179 U+017A Ź ź
double acute Ő ő U+0150 U+0151 Ő ő
Ű ű U+0170 U+0171 Ű ű
diaeresis Ḯ ḯ U+1E2E U+1E2F Ḯ ḯ
Ǘ ǘ U+01D7 U+01D8 Ǘ ǘ
ring Ǻ ǻ U+01FA U+01FB Ǻ ǻ
cedilla Ḉ ḉ U+1E08 U+1E09 Ḉ ḉ
macron Ḗ ḗ U+1E16 U+1E17 Ḗ ḗ
Ṓ ṓ U+1E52 U+1E53 Ṓ ṓ
tilde Ṍ ṍ U+1E4C U+1E4D Ṍ ṍ
Ṹ ṹ U+1E78 U+1E79 Ṹ ṹ
dot Ṥ ṥ U+1E64 U+1E65 Ṥ ṥ
circumflex Ấ ấ U+1EA4 U+1EA5 Ấ ấ
Ế ế U+1EBE U+1EBF Ế ế
Ố ố U+1ED0 U+1ED1 Ố ố
breve Ắ ắ U+1EAE U+1EAF Ắ ắ
horn Ớ ớ U+1EDA U+1EDB Ớ ớ
Ứ ứ U+1EE8 U+1EE9 Ứ ứ
— Ά ά U+0386 U+03AC Ά ά
Έ έ U+0388 U+03AD Έ έ
Ή ή U+0389 U+03AE Ή ή
Ί ί U+038A U+03AF Ί ί
Ό ό U+038C U+03CC Ό ό
Ύ ύ ϓ U+038E U+03CD U+03D3 Ύ ύ ϓ
Ώ ώ U+038F U+03CE Ώ ώ
diaeresis ◌̈́ combining dialytika and tonos U+0344 ̈́
΅ spacing dialytika and tonos U+0385 ΅
— ΐ — U+0390 — ΐ
— ΰ — U+03B0 — ΰ
— Ѓ ѓ U+0403 U+0453 Ѓ ѓ
Ќ ќ U+040C U+045C Ќ ќ
Ӳ ӳ U+04F2 U+04F3 Ӳ ӳ
160 for á 130 for é 161 for í 162 for ó 163 for ú
On some non-US keyboard layouts (e.g. Hiberno-English), these letters
can also be made by holding Ctrl+Alt (or Alt Gr) and the desired
To input an accented letter in a
^ Polish Diacritics: Kreska: Not exactly acute
v t e
History Spread Romanization Roman numerals
International Phonetic Alphabet X-SAMPA
Letters of the ISO basic
Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
Letters using acute accent ( ◌́ )
Áá Ćć Éé Ǵǵ Í í Ḱḱ Ĺĺ Ḿḿ Ńń Óó Ṕṕ Ŕŕ Śś Úú Ẃẃ X́x́ Ýý Źź
ch cz dž dz gh ij ll ly nh ny sh sz th
Keyboard layouts (list)
QWERTY QWERTZ AZERTY
Look up acute accent in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Look up ´ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Look up á, ć, é, or í in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Look up ĺ, ḿ, or ó in Wiktionary, th