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In Greek mythology, Achilles
Achilles
or Achilleus (/əˈkɪliːz/ ə-KIL-eez; Greek: Ἀχιλλεύς, Akhilleus [a.kʰil.le͜ús]) was a Greek hero of the Trojan War
Trojan War
and the central character and greatest warrior of Homer's Iliad. His mother was the immortal Nereid
Nereid
Thetis, and his father, the mortal Peleus, was the king of the Myrmidons. Achilles' most notable feat during the Trojan War
Trojan War
was the slaying of the Trojan hero Hector
Hector
outside the gates of Troy. Although the death of Achilles
Achilles
is not presented in the Iliad, other sources concur that he was killed near the end of the Trojan War
Trojan War
by Paris, who shot him in the heel with an arrow. Later legends (beginning with a poem by Statius
Statius
in the 1st century AD) state that Achilles
Achilles
was invulnerable in all of his body except for his heel because, when his mother Thetis dipped him in the river Styx
Styx
as an infant, she held him by one of his heels. Alluding to these legends, the term " Achilles
Achilles
heel" has come to mean a point of weakness, especially in someone or something with an otherwise strong constitution.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Birth and early years

2.1 Hidden on Skyros

3 Achilles
Achilles
in the Trojan War

3.1 Telephus 3.2 Troilus 3.3 Achilles
Achilles
in the Iliad 3.4 Later epic accounts: fighting Penthesilea
Penthesilea
and Memnon 3.5 Achilles' death 3.6 Achilles
Achilles
and Patroclus 3.7 The fate of Achilles' armour 3.8 Achilles, Ajax and a game of petteia

4 Worship and heroic cult 5 Reception during antiquity

5.1 Achilles
Achilles
in Greek tragedy 5.2 Achilles
Achilles
in Greek philosophy 5.3 Achilles
Achilles
in Roman and medieval literature

6 Achilles
Achilles
in modern literature and arts

6.1 Literature 6.2 Visual arts 6.3 Music 6.4 Architecture

7 Namesakes 8 Notes 9 References 10 Bibliography 11 External links

Etymology[edit] Linear B
Linear B
tablets attest to the personal name Achilleus in the forms a-ki-re-u and a-ki-re-we,[1] the latter being the dative of the former.[2] The name grew more popular, even becoming common soon after the seventh century BC[3] and was also turned into the female form Ἀχιλλεία (Achilleía), attested in Attica
Attica
in the fourth century BC (IG II² 1617) and, in the form Achillia, on a stele in Halicarnassus as the name of a female gladiator fighting an "Amazon". Achilles' name can be analyzed as a combination of ἄχος (ákhos) "distress, pain, sorrow, grief"[4] and λαός (laós) "people, soldiers, nation", resulting in a proto-form *Akhí-lāu̯os "he who has the people distressed" or "he whose people have distress".[5][6] The grief or distress of the people is a theme raised numerous times in the Iliad
Iliad
(and frequently by Achilles
Achilles
himself). Achilles' role as the hero of grief or distress forms an ironic juxtaposition with the conventional view of him as the hero of κλέος kléos ("glory", usually in war). Furthermore, laós has been construed by Gregory Nagy, following Leonard Palmer, to mean "a corps of soldiers", a muster.[6] With this derivation, the name obtains a double meaning in the poem: when the hero is functioning rightly, his men bring distress to the enemy, but when wrongly, his men get the grief of war. The poem is in part about the misdirection of anger on the part of leadership. Another etymology relates the name to a Proto-Indo-European
Proto-Indo-European
compound *h₂eḱ-pṓds "sharp foot" which first gave an Illyrian *āk̂pediós, evolving through time into *ākhpdeós and then *akhiddeús. The shift from -dd- to -ll- is then ascribed to the passing of the name into Greek via a Pre-Greek source. The first root part *h₂eḱ- "sharp, pointed" also gave Greek ἀκή (akḗ "point, silence, healing"), ἀκμή (akmḗ "point, edge, zenith") and ὀξύς (oxús "sharp, pointed, keen, quick, clever"), whereas ἄχος stems from the root *h₂egʰ- "to be upset, afraid". The whole expression would be comparable to the Latin
Latin
acupedius "swift of foot". Compare also the Latin
Latin
word family of aciēs "sharp edge or point, battle line, battle, engagement", acus "needle, pin, bodkin", and acuō "to make pointed, sharpen, whet; to exercise; to arouse" (whence acute).[7] Some topical epitheta of Achilles
Achilles
in the Iliad point to this "swift-footedness", namely ποδάρκης δῖος Ἀχιλλεὺς (podárkēs dĩos Achilleús "swift-footed divine Achilles")[8] or, even more frequently, πόδας ὠκὺς Ἀχιλλεύς (pódas ōkús Achilleús "quick-footed Achilles").[9] Some researchers deem the name a loan word, possibly from a Pre-Greek language.[1] Achilles' descent from the Nereid
Nereid
Thetis
Thetis
and a similarity of his name with those of river deities such as Acheron
Acheron
and Achelous have led to speculations about him being an old water divinity (see below Worship).[10] Robert S. P. Beekes has suggested a Pre-Greek origin of the name, based among other things on the coexistence of -λλ- and -λ- in epic language, which may account for a palatalized phoneme /ly/ in the original language.[2] Birth and early years[edit]

Chiron
Chiron
teaching Achilles
Achilles
how to play the lyre, Roman fresco from Herculaneum, 1st century AD

Achilles
Achilles
was the son of the Nereid
Nereid
Thetis
Thetis
and of Peleus, the king of the Myrmidons. Zeus
Zeus
and Poseidon
Poseidon
had been rivals for the hand of Thetis
Thetis
until Prometheus, the fore-thinker, warned Zeus
Zeus
of a prophecy (originally uttered by Themis, goddess of divine law) that Thetis would bear a son greater than his father. For this reason, the two gods withdrew their pursuit, and had her wed Peleus.[11]

Peter Paul Rubens: Thetis
Thetis
Dipping the Infant Achilles
Achilles
into the River Styx
Styx
(c. 1625; Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, Rotterdam)

There is a tale which offers an alternative version of these events: In the Argonautica
Argonautica
(4.760) Zeus' sister and wife Hera
Hera
alludes to Thetis' chaste resistance to the advances of Zeus, pointing out that Thetis
Thetis
was so loyal to Hera's marriage bond that she coolly rejected the father of gods. Thetis, although a daughter of the sea-god Nereus, was also brought up by Hera, further explaining her resistance to the advances of Zeus. Zeus
Zeus
was furious and decreed that she would never marry an immortal.[12]

Achilles
Achilles
on Skyros, where – according to the Achilleid – Odysseus
Odysseus
discovers him dressed as a woman and hiding among the princesses of the royal court, late Roman mosaic from La Olmeda, Spain, 4th-5th centuries AD

