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The Actinobacteria
Actinobacteria
are a phylum of Gram-positive bacteria. They can be terrestrial or aquatic.[1] They are of great economic importance to humans because agriculture and forests depend on their contributions to soil systems. In soil, they behave much like fungi, helping to decompose the organic matter of dead organisms so the molecules can be taken up anew by plants. In this role the colonies often grow extensive mycelia, like a fungus would, and the name of an important order of the phylum, Actinomycetales
Actinomycetales
(the actinomycetes), reflects that they were long believed to be fungi. Some soil actinobacteria (such as Frankia) live symbiotically with the plants whose roots pervade the soil, fixing nitrogen for the plants in exchange for access to some of the plant's saccharides. Other species, such as many members of Mycobacterium
Mycobacterium
are important pathogens. Beyond the great interest in Actinobacteria
Actinobacteria
for their soil role, much is yet to be learned about them. Although currently understood primarily as soil bacteria, they might be more abundant in fresh waters.[2] Actinobacteria
Actinobacteria
is one of the dominant bacterial phyla and contains one of the largest of bacterial genera, Streptomyces.[3] Streptomyces
Streptomyces
and other actinobacteria are major contributors to biological buffering of soils.[4] They are also the source of many antibiotics. Although some of the largest and most complex bacterial cells belong to the Actinobacteria, the group of marine Actinomarinales has been described as possessing the smallest free-living prokaryotic cells.[5]

Contents

1 General 2 Phylogeny 3 Taxonomy 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links

General[edit] Most Actinobacteria
Actinobacteria
of medical or economic significance are in subclass Actinobacteridae, and belong to the order Actinomycetales. While many of these cause disease in humans, Streptomyces
Streptomyces
is notable as a source of antibiotics. Of those Actinobacteria
Actinobacteria
not in the Actinomycetales, Gardnerella
Gardnerella
is one of the most researched. Classification of Gardnerella
Gardnerella
is controversial, and MeSH catalogues it as both a Gram-positive and Gram-negative
Gram-negative
organism.[6] Actinobacteria, especially Streptomyces
Streptomyces
spp., are recognized as the producers of many bioactive metabolites that are useful to humans in medicine, such as antibacterials,[7] antifungals,[8] antivirals, antithrombotics, immunomodifiers, antitumor drugs, and enzyme inhibitors; and in agriculture, including insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, and growth-promoting substances for plants and animals.[9][10] Actinobacteria-derived antibiotics that are important in medicine include aminoglycosides, anthracyclines, chloramphenicol, macrolide, tetracyclines, etc. Actinobacteria
Actinobacteria
have high guanine and cytosine content in their DNA.[11] The G+C content of Actinobacteria
Actinobacteria
can be as high as 70%, though some may have a low G+C content.[12] Analysis of glutamine synthetase sequence has been suggested for phylogenetic analysis of the Actinobacteria.[13] Phylogeny[edit] The phylogeny is based on 16S rRNA-based LTP release 123 by 'The All-Species Living Tree' Project.[14]

Rubrobacter Suzuki et al. 1989

Thermoleophilidae

Gaiella occulta Albuquerque et al. 2012

Thermoleophilum Zarilla and Perry 1986

Solirubrobacterales

Coriobacteriidae

Acidimicrobiales

Nitriliruptoridae

Euzebya tangerina Kurahashi et al. 2010

Nitriliruptor alkaliphilus Sorokin et al. 2009

Actinobacteria

Acidothermus cellulolyticus Mohagheghi et al. 1986

Catenulisporineae

Motilibacter peucedani Lee 2012

Streptomyces
Streptomyces
Waksman and Henrici 1943 emend. Witt and Stackebrandt 1991 [incl. Kitasatospora & Streptacidiphilus]

Geodermatophilaceae

Frankineae

Nakamurellaceae

Kineococcus Yokota et al. 1993

Kineosporiaceae

Angustibacter luteus Tamura et al. 2010

Micrococcineae [incl. Actinomycetaceae
Actinomycetaceae
& Bifidobacteriaceae]