Detail of Achilles

According to the Achilleid, written by Statius
Statius
in the 1st century AD, and to non-surviving previous sources, when Achilles
Achilles
was born Thetis tried to make him immortal, by dipping him in the river Styx.[13] However, he was left vulnerable at the part of the body by which she held him, his left heel[14] (see Achilles' heel, Achilles' tendon). It is not clear if this version of events was known earlier. In another version of this story, Thetis
Thetis
anointed the boy in ambrosia and put him on top of a fire, to burn away the mortal parts of his body. She was interrupted by Peleus
Peleus
and abandoned both father and son in a rage.[15] However, none of the sources before Statius
Statius
makes any reference to this general invulnerability. To the contrary, in the Iliad
Iliad
Homer mentions Achilles
Achilles
being wounded: in Book 21 the Paeonian
Paeonian
hero Asteropaeus, son of Pelagon, challenged Achilles
Achilles
by the river Scamander. He cast two spears at once, one grazed Achilles' elbow, "drawing a spurt of blood". Also, in the fragmentary poems of the Epic Cycle
Epic Cycle
in which we can find description of the hero's death (i.e. the Cypria, the Little Iliad
Iliad
by Lesches of Pyrrha, the Aithiopis
Aithiopis
and Iliou persis
Iliou persis
by Arctinus of Miletus), there is no trace of any reference to his general invulnerability or his famous weakness at the heel; in the later vase paintings presenting Achilles' death, the arrow (or in many cases, arrows) hit his body. Peleus
Peleus
entrusted Achilles
Achilles
to Chiron
Chiron
the Centaur, on Mount Pelion, to be reared.[16] Thetis
Thetis
foretold that her son's fate was either to gain glory and die young, or to live a long but uneventful life in obscurity. Achilles
Achilles
chose the former, and decided to take part in the Trojan war.[17] According to Homer, Achilles
Achilles
grew up in Phthia together with his companion Patroclus.[1] According to Photius, the sixth book of the New History by Ptolemy Hephaestion reported that Thetis
Thetis
burned in a secret place the children she had by Peleus; but when she had Achilles, Peleus
Peleus
noticed, tore him from the flames with only a burnt foot, and confided him to the centaur Chiron. Later Chiron
Chiron
exhumed the body of the Damysus, who was the fastest of all the giants, removed the ankle, and incorporated it into Achilles' burnt foot.[18] Hidden on Skyros[edit] Main article: Achilles
Achilles
on Skyros Some post-Homeric sources[19] claim that in order to keep Achilles safe from the war, Thetis
Thetis
(or, in some versions, Peleus) hid the young man at the court of Lycomedes, king of Skyros. There, Achilles
Achilles
is disguised as a girl and lives among Lycomedes' daughters, perhaps under the name "Pyrrha" (the red-haired girl). With Lycomedes' daughter Deidamia, whom in the account of Statius
Statius
he rapes, Achilles there fathers a son, Neoptolemus
Neoptolemus
(also called Pyrrhus, after his father's possible alias). According to this story, Odysseus
Odysseus
learns from the prophet Calchas
Calchas
that the Achaeans would be unable to capture Troy
Troy
without Achilles' aid. Odysseus
Odysseus
goes to Skyros
Skyros
in the guise of a peddler selling women's clothes and jewelry and places a shield and spear among his goods. When Achilles
Achilles
instantly takes up the spear, Odysseus
Odysseus
sees through his disguise and convinces him to join the Greek campaign. In another version of the story, Odysseus
Odysseus
arranges for a trumpet alarm to be sounded while he was with Lycomedes' women; while the women flee in panic, Achilles
Achilles
prepares to defend the court, thus giving his identity away. Achilles
Achilles
in the Trojan War[edit] According to the Iliad, Achilles
Achilles
arrived at Troy
Troy
with 50 ships, each carrying 50 Myrmidons.[20] He appointed five leaders (each leader commanding 500 Myrmidons): Menesthius, Eudorus, Peisander, Phoenix and Alcimedon.[21]

Achilles
Achilles
and Agamemnon
Agamemnon
by Gottlieb Schick (1801)

Telephus[edit] When the Greeks
Greeks
left for the Trojan War, they accidentally stopped in Mysia, ruled by King Telephus. In the resulting battle, Achilles
Achilles
gave Telephus
Telephus
a wound that would not heal; Telephus
Telephus
consulted an oracle, who stated that "he that wounded shall heal". Guided by the oracle, he arrived at Argos, where Achilles
Achilles
healed him in order that he might become their guide for the voyage to Troy.[22] According to other reports in Euripides' lost play about Telephus, he went to Aulis pretending to be a beggar and asked Achilles
Achilles
to heal his wound. Achilles
Achilles
refused, claiming to have no medical knowledge. Alternatively, Telephus
Telephus
held Orestes for ransom, the ransom being Achilles' aid in healing the wound. Odysseus
Odysseus
reasoned that the spear had inflicted the wound; therefore, the spear must be able to heal it. Pieces of the spear were scraped off onto the wound and Telephus
Telephus
was healed.[22] Troilus[edit]

Achilles
Achilles
slaying Troilus, red-figure kylix signed by Euphronios

According to the Cypria (the part of the Epic Cycle
Epic Cycle
that tells the events of the Trojan War
Trojan War
before Achilles' wrath), when the Achaeans desired to return home, they were restrained by Achilles, who afterwards attacked the cattle of Aeneas, sacked neighbouring cities (like Pedasus and Lyrnessus, where the Greeks
Greeks
capture the queen Briseis) and killed Tenes, a son of Apollo, as well as Priam's son Troilus
Troilus
in the sanctuary of Apollo
Apollo
Thymbraios.[23] However, the romance between Troilus
Troilus
and Chryseis
Chryseis
described in Geoffrey Chaucer's Troilus
Troilus
and Criseyde and in William Shakespeare's Troilus
Troilus
and Cressida is a medieval invention.[1] In Dares Phrygius' Account of the Destruction of Troy,[24] the Latin summary through which the story of Achilles
Achilles
was transmitted to medieval Europe, as well as in older accounts, Troilus
Troilus
was a young Trojan prince, the youngest of King Priam's and Hecuba's five legitimate sons (or according other sources, another son of Apollo).[25] Despite his youth, he was one of the main Trojan war leaders, a "horse fighter" or "chariot fighter" according to Homer.[26] Prophecies linked Troilus' fate to that of Troy
Troy
and so he was ambushed in an attempt to capture him. Yet Achilles, struck by the beauty of both Troilus
Troilus
and his sister Polyxena, and overcome with lust, directed his sexual attentions on the youth – who, refusing to yield, instead found himself decapitated upon an altar-omphalos of Apollo
Apollo
Thymbraios.[27] Later versions of the story suggested Troilus
Troilus
was accidentally killed by Achilles
Achilles
in an over-ardent lovers' embrace.[28] In this version of the myth, Achilles' death therefore came in retribution for this sacrilege.[29] Ancient writers treated Troilus
Troilus
as the epitome of a dead child mourned by his parents. Had Troilus
Troilus
lived to adulthood, the First Vatican Mythographer claimed, Troy
Troy
would have been invincible.[30] Achilles
Achilles
in the Iliad[edit] Main article: Iliad

Achilles
Achilles
cedes Briseis
Briseis
to Agamemnon, from the House of the Tragic Poet in Pompeii, fresco, 1st century AD (Naples National Archaeological Museum)

Homer's Iliad
Iliad
is the most famous narrative of Achilles' deeds in the Trojan War. Achilles' wrath (μῆνις Ἀχιλλέως, mênis Achilléōs) is the central theme of the poem. The first two lines of the Iliad
Iliad
read:

Μῆνιν ἄειδε θεὰ Πηληϊάδεω Ἀχιλῆος :οὐλομένην, ἣ μυρί' Ἀχαιοῖς ἄλγε' ἔθηκεν, […]

Sing, Goddess, of the rage of Peleus' son Achilles, the accursed rage that brought great suffering to the Achaeans.

The Homeric epic only covers a few weeks of the decade-long war, and does not narrate Achilles' death. It begins with Achilles' withdrawal from battle after being dishonoured by Agamemnon, the commander of the Achaean forces. Agamemnon
Agamemnon
has taken a woman named Chryseis
Chryseis
as his slave. Her father Chryses, a priest of Apollo, begs Agamemnon
Agamemnon
to return her to him. Agamemnon
Agamemnon
refuses, and Apollo
Apollo
sends a plague amongst the Greeks. The prophet Calchas
Calchas
correctly determines the source of the troubles but will not speak unless Achilles
Achilles
vows to protect him. Achilles
Achilles
does so, and Calchas
Calchas
declares that Chryseis
Chryseis
must be returned to her father. Agamemnon
Agamemnon
consents, but then commands that Achilles' battle prize Briseis, the daughter of Briseus, be brought to him to replace Chryseis. Angry at the dishonour of having his plunder and glory taken away (and, as he says later, because he loves Briseis),[31] with the urging of his mother Thetis, Achilles
Achilles
refuses to fight or lead his troops alongside the other Greek forces. At the same time, burning with rage over Agamemnon's theft, Achilles
Achilles
prays to Thetis
Thetis
to convince Zeus
Zeus
to help the Trojans gain ground in the war, so that he may regain his honour.

The embassy to Achilles, Attic red-figure hydria, c. 480 BC (Staatliche Antikensammlungen, Berlin)

Achilles
Achilles
and Agamemnon, from a fresco of Pompeii, 1st century AD

As the battle turns against the Greeks, thanks to the influence of Zeus, Nestor declares that the Trojans are winning because Agamemnon has angered Achilles, and urges the king to appease the warrior. Agamemnon
Agamemnon
agrees and sends Odysseus
Odysseus
and two other chieftains, Ajax and Phoenix, to Achilles
Achilles
with the offer of the return of Briseis
Briseis
and other gifts. Achilles
Achilles
rejects all Agamemnon
Agamemnon
offers him and simply urges the Greeks
Greeks
to sail home as he was planning to do.

Achilles
Achilles
sacrificing to Zeus
Zeus
for Patroclus' safe return,[32] from the Ambrosian Iliad, a 5th-century illuminated manuscript

The Rage of Achilles, fresco by Giovanni Battista Tiepolo
Giovanni Battista Tiepolo
(1757, Villa Valmarana ai Nani, Vicenza)

Triumphant Achilles
Achilles
dragging Hector's lifeless body in front of the Gates of Troy, from a panoramic fresco on the upper level of the main hall of the Achilleion

The Trojans, led by Hector, subsequently push the Greek army back toward the beaches and assault the Greek ships. With the Greek forces on the verge of absolute destruction, Patroclus
Patroclus
leads the Myrmidons into battle, wearing Achilles' armour, though Achilles
Achilles
remains at his camp. Patroclus
Patroclus
succeeds in pushing the Trojans back from the beaches, but is killed by Hector
Hector
before he can lead a proper assault on the city of Troy. After receiving the news of the death of Patroclus
Patroclus
from Antilochus, the son of Nestor, Achilles
Achilles
grieves over his beloved companion's death. His mother Thetis
Thetis
comes to comfort the distraught Achilles. She persuades Hephaestus
Hephaestus
to make new armour for him, in place of the armour that Patroclus
Patroclus
had been wearing, which was taken by Hector. The new armour includes the Shield of Achilles, described in great detail in the poem. Enraged over the death of Patroclus, Achilles
Achilles
ends his refusal to fight and takes the field, killing many men in his rage but always seeking out Hector. Achilles
Achilles
even engages in battle with the river god Scamander, who has become angry that Achilles
Achilles
is choking his waters with all the men he has killed. The god tries to drown Achilles
Achilles
but is stopped by Hera
Hera
and Hephaestus. Zeus
Zeus
himself takes note of Achilles' rage and sends the gods to restrain him so that he will not go on to sack Troy
Troy
itself before the time allotted for its destruction, seeming to show that the unhindered rage of Achilles
Achilles
can defy fate itself. Finally, Achilles
Achilles
finds his prey. Achilles
Achilles
chases Hector
Hector
around the wall of Troy
Troy
three times before Athena, in the form of Hector's favorite and dearest brother, Deiphobus, persuades Hector
Hector
to stop running and fight Achilles
Achilles
face to face. After Hector
Hector
realizes the trick, he knows the battle is inevitable. Wanting to go down fighting, he charges at Achilles
Achilles
with his only weapon, his sword, but misses. Accepting his fate, Hector
Hector
begs Achilles, not to spare his life, but to treat his body with respect after killing him. Achilles
Achilles
tells Hector
Hector
it is hopeless to expect that of him, declaring that "my rage, my fury would drive me now to hack your flesh away and eat you raw – such agonies you have caused me".[33] Achilles
Achilles
then kills Hector
Hector
and drags his corpse by its heels behind his chariot. After having a dream where Patroclus
Patroclus
begs Achilles
Achilles
to hold his funeral, Achilles
Achilles
hosts a series of funeral games in his honour.[34]

Achilles
Achilles
killing Penthesilea, tondo of an Attic red-figure kylix, c. 465 BC, from Vulci.

With the assistance of the god Hermes, Hector's father, Priam, goes to Achilles' tent to plead with Achilles
Achilles
for the return of Hector's body so that he can be buried. Achilles
Achilles
relents and promises a truce for the duration of the funeral. The poem ends with a description of Hector's funeral, with the doom of Troy
Troy
and Achilles
Achilles
himself still to come. Later epic accounts: fighting Penthesilea
Penthesilea
and Memnon[edit]

Achilles
Achilles
and Penthesilea
Penthesilea
fighting, Lucanian red-figure bell-krater, late 5th century BC

Achilles
Achilles
and Memnon fighting, between Thetis
Thetis
and Eos, Attic black-figure amphora, c. 510 BC, from Vulci.