Propionibacterineae

Nocardioidaceae 2

Thermobispora bispora (Henssen 1957) Wang et al. 1996

Streptosporangineae

Arabobacteria

Pseudonocardiaceae [incl. Actinopolyspora]

Corynebacterineae

Jiangellaceae

Micromonosporaceae

Actinocatenispora Thawai et al. 2006 emend. Seo and Lee 2009

Phytomonospora endophytica Li et al. 2011

Glycomycetaceae

Taxonomy[edit] The currently accepted taxonomy is based on the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN)[15] and National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI).[16]

Species "Cathayosporangium alboflavum" ♠ Runmao et al. 1995 Species "Candidatus Planktophila limnetica" Jezbera et al. 2009 Species "Tonsillophilus suis" ♠ Azuma and Bak 1980 Class Rubrobacteria Suzuki 2013 ( Rubrobacteridae Rainey et al. 1997 emend. Zhi et al. 2009)

Order Rubrobacterales Rainey et al. 1997 emend. Zhi et al. 2009

Family Rubrobacteraceae Rainey et al. 1997

Class Thermoleophilia Suzuki & Whitman 2013 (Thermoleophilidae)

Order Gaiellales Albuquerque et al. 2012

Family Gaiellaceae Albuquerque et al. 2012

Order Thermoleophilales Reddy & Garcia-Pichel 2009

Family Thermoleophilaceae Stackebrandt 2005 emend. Zhi, Li & Stackebrandt 2009

Order Solirubrobacterales Reddy & Garcia-Pichel 2009

Family Conexibacteraceae Stackebrandt 2005 emend. Zhi, Li & Stackebrandt 2009 Family Patulibacteraceae Takahashi et al. 2006 emend. Zhi, Li & Stackebrandt 2009 Family Solirubrobacteraceae Stackebrandt 2005 emend. Zhi et al. 2009

Class Coriobacteriia Konig 2013 emend. Gupta et al. 2013 ( Coriobacteridae Stackebrandt et al. 1997 emend. Zhi et al. 2009)

Order Coriobacteriales Stackebrandt et al. 1997 emend. Gupta et al. 2013

Family Atopobiaceae Gupta et al. 2013 Family Coriobacteriaceae Stackebrandt, Rainey & Ward-Rainey 1997 emend. Zhi, Li & Stackebrandt 2009

Order Eggerthellales Gupta et al. 2013

Family Eggerthellaceae Gupta et al. 2013

Class Acidimicrobiia
Acidimicrobiia
Norris 2013 ( Acidimicrobidae
Acidimicrobidae
Stackebrandt et al. 1997 emend. Zhi et al. 2009)

Order Acidimicrobiales
Acidimicrobiales
Stackebrandt et al. 1997 emend. Zhi et al. 2009 [Acidimicrobineae Garrity, Bell & Lilburn 2003]

Family Acidimicrobiaceae
Acidimicrobiaceae
Stackebrandt et al. 1997 emend. Zhi et al. 2009 Family Iamiaceae Kurahashi et al. 2009 Family "Microthrixaceae" Joseph et al. 2003

Class Nitriliruptoria Ludwig et al. 2013 ( Nitriliruptoridae Kurahashi et al. 2010)

Order Egibacterales Zhang et al. 2016

Family Egibacteraceae Zhang et al. 2016

Order Egicoccales Zhang et al. 2015

Family Egicoccaceae Zhang et al. 2015

Order Euzebyales Kurahashi et al. 2010

Family Euzebyaceae Kurahashi et al. 2010

Order Nitriliruptorales Sorokin et al. 2009

Family Nitriliruptoraceae Sorokin et al. 2009

Class Actinobacteria
Actinobacteria
Stackebrandt et al. 1997 (Actinobacteridae Stackebrandt et al. 1997 emend. Zhi et al. 2009)