The Aethiopis
Aethiopis
(7th century BC) and a work named Posthomerica, composed by Quintus of Smyrna
Quintus of Smyrna
in the fourth century AD, relate further events from the Trojan War. When Penthesilea, queen of the Amazons
Amazons
and daughter of Ares, arrives in Troy, Priam
Priam
hopes that she will defeat Achilles. After his temporary truce with Priam, Achilles
Achilles
fights and kills the warrior queen, only to grieve over her death later.[35] At first, he was so distracted by her beauty, he did not fight as intensely as usual. Once he realized that his distraction was endangering his life, he refocused and killed her. Following the death of Patroclus, Nestor's son Antilochus
Antilochus
becomes Achilles' closest companion. When Memnon, son of the Dawn Goddess Eos and king of Ethiopia, slays Antilochus, Achilles
Achilles
once more obtains revenge on the battlefield, killing Memnon. Consequently, Eos
Eos
will not let the sun rise, until Zeus
Zeus
persuades her. The fight between Achilles and Memnon over Antilochus
Antilochus
echoes that of Achilles
Achilles
and Hector
Hector
over Patroclus, except that Memnon (unlike Hector) was also the son of a goddess. Many Homeric scholars argued that episode inspired many details in the Iliad's description of the death of Patroclus
Patroclus
and Achilles' reaction to it. The episode then formed the basis of the cyclic epic Aethiopis, which was composed after the Iliad, possibly in the 7th century BC. The Aethiopis
Aethiopis
is now lost, except for scattered fragments quoted by later authors. Achilles' death[edit]

Ajax carries off the body of Achilles, Attic black-figure lekythos, c. 510 BC, from Sicily (Staatliche Antikensammlungen, Munich).

The death of Achilles, as predicted by Hector
Hector
with his dying breath, was brought about by Paris with an arrow (to the heel according to Statius). In some versions, the god Apollo
Apollo
guided Paris' arrow. Some retellings also state that Achilles
Achilles
was scaling the gates of Troy
Troy
and was hit with a poisoned arrow. All of these versions deny Paris any sort of valour, owing to the common conception that Paris was a coward and not the man his brother Hector
Hector
was, and Achilles
Achilles
remained undefeated on the battlefield. His bones were mingled with those of Patroclus, and funeral games were held. He was represented in the Aethiopis
Aethiopis
as living after his death in the island of Leuke
Leuke
at the mouth of the river Danube. Another version of Achilles' death is that he fell deeply in love with one of the Trojan princesses, Polyxena. Achilles
Achilles
asks Priam
Priam
for Polyxena's hand in marriage. Priam
Priam
is willing because it would mean the end of the war and an alliance with the world's greatest warrior. But while Priam
Priam
is overseeing the private marriage of Polyxena
Polyxena
and Achilles, Paris, who would have to give up Helen if Achilles
Achilles
married his sister, hides in the bushes and shoots Achilles
Achilles
with a divine arrow, killing him. In the Odyssey, Agamemnon
Agamemnon
informs Achilles
Achilles
of his pompous burial and the erection of his mound at the Hellespont
Hellespont
while they are receiving the dead suitors in Hades.[36] He claims they built a massive burial mound on the beach of Ilion that could be seen by anyone approaching from the Ocean.[37] Achilles
Achilles
was cremated and his ashes buried in the same urn as those of Patroclus.[38] Paris was later killed by Philoctetes
Philoctetes
using the enormous bow of Heracles. In Book 11 of Homer's Odyssey, Odysseus
Odysseus
sails to the underworld and converses with the shades. One of these is Achilles, who when greeted as "blessed in life, blessed in death", responds that he would rather be a slave to the worst of masters than be king of all the dead. But Achilles
Achilles
then asks Odysseus
Odysseus
of his son's exploits in the Trojan war, and when Odysseus
Odysseus
tells of Neoptolemus' heroic actions, Achilles
Achilles
is filled with satisfaction.[39] This leaves the reader with an ambiguous understanding of how Achilles
Achilles
felt about the heroic life. According to some accounts, he had married Medea
Medea
in life, so that after both their deaths they were united in the Elysian Fields of Hades – as Hera
Hera
promised Thetis
Thetis
in Apollonius' Argonautica
Argonautica
(3rd century BC).

Achilles
Achilles
tending Patroclus
Patroclus
wounded by an arrow, Attic red-figure kylix, c. 500 BC (Altes Museum, Berlin)

Achilles
Achilles
and Patroclus[edit] Main article: Achilles
Achilles
and Patroclus The exact nature of Achilles' relationship with Patroclus
Patroclus
has been a subject of dispute in both the classical period and modern times. In the Iliad, it appears to be the model of a deep and loyal friendship. Homer
Homer
does not suggest that Achilles
Achilles
and his close friend Patroclus were lovers.[40][41] Despite there being no direct evidence in the text of the Iliad
Iliad
that Achilles
Achilles
and Patroclus
Patroclus
were lovers, this theory was expressed by some later authors.[41] Commentators from classical antiquity to the present have often interpreted the relationship through the lens of their own cultures. In 5th-century BC Athens, the intense bond was often viewed in light of the Greek custom of paiderasteia. In Plato's Symposium, the participants in a dialogue about love assume that Achilles
Achilles
and Patroclus
Patroclus
were a couple; Phaedrus argues that Achilles
Achilles
was the younger and more beautiful one so he was the beloved and Patroclus
Patroclus
was the lover.[42] But ancient Greek had no words to distinguish heterosexual and homosexual,[43] and it was assumed that a man could both desire handsome young men and have sex with women. The fate of Achilles' armour[edit]

Achilles
Achilles
and Ajax playing the board game petteia, black-figure oinochoe, c. 530 BC (Capitoline Museums, Rome)

Achilles' armour was the object of a feud between Odysseus
Odysseus
and Telamonian Ajax (Ajax the greater). They competed for it by giving speeches on why they were the bravest after Achilles
Achilles
to their Trojan prisoners, who after considering both men, decided Odysseus
Odysseus
was more deserving of the armour. Furious, Ajax cursed Odysseus, which earned the ire of Athena. Athena
Athena
temporarily made Ajax so mad with grief and anguish that he began killing sheep, thinking them his comrades. After a while, when Athena
Athena
lifted his madness and Ajax realized that he had actually been killing sheep, Ajax was left so ashamed that he committed suicide. Odysseus
Odysseus
eventually gave the armour to Neoptolemus, the son of Achilles. A relic claimed to be Achilles' bronze-headed spear was for centuries preserved in the temple of Athena
Athena
on the acropolis of Phaselis, Lycia, a port on the Pamphylian Gulf. The city was visited in 333 BC by Alexander the Great, who envisioned himself as the new Achilles
Achilles
and carried the Iliad
Iliad
with him, but his court biographers do not mention the spear.[44] However, it was shown in the time of Pausanias in the 2nd century AD.[45] Achilles, Ajax and a game of petteia[edit] Numerous paintings on pottery have suggested a tale not mentioned in the literary traditions. At some point in the war, Achilles
Achilles
and Ajax were playing a board game (petteia).[46][47] They were absorbed in the game and oblivious to the surrounding battle.[48] The Trojans attacked and reached the heroes, who were saved only by an intervention of Athena.[49] Worship and heroic cult[edit] The tomb of Achilles,[50] extant throughout antiquity in Troad,[51] was venerated by Thessalians, but also by Persian expeditionary forces, as well as by Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
and the Roman emperor Caracalla.[52] Achilles' cult was also to be found at other places, e. g. on the island of Astypalaea in the Sporades,[53] in Sparta
Sparta
which had a sanctuary,[54] in Elis
Elis
and in Achilles' homeland Thessaly, as well as in the Magna Graecia
Magna Graecia
cities of Tarentum, Locri
Locri
and Croton,[55] accounting for an almost Panhellenic cult to the hero. The spread and intensity of the hero's veneration among the Greeks that had settled on the northern coast of the Pontus Euxinus, today's Black Sea, appears to have been remarkable. An archaic cult is attested for the Milesian colony of Olbia as well as for an island in the middle of the Black Sea, today identified with Snake Island (Ukrainian Зміїний, Zmiinyi, near Kiliya, Ukraine). Early dedicatory inscriptions from the Greek colonies
Greek colonies
on the Black Sea (graffiti and inscribed clay disks, these possibly being votive offerings, from Olbia, the area of Berezan Island
Berezan Island
and the Tauric Chersonese[56]) attest the existence of a heroic cult of Achilles[57] from the sixth century BC onwards. The cult was still thriving in the third century AD, when dedicatory stelae from Olbia refer to an Achilles
Achilles
Pontárchēs (Ποντάρχης, roughly "lord of the Sea," or "of the Pontus Euxinus"), who was invoked as a protector of the city of Olbia, venerated on par with Olympian gods
Olympian gods
such as the local Apollo
Apollo
Prostates, Hermes
Hermes
Agoraeus,[52] or Poseidon.[58] Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
(23–79 AD) in his Natural History mentions a "port of the Achæi" and an "island of Achilles", famous for the tomb of that "man" (portus Achaeorum, insula Achillis, tumulo eius viri clara), situated somewhat nearby Olbia and the Dnieper-Bug Estuary; furthermore, at 125 Roman miles from this island, he places a peninsula "which stretches forth in the shape of a sword" obliquely, called Dromos Achilleos (Ἀχιλλέως δρόμος, Achilléōs drómos "the Race-course of Achilles")[59] and considered the place of the hero's exercise or of games instituted by him.[52] This last feature of Pliny's account is considered to be the iconic spit, called today Tendra (or Kosa Tendra and Kosa Djarilgatch), situated between the mouth of the Dnieper
Dnieper
and Karkinit Bay, but which is hardly 125 Roman miles (c. 185 km) away from the Dnieper-Bug estuary, as Pliny states. (To the "Race-course" he gives a length of 80 miles, c. 120 km, whereas the spit measures c. 70 km today.)

Thetis
Thetis
and the Nereids mourning Achilles, Corinthian black-figure hydria, c. 555 BC (Louvre, Paris)

Roman statue of a man with the dead body of a boy, identified as Achilles
Achilles
and Troilus, 2nd century AD (Naples National Archaeological Museum)

In the following chapter of his book, Pliny refers to the same island as Achillea and introduces two further names for it: Leuce or Macaron (from Greek [νῆσος] μακαρῶν "island of the blest"). The "present day" measures, he gives at this point, seem to account for an identification of Achillea or Leuce with today's Snake Island.[60] Pliny's contemporary Pomponius Mela
Pomponius Mela
(c. 43 AD) tells that Achilles
Achilles
was buried on an island named Achillea, situated between the Borysthenes and the Ister, adding to the geographical confusion.[61] Ruins of a square temple, measuring 30 meters to a side, possibly that dedicated to Achilles, were discovered by Captain Kritzikly in 1823 on Snake Island. A second exploration in 1840 showed that the construction of a lighthouse had destroyed all traces of this temple. A fifth century BC black-glazed lekythos inscription, found on the island in 1840, reads: "Glaukos, son of Poseidon, dedicated me to Achilles, lord of Leuke." In another inscription from the fifth or fourth century BC, a statue is dedicated to Achilles, lord of Leuke, by a citizen of Olbia, while in a further dedication, the city of Olbia confirms its continuous maintenance of the island's cult, again suggesting its quality as a place of a supra-regional hero veneration.[52] The heroic cult dedicated to Achilles
Achilles
on Leuce seems to go back to an account from the lost epic Aethiopis
Aethiopis
according to which, after his untimely death, Thetis
Thetis
had snatched her son from the funeral pyre and removed him to a mythical Λεύκη Νῆσος (Leúkē Nêsos "White Island").[62] Already in the fifth century BC, Pindar
Pindar
had mentioned a cult of Achilles
Achilles
on a "bright island" (φαεννά νᾶσος, phaenná nâsos) of the Black Sea,[63] while in another of his works, Pindar
Pindar
would retell the story of the immortalized Achilles
Achilles
living on a geographically indefinite Island of the Blest together with other heroes such as his father Peleus
Peleus
and Cadmus.[64] Well known is the connection of these mythological Fortunate Isles (μακαρῶν νῆσοι, makárôn nêsoi) or the Homeric Elysium with the stream Oceanus
Oceanus
which according to Greek mythology
Greek mythology
surrounds the inhabited world, which should have accounted for the identification of the northern strands of the Euxine with it.[52] Guy Hedreen has found further evidence for this connection of Achilles with the northern margin of the inhabited world in a poem by Alcaeus, speaking of " Achilles
Achilles
lord of Scythia"[65] and the opposition of North and South, as evoked by Achilles' fight against the Aethiopian prince Memnon, who in his turn would be removed to his homeland by his mother Eos
Eos
after his death. The Periplus of the Euxine Sea
Periplus of the Euxine Sea
(c. 130 AD) gives the following details:

It is said that the goddess Thetis
Thetis
raised this island from the sea, for her son Achilles, who dwells there. Here is his temple and his statue, an archaic work. This island is not inhabited, and goats graze on it, not many, which the people who happen to arrive here with their ships, sacrifice to Achilles. In this temple are also deposited a great many holy gifts, craters, rings and precious stones, offered to Achilles
Achilles
in gratitude. One can still read inscriptions in Greek and Latin, in which Achilles
Achilles
is praised and celebrated. Some of these are worded in Patroclus’ honour, because those who wish to be favored by Achilles, honour Patroclus
Patroclus
at the same time. There are also in this island countless numbers of sea birds, which look after Achilles’ temple. Every morning they fly out to sea, wet their wings with water, and return quickly to the temple and sprinkle it. And after they finish the sprinkling, they clean the hearth of the temple with their wings. Other people say still more, that some of the men who reach this island, come here intentionally. They bring animals in their ships, destined to be sacrificed. Some of these animals they slaughter, others they set free on the island, in Achilles’ honour. But there are others, who are forced to come to this island by sea storms. As they have no sacrificial animals, but wish to get them from the god of the island himself, they consult Achilles' oracle. They ask permission to slaughter the victims chosen from among the animals that graze freely on the island, and to deposit in exchange the price which they consider fair. But in case the oracle denies them permission, because there is an oracle here, they add something to the price offered, and if the oracle refuses again, they add something more, until at last, the oracle agrees that the price is sufficient. And then the victim doesn’t run away any more, but waits willingly to be caught. So, there is a great quantity of silver there, consecrated to the hero, as price for the sacrificial victims. To some of the people who come to this island, Achilles
Achilles
appears in dreams, to others he would appear even during their navigation, if they were not too far away, and would instruct them as to which part of the island they would better anchor their ships.[66]

The Greek geographer Dionysius Periegetes, who lived probably during the first century AD, wrote that the island was called Leuce "because the wild animals which live there are white. It is said that there, in Leuce island, reside the souls of Achilles
Achilles
and other heroes, and that they wander through the uninhabited valleys of this island; this is how Jove rewarded the men who had distinguished themselves through their virtues, because through virtue they had acquired everlasting honour".[67] Similarly, others relate the island's name to its white cliffs, snakes or birds dwelling there.[68][52] Pausanias has been told that the island is "covered with forests and full of animals, some wild, some tame. In this island there is also Achilles' temple and his statue".[69] Leuce had also a reputation as a place of healing. Pausanias reports that the Delphic Pythia
Pythia
sent a lord of Croton to be cured of a chest wound.[70] Ammianus Marcellinus attributes the healing to waters (aquae) on the island.[71] A number of important commercial port cities of the Greek waters were dedicated to Achilles. Herodotus, Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
and Strabo
Strabo
reported on the existence of a town Achílleion (Ἀχίλλειον), built by settlers from Mytilene
Mytilene
in the sixth century BC, close to the hero's presumed burial mound in the Troad.[51] Later attestations point to an Achílleion in Messenia
Messenia
(according to Stephanus Byzantinus) and an Achílleios (Ἀχίλλειος) in Laconia.[72] Nicolae Densuşianu recognized a connection to Achilles
Achilles
in the names of Aquileia
Aquileia
and of the northern arm of the Danube
Danube
delta, called Chilia (presumably from an older Achileii), though his conclusion, that Leuce had sovereign rights over the Black Sea, evokes modern rather than archaic sea-law.[66] The kings of Epirus claimed to be descended from Achilles
Achilles
through his son, Neoptolemus. Alexander the Great, son of the Epirote princess Olympias, could therefore also claim this descent, and in many ways strove to be like his great ancestor. He is said to have visited the tomb of Achilles
Achilles
at Achilleion while passing Troy.[73] In AD 216 the Roman Emperor Caracalla, while on his way to war against Parthia, emulated Alexander by holding games around Achilles' tumulus.[74] Reception during antiquity[edit] Achilles
Achilles
in Greek tragedy[edit] Main article: Achilleis (trilogy) The Greek tragedian Aeschylus
Aeschylus
wrote a trilogy of plays about Achilles, given the title Achilleis by modern scholars. The tragedies relate the deeds of Achilles
Achilles
during the Trojan War, including his defeat of Hector
Hector
and eventual death when an arrow shot by Paris and guided by Apollo
Apollo
punctures his heel. Extant fragments of the Achilleis and other Aeschylean fragments have been assembled to produce a workable modern play. The first part of the Achilleis trilogy, The Myrmidons, focused on the relationship between Achilles
Achilles
and chorus, who represent the Achaean army and try to convince Achilles
Achilles
to give up his quarrel with Agamemnon; only a few lines survive today.[75] In Plato's Symposium, Phaedrus points out that Aeschylus
Aeschylus
portrayed Achilles
Achilles
as the lover and Patroclus
Patroclus
as the beloved; Phaedrus argues that this is incorrect because Achilles, being the younger and more beautiful of the two, was the beloved, who loved his lover so much that he chose to die to revenge him.[76] The tragedian Sophocles
Sophocles
also wrote The Lovers of Achilles, a play with Achilles
Achilles
as the main character. Only a few fragments survive.[77] Towards the end of the 5th century BC, a more negative view of Achilles
Achilles
emerges in Greek drama; Euripides
Euripides
refers to Achilles
Achilles
in a bitter or ironic tone in Hecuba, Electra, and Iphigenia in Aulis.[78] Achilles
Achilles
in Greek philosophy[edit] The philosopher Zeno of Elea
Zeno of Elea
centered one of his paradoxes on an imaginary footrace between "swift-footed" Achilles
Achilles
and a tortoise, by which he attempted to show that Achilles
Achilles
could not catch up to a tortoise with a head start, and therefore that motion and change were impossible. As a student of the monist Parmenides and a member of the Eleatic school, Zeno believed time and motion to be illusions. Achilles
Achilles
in Roman and medieval literature[edit] The Romans, who traditionally traced their lineage to Troy, took a highly negative view of Achilles.[78] Virgil
Virgil
refers to Achilles
Achilles
as a savage and a merciless butcher of men,[79] while Horace
Horace
portrays Achilles
Achilles
ruthlessly slaying women and children.[80] Other writers, such as Catullus, Propertius, and Ovid, represent a second strand of disparagement, with an emphasis on Achilles' erotic career. This strand continues in Latin
Latin
accounts of the Trojan War
Trojan War
by writers such as Dictys Cretensis and Dares Phrygius and in Benoît de Sainte-Maure's Roman de Troie
Roman de Troie
and Guido delle Colonne's Historia destructionis Troiae, which remained the most widely read and retold versions of the Matter of Troy
Troy
until the 17th century. Achilles
Achilles
was described by the Byzantine chronicler Leo the Deacon, not as Hellene, but as Scythian, while according to the Byzantine author John Malalas, his army was made up of a tribe previously known as Myrmidons and later as Bulgars.[81][82] Achilles
Achilles
in modern literature and arts[edit]

Briseis
Briseis
and Achilles, engraving by Wenceslaus Hollar
Wenceslaus Hollar
(1607–1677)

The Wrath of Achilles
Achilles
(c. 1630–1635), painting by Peter Paul Rubens

The death of Hector, unfinished oil painting by Peter Paul Rubens

The Education of Achilles
Achilles
(c. 1772), by James Barry (Yale Center for British Art)

The Wrath of Achilles, by François-Léon Benouville
François-Léon Benouville
(1847; Musée Fabre)

The Education of Achilles, by Eugène Delacroix, pastel on paper, c. 1862 (Getty Center, Los Angeles)

Literature[edit]