Species ?"Boyliae praeputiale" ♠ Yates et al. 2002 Order ?"Actinomarinales" Ghai et al. 2013 ["Actinomarinidae" Ghai et al. 2013]

Family "Actinomarinaceae" Ghai et al. 2013

Order Acidothermales Sen et al. 2014

Family Acidothermaceae Rainey, Ward-Rainey & Stackebrandt 1997 emend. Zhi et al. 2009

Order "Catenulisporales" Donadio et al. 2012 (Catenulisporineae Cavaletti et al. 2006 emend. Zhi et al. 2009)

Family Actinospicaceae Cavaletti et al. 2006 emend. Zhi et al. 2009 Family Catenulisporaceae Busti et al. 2006 emend. Zhi et al. 2009

Order "Streptomycetales" Kampfer 2012 (Streptomycetineae Rainey et al. 1997 emend. Zhi et al. 2009)

Family Streptomycetaceae
Streptomycetaceae
Waksman & Henrici 1943 emend. Zhi et al. 2009

Order Geodermatophilales Sen et al. 2014

Family Geodermatophilaceae Normand 2006 emend. Zhi, Li & Stackebrandt 2009

Order Frankiales Sen et al. 2014 ( Frankineae Stackebrandt, Rainey & Ward-Rainey 1997 emend. Zhi, Li & Stackebrandt 2009)

Family Motilibacteraceae Lee 2013 Family Cryptosporangiaceae Zhi, Li & Stackebrandt 2009 Family Frankiaceae
Frankiaceae
Becking 1970 emend. Zhi et al. 2009 Family Sporichthyaceae Rainey et al. 1997 emend. Zhi, Li & Stackebrandt 2009

Order Nakamurellales Sen et al. 2014

Family Nakamurellaceae Tao et al. 2004 emend. Zhi, Li & Stackebrandt 2009 [Microsphaeraceae Rainey et al. 1997]

Order "Kineosporiales" Kampfer 2012 (Kineosporineae Zhi, Li & Stackebrandt 2009)

Family Kineosporiaceae Zhi, Li & Stackebrandt 2009

Order Micrococcales Prevot 1940 [Arthrobacteria; Micrococcineae Stackebrandt et al. 1997 emend. Yassin et al. 2011; incl. Flavobacterium oceanosedimentum; Bifidobacteriales
Bifidobacteriales
Stackebrandt et al. 1997 emend. Zhi et al. 2009; Actinomycetales
Actinomycetales
Buchanan 1917 emend. Zhi et al. 2009]

Family Intrasporangiaceae Family Microbacteriaceae Family Cellulomonadceae Family Promicromonosporaceae Family Sanguibacteraceae Family Rarobacteraceae Family Jonesiaceae Family Bogoriellaceae Family Beutenbergiaceae Family Ruaniaceae Family Actinomycetaceae Family Demequinaceae Family Dermabacteraceae Family Brevibacteriaceae Family Micrococcaceae incl. Bifidobacteriaceae]])

Order "Propionibacteriales" Patrick & McDowell 2012 ( Propionibacterineae Rainey et al. 1997 emend. Zhi et al. 2009)

Family Nocardioidaceae Family Propionibacteriaceae

Order "Streptosporangiales" Goodfellow 2012 (Streptosporangineae Ward-Rainey et al. 1997 emend. Zhi, Li & Stackebrandt 2009)

Family Streptosporangiaceae Family Nocardiopsaceae Family Thermomonosporaceae

Order "Jiangellales" Tang et al. 2012 (Jiangellineae Tang et al. 2011)

Family Jiangellaceae Tang et al. 2011

Order "Glycomycetales" Labeda 2012 (Glycomycetineae Rainey, Ward-Rainey & Stackebrandt 1997 emend. Zhi, Li & Stackebrandt 2009)

Family Glycomycetaceae Rainey, Ward-Rainey & Stackebrandt 1997 emend. Zhi, Li & Stackebrandt 2009