Achilles
Achilles
appears in Dante's Inferno (composed 1308–1320). He is seen in Hell's second Circle of Lust. Achilles
Achilles
is portrayed as a former hero who has become lazy and devoted to the love of Patroclus, in William Shakespeare's Troilus
Troilus
and Cressida (1602). The French dramatist Thomas Corneille
Thomas Corneille
wrote a tragedy La Mort d'Achille (1673). Achilles
Achilles
is the subject of the poem Achilleis (1799), a fragment by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. Achilles
Achilles
is mentioned in Tennyson's poem "Ulysses" (published in 1842): "[…] we shall touch the happy isles and meet there the great Achilles
Achilles
whom we knew." In 1899, the Polish playwright, painter and poet Stanisław Wyspiański published a national drama, based on Polish history, named Achilles. In 1921, Edward Shanks published The Island of Youth and Other Poems, concerned among others with Achilles. The 1983 novel Kassandra by Christa Wolf
Christa Wolf
also treats the death of Achilles. Achilles
Achilles
(Akhilles) is killed by a poisoned Kentaur arrow shot by Kassandra in Marion Zimmer Bradley's novel The Firebrand
The Firebrand
(1987). Achilles
Achilles
is one of various 'narrators' in Colleen McCullough's novel The Song of Troy
Troy
(1998). The Death of Achilles
The Death of Achilles
(Смерть Ахиллеса, 1998) is an historical detective novel by Russian writer Boris Akunin
Boris Akunin
that alludes to various figures and motifs from the Iliad. The character Achilles
Achilles
in Ender's Shadow
Ender's Shadow
(1999), by Orson Scott Card, shares his namesake's cunning mind and ruthless attitude. Achilles
Achilles
is one of the main characters in Dan Simmons's novels Ilium (2003) and Olympos (2005). Achilles
Achilles
is a major supporting character in David Gemmell's Troy series of books (2005-2007). Achilles
Achilles
is the main character in David Malouf's novel Ransom (2009). The ghost of Achilles
Achilles
appears in Rick Riordan's The Last Olympian (2009). He warns Percy Jackson about the Curse of Achilles
Achilles
and its side effects. Achilles
Achilles
is a main character in Terence Hawkins' 2009 novel The Rage of Achilles. Achilles
Achilles
is a major character in Madeline Miller's debut novel, The Song of Achilles
Achilles
(2011), which won the 2012 Orange Prize for Fiction. The novel explores the relationship between Patroclus
Patroclus
and Achilles from boyhood to the fateful events of the Iliad. Achilles
Achilles
appears in the light novel series Fate/Apocrypha (2012–2014) as the Rider of Red.

Visual arts[edit]

Achilles
Achilles
with the Daughters of Lycomedes
Lycomedes
is a subject treated in paintings by Anthony van Dyck
Anthony van Dyck
(before 1618; Museo del Prado, Madrid) and Nicolas Poussin
Nicolas Poussin
(c. 1652; Museum of Fine Arts, Boston) among others. Peter Paul Rubens
Peter Paul Rubens
has authored a series of works on the life of Achilles, comprising the titles: Thetis
Thetis
dipping the infant Achilles into the river Styx, Achilles
Achilles
educated by the centaur Chiron, Achilles recognized among the daughters of Lycomedes, The wrath of Achilles, The death of Hector, Thetis
Thetis
receiving the arms of Achilles
Achilles
from Vulcanus, The death of Achilles
Achilles
(Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, Rotterdam), and Briseis
Briseis
restored to Achilles
Achilles
(Detroit Institute of Arts; all c. 1630–1635) Pieter van Lint, " Achilles
Achilles
Discovered among the Daughters of Lycomedes", 1645, at the Israel Museum, Jerusalem Dying Achilles
Achilles
is a sculpture created by Christophe Veyrier
Christophe Veyrier
(c. 1683; Victoria and Albert Museum, London). The Rage of Achilles is a fresco by Giovanni Battista Tiepolo
Giovanni Battista Tiepolo
(1757, Villa Valmarana ai Nani, Vicenza). Eugène Delacroix
Eugène Delacroix
painted a version of The Education of Achilles
Achilles
for the ceiling of the Paris Palais Bourbon
Palais Bourbon
(1833–1847), one of the seats of the French Parliament. Arthur Kaan created a statue group Achilles
Achilles
and Penthesilea
Penthesilea
(1895; Vienna). Achilleus (1908) is a lithography by Max Slevogt.

Music[edit] Achilles
Achilles
has been frequently the subject of operas, ballets and related genres.

Operas titled Deidamia were composed by Francesco Cavalli
Francesco Cavalli
(1644) and George Frideric Handel
George Frideric Handel
(1739). Achille et Polyxène (Paris 1687) is an opera begun by Jean-Baptiste Lully and finished by Pascal Collasse. Achille e Deidamia (Naples 1698) is an opera, composed by Alessandro Scarlatti. Achilles
Achilles
(London 1733) is a ballad opera, written by John Gay, parodied by Thomas Arne
Thomas Arne
as Achilles
Achilles
in petticoats in 1773. Achille in Sciro is a libretto by Metastasio, composed by Domenico Sarro for the inauguration of the Teatro di San Carlo
Teatro di San Carlo
(Naples, 4 November 1737). An even earlier composition is from Antonio Caldara (Vienna 1736). Later operas on the same libretto were composed by Leonardo Leo (Turin 1739), Niccolò Jommelli
Niccolò Jommelli
(Vienna 1749 and Rome 1772), Giuseppe Sarti
Giuseppe Sarti
(Copenhagen 1759 and Florence 1779), Johann Adolph Hasse (Naples 1759), Giovanni Paisiello
Giovanni Paisiello
(St. Petersburg 1772), Giuseppe Gazzaniga
Giuseppe Gazzaniga
(Palermo 1781) and many others. It has also been set to music as Il Trionfo della gloria. Achille (Vienna 1801) is an opera by Ferdinando Paër
Ferdinando Paër
on a libretto by Giovanni de Gamerra. Achille à Scyros (Paris 1804) is a ballet by Pierre Gardel, composed by Luigi Cherubini. Achilles, oder Das zerstörte Troja ("Achilles, or Troy
Troy
Destroyed", Bonn 1885) is an oratorio by the German composer Max Bruch. Achilles
Achilles
auf Skyros
Skyros
(Stuttgart 1926) is a ballet by the Austrian-British composer and musicologist Egon Wellesz. Achilles' Wrath is a concert piece by Sean O'Loughlin.[83]

Architecture[edit]

Dying Achilles
Achilles
(Achilleas thniskon) in the gardens of the Achilleion

In 1890, Elisabeth of Bavaria, Empress of Austria, had a summer palace built in Corfu. The building is named the Achilleion, after Achilles. Its paintings and statuary depict scenes from the Trojan war, with particular focus on Achilles. Namesakes[edit]