Order "Micromonosporales" Genilloud 2012 (Micromonosporineae Stackebrandt et al. 1997 emend. Zhi et al. 2009 ; Actinoplanales]

Family Micromonosporaceae

Order "Pseudonocardiales" Labeda & Goodfellow 2012 ( Pseudonocardineae Stackebrandt et al. 1997 emend. Labeda et al. 2011)

Family Pseudonocardiaceae

Order "Corynebacteriales" Goodfellow & Jones 2012 ( Corynebacterineae
Corynebacterineae
Stackebrandt et al. 1997 emend. Zhi et al. 2009; Mycobacteria)

Family Segniliparaceae Family Nocardiaceae
Nocardiaceae
[Gordoniaceae; Williamsiaceae] Family Dietziaceae Family Corynebacteriaceae Family Tsukamurellaceae Family Mycobacteriaceae

Notes: ♠ Strains found at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) but not listed in the List of Prokaryotic
Prokaryotic
names with Standing in Nomenclature (LSPN) See also[edit]

List of bacterial vaginosis microbiota

References[edit]

^ Servin JA, Herbold CW, Skophammer RG, Lake JA (January 2008). "Evidence excluding the root of the tree of life from the actinobacteria". Mol. Biol. Evol. 25 (1): 1–4. doi:10.1093/molbev/msm249. PMID 18003601.  ^ Ghai R, Rodriguez-Valera F, McMahon KD, et al. (2011). Lopez-Garcia P, ed. "Metagenomics of the water column in the pristine upper course of the Amazon river". PLOS One. 6 (8): e23785. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0023785. PMC 3158796 . PMID 21915244.  ^ C.Michael Hogan.. 2010. Bacteria. Encyclopedia of Earth. eds. Sidney Draggan and C.J.Cleveland, National Council for Science and the Environment, Washington DC Archived 2011-05-11 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Ningthoujam, Debananda S.; Sanasam, Suchitra; Tamreihao, K; Nimaichand, Salam (November 2009). "Antagonistic activities of local actinomycete isolates against rice fungal pathogens". African Journal of Microbiology Research. 3 (11): 737–742.  ^ Ghai R, Mizuno CM, Picazo A, Camacho A, Rodriguez-Valera F (2013). "Metagenomics uncovers a new group of low GC and ultra-small marine Actinobacteria". Scientific Reports. 3: 2471. doi:10.1038/srep02471. PMC 3747508 . PMID 23959135.  ^ Gardnerella
Gardnerella
at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ^ Mahajan, GB (2012). "Antibacterial agents from actinomycetes - a review". Frontiers in Bioscience. 4: 240–53. doi:10.2741/e373.  ^ Gupte, M.; Kulkarni, P.; Ganguli, B.N. (2002). "Antifungal Antibiotics". Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.,. 58: 46–57.  ^ Bressan, W (2003). "Biological control of maize seed pathogenic fungi by use of actinomycetes". Biocontrol. 48 (2): 233–240. doi:10.1023/a:1022673226324.  ^ Atta, M.A (2009). "Antimycin-A Antibiotic
Antibiotic
Biosynthesis Produced by Streptomyces
Streptomyces
Sp. AZ-AR-262: Taxonomy, Fermentation, Purification and Biological Activities". Austral. J. Basic and Appl. Sci. 3: 126–135.  ^ Ventura, M.; Canchaya, C.; Tauch, A.; Chandra, G.; Fitzgerald, G. F.; Chater, K. F.; van Sinderen, D. (5 September 2007). "Genomics of Actinobacteria: Tracing the Evolutionary History of an Ancient Phylum". Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews. 71 (3): 495–548. doi:10.1128/MMBR.00005-07. PMC 2168647 . PMID 17804669.  ^ Ghai R, McMahon KD, Rodriguez-Valera F (2012). "Breaking a paradigm:cosmopolitan and abundant freshwater actinobacteria are low GC". Environmental Microbiology Reports. 4 (1): 29–35. doi:10.1111/j.1758-2229.2011.00274.x. PMID 23757226.  ^ Hayward D, van Helden PD, Wiid IJ (2009). "Glutamine synthetase sequence evolution in the mycobacteria and their use as molecular markers for Actinobacteria
Actinobacteria
speciation". BMC Evol. Biol. 9: 48. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-9-48. PMC 2667176 . PMID 19245690.  ^ 'The All-Species Living Tree' Project."16S rRNA-based LTP release 123 (full tree)" (PDF). Silva Comprehensive Ribosomal RNA Database. Retrieved 2016-03-20.  ^ J.P. Euzéby. "Actinobacteria". List of Prokaryotic
Prokaryotic
names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN). Retrieved 2016-03-20.  ^ Sayers; et al. "Actinobacteria". National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) taxonomy database. Retrieved 2016-03-20. 

Further reading[edit]

Pandey, B.; Ghimire, P.; Agrawal, V.P. (January 12–15, 2004). Studies on the antibacterial activity of the Actinomycetes isolated from the Khumbu Region of Nepal (PDF). International Conference on the Great Himalayas: Climate, Health, Ecology, Management and Conservation. Kathmandu. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-08-10.  Baltz, R.H. (2005). " Antibiotic
Antibiotic
discovery from actinomycetes: Will a renaissance follow the decline and fall?". SIM News. 55: 186–196.  Baltz, R.H. (2007). "Antimicrobials from Actinomycetes: Back to the Future". Microbe. 2 (3): 125–131. Archived from the original on 2013-12-31. 

External links[edit]

Actinomycetes genome database

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Actinobacteria

v t e

Prokaryotes: Bacteria
Bacteria
classification (phyla and orders)

Domain Archaea Bacteria Eukaryota (Supergroup Plant Hacrobia Heterokont Alveolata Rhizaria Excavata Amoebozoa Opisthokonta

Animal Fungi)

G-/ OM

Terra-/ Glidobacteria (BV1)

Eobacteria

Deinococcus–Thermus

Deinococcales Thermales

Chloroflexi

Anaerolineales Caldilineales Chloroflexales Herpetosiphonales Dehalococcoidales Ktedonobacterales Thermogemmatisporales Thermomicrobiales Sphaerobacterales

other glidobacteria

Thermodesulfobacteria thermophiles

Aquificae Thermotogae

Cyanobacteria

Proteobacteria (BV2)

Alpha

Caulobacterales Kiloniellales Kordiimonadales Magnetococcales Parvularculales Rhizobiales Rhodobacterales Rhodospirillales Rickettsiales Sneathiellales Sphingomonadales

Beta

Burkholderiales Hydrogenophilales Methylophilales Neisseriales Nitrosomonadales Procabacteriales Rhodocyclales

Gamma

Acidithiobacillales Aeromonadales Alteromonadales Cardiobacteriales Chromatiales Enterobacteriales Legionellales Methylococcales Oceanospirillales Orbales Pasteurellales Pseudomonadales Salinisphaerales Thiotrichales Vibrionales Xanthomonadales

Delta

Bdellovibrionales Desulfarculales Desulfobacterales Desulfovibrionales Desulfurellales Desulfuromonadales Myxococcales Syntrophobacterales Syntrophorhabdales

Epsilon

Campylobacterales Nautiliales

Zeta

Mariprofundales

BV4

Spirochaetes

Spirochaetes

Sphingobacteria (FCB group)

Fibrobacteres Chlorobi

Chlorobiales Ignavibacteriales

Bacteroidetes

Bacteroidales Cytophagales Flavobacteriales Sphingobacteriales

Planctobacteria/ (PVC group)

Chlamydiae Lentisphaerae

Lentisphaerales Oligosphaerales Victivallales

Planctomycetes

Phycisphaerales Planctomycetales

Verrucomicrobia

Puniceicoccales Opitutales Chthoniobacterales Verrucomicrobiales

"Poribacteria"