The name of Achilles
Achilles
has been used for at least nine Royal Navy warships since 1744 - both as HMS Achilles and with the French spelling HMS Achille. A 60-gun ship of that name served at the Battle of Belleisle in 1761 while a 74-gun ship served at the Battle of Trafalgar. Other battle honours include Walcheren 1809. An armored cruiser of that name served in the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
during the First World War. HMNZS Achilles
Achilles
was a Leander-class cruiser which served with the Royal New Zealand Navy in World War II. It became famous for its part in the Battle of the River Plate, alongside HMS Ajax and HMS Exeter. In addition to earning the battle honour 'River Plate', HMNZS Achilles
Achilles
also served at Guadalcanal 1942–43 and Okinawa in 1945. After returning to the Royal Navy, the ship was sold to the Indian Navy
Indian Navy
in 1948 but when she was scrapped parts of the ship were saved and preserved in New Zealand. A species of lizard, Anolis achilles, which has widened heel plates, is named for Achilles.[84]

Notes[edit]

^ a b c d Dorothea Sigel; Anne Ley; Bruno Bleckmann. "Achilles". In Hubert Cancik; et al. Brill’s New Pauly. Brill Reference Online. doi:10.1163/1574-9347_bnp_e102220. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) Accessed 5 May 2017. ^ a b Robert S. P. Beekes, Etymological Dictionary of Greek, Brill, 2009, pp. 183ff. ^ Epigraphical database[permanent dead link] gives 476 matches for Ἀχιλ-.The earliest ones: Corinth 7th c. BC, Delphi
Delphi
530 BC, Attica and Elis
Elis
5th c. BC. ^ Scholia to the Iliad, 1.1. ^ Leonard Palmer (1963). The Interpretation of Mycenaean Greek Texts. Oxford: Clarendon Press. p. 79.  ^ a b Gregory Nagy. "The best of the Achaeans". CHS. The Center for Hellenic Studies, Harvard University. Retrieved 19 March 2015.  ^ Cf. the Wiktionary entries "Ἀχιλλεύς" and *h₂eḱ-. ^ Iliad
Iliad
1.121, 2.688. ^ E. g. Iliad
Iliad
1.58, 1.84, 1.148, 1.215, 1.364, 1.489. ^ Cf. the supportive position of Hildebrecht Hommel (1980). "Der Gott Achilleus". Sitzungsberichte der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften (1): 38–44.  – A critical point of view is taken by J. T. Hooker (1988). "The cults of Achilleus". Rheinisches Museum für Philologie. 131 (3): 1–7.  ^ Aeschylus, Prometheus
Prometheus
Bound 755–768; Pindar, Nemean 5.34–37, Isthmian 8.26–47; Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 3.13.5; Poeticon astronomicon 2.15. ^ Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 3.13.5. ^ Statius, Achilleid
Achilleid
1.269; Hyginus, Fabulae 107. ^ Jonathan S. Burgess (2009). The Death and Afterlife of Achilles. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 9. ISBN 0-8018-9029-2. Retrieved 5 February 2010.  ^ Apollonius of Rhodes, Argonautica
Argonautica
4.869–879. ^ Hesiod, Catalogue of Women, fr. 204.87–89 MW; Iliad
Iliad
11.830–832. ^ Iliad
Iliad
9.410ff. ^ Photius, Bibliotheca, cod. 190: " Thetis
Thetis
burned in a secret place the children she had by Peleus; six were born; when she had Achilles, Peleus
Peleus
noticed and tore him from the flames with only a burnt foot and confided him to Chiron. The latter exhumed the body of the giant Damysos who was buried at Pallene—Damysos was the fastest of all the giants—removed the 'astragale' and incorporated it into Achilles' foot using 'ingredients'. This 'astragale' fell when Achilles
Achilles
was pursued by Apollo
Apollo
and it was thus that Achilles, fallen, was killed. It is said, on the other hand, that he was called Podarkes by the Poet, because, it is said, Thetis
Thetis
gave the newborn child the wings of Arce and Podarkes means that his feet had the wings of Arce." ^ Euripides, Skyrioi, surviving only in fragmentary form; Philostratus Junior, Imagines i; Scholiast on Homer's Iliad, 9.326; Ovid, Metamorphoses
Metamorphoses
13.162–180; Ovid, Tristia
Tristia
2.409–412 (mentioning a Roman tragedy on this subject); Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 3.13.8; Statius, Achilleid
Achilleid
1.689–880, 2.167ff. ^ Iliad
Iliad
2.681–685. ^ Iliad
Iliad
16.171–197. ^ a b Pseudo-Apollodorus. "Bibliotheca, Epitome 3.20". theoi.com.  ^ "Proclus' Summary of the Cypria". Stoa.org. Retrieved 9 March 2010.  ^ "Dares' account of the destruction of Troy, Greek Mythology Link". Homepage.mac.com. Archived from the original on 30 November 2001. Retrieved 9 March 2010.  ^ Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 3.151. ^ Iliad
Iliad
24.257. Cf. Vergil, Aeneid
Aeneid
1.474–478. ^ Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca Epitome 3.32. ^ Scholia to Lycophron 307; Servius, Scholia to the Aeneid
Aeneid
1.474. ^ James Davidson, " Zeus
Zeus
Be Nice Now" in London Review of Books, 19 July 2007. Accessed 23 October 2007. ^ The motif, however, is older and found already in Plautus, Bacchides 953ff. ^ Iliad
Iliad
9.334–343. ^ Iliad
Iliad
16.220–252. ^ "The Iliad", Fagles translation. Penguin Books, 1991: 22.346. ^ Lattimore, Richmond (2011). The Illiad of Homer. Chicago: The University of Chicago. ISBN 978-0-226-46937-9.  ^ Propertius, 3.11.15; Quintus Smyrnaeus
Quintus Smyrnaeus
1. ^ Odyssey
Odyssey
24.36–94. ^ Richmond Lattimore (2007). The Odyssey
Odyssey
of Homer. New York: Harper Perennial. p. 347. ISBN 978-0-06-124418-6.  ^ E. Hamilton (1969), Mythology. New York: Penguin Books. ^ Odyssey
Odyssey
11.467–564. ^ Robin Fox (2011). The Tribal Imagination: Civilization and the Savage Mind. Harvard University Press. p. 223. ISBN 9780674060944. There is certainly no evidence in the text of the Iliad
Iliad
that Achilles
Achilles
and Patroclus
Patroclus
were lovers.  ^ a b Martin, Thomas R (2012). Alexander the Great : the story of an ancient life. Cambridge University Press. pp. 99–100. ISBN 0521148448. The ancient sources do not report, however, what modern scholars have asserted: that Alexander and his very close friend Hephaestion were lovers. Achilles
Achilles
and his equally close friend Patroclus
Patroclus
provided the legendary model for this friendship, but Homer in the Iliad
Iliad
never suggested that they had sex with each other. (That came from later authors.) If Alexander and Hephaestion did have a sexual relationship, it would have been transgressive by majority Greek standards...  ^ Plato, Symposium, 180a; the beauty of Achilles
Achilles
was a topic