Other GN

Acidobacteria

Acidobacteriales Acanthopleuribacterales Holophagales Solibacterales

Armatimonadetes

Armatimonadales Chthonomonadales Fimbriimonadales

Caldiserica Chrysiogenetes Deferribacteres Dictyoglomi Elusimicrobia Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Synergistetes

G+/ no OM

Firmicutes (BV3)

Bacilli

Bacillales Lactobacillales

Clostridia

Clostridiales Halanaerobiales Thermoanaerobacteriales Natranaerobiales

Erysipelotrichia

Erysipelotrichiales

Thermolithobacteria

Thermolithobacterales

Tenericutes/ Mollicutes

Mycoplasmatales Entomoplasmatales Anaeroplasmatales Acholeplasmatales Haloplasmatales

Negativicutes

Selenomonadales

Actinobacteria (BV5)

Actinobacteria

Actinomycetales Bifidobacteriales

Acidimicrobiia

Acidimicrobiales

Coriobacteriidae

Coriobacteriales

Nitriliruptoria

Euzebyales Nitriliruptorales

Rubrobacteria

Gaiellales Rubrobacterales Thermoleophilales Solirubrobacterales

Incertae sedis

†Archaeosphaeroides †Eobacterium †Leptotrichites

Source: Bergey's Manual (2001–2012). Alternative views: Wikispecies.

v t e

Gram-positive bacterial infection: Actinobacteria
Actinobacteria
(primarily A00–A79, 001–041, 080–109)

Actinomycineae

Actinomycetaceae

Actinomyces israelii

Actinomycosis Cutaneous actinomycosis

Tropheryma whipplei

Whipple's disease

Arcanobacterium haemolyticum

Arcanobacterium haemolyticum
Arcanobacterium haemolyticum
infection

Actinomyces gerencseriae

Propionibacteriaceae

Propionibacterium acnes

Corynebacterineae

Mycobacteriaceae

M. tuberculosis/ M. bovis

Tuberculosis: Ghon focus/Ghon's complex Pott disease brain

Meningitis Rich focus

Tuberculous lymphadenitis

Tuberculous cervical lymphadenitis

cutaneous

Scrofuloderma Erythema induratum Lupus vulgaris Prosector's wart Tuberculosis
Tuberculosis
cutis orificialis Tuberculous cellulitis Tuberculous gumma

Lichen scrofulosorum Tuberculid

Papulonecrotic tuberculid

Primary inoculation tuberculosis Miliary Tuberculous pericarditis Urogenital tuberculosis Multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis

M. leprae

Leprosy: Tuberculoid leprosy Borderline tuberculoid leprosy Borderline leprosy Borderline lepromatous leprosy Lepromatous leprosy Histoid leprosy

Nontuberculous

R1:

M. kansasii M. marinum

Aquarium granuloma

R2:

M. gordonae

R3:

M. avium complex/ Mycobacterium
Mycobacterium
avium/ Mycobacterium
Mycobacterium
intracellulare/MAP

MAI infection

M. ulcerans

Buruli ulcer

M. haemophilum

R4/RG:

M. fortuitum M. chelonae M. abscessus

Nocardiaceae

Nocardia asteroides/Nocardia brasiliensis

Nocardiosis

Rhodococcus equi

Corynebacteriaceae

Corynebacterium
Corynebacterium
diphtheriae

Diphtheria

Corynebacterium
Corynebacterium
minutissimum

Erythrasma

Corynebacterium
Corynebacterium
jeikeium

Group JK corynebacterium sepsis

Bifidobacteriaceae

Gardnerella
Gardnerella
vaginalis

Biology portal

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q130914 EoL: 7861 Fossilworks: 325172 IRMNG: 233 ITIS: 956099 NCBI: 201174 NZOR: 0166277e-9e33-4dd5-9c37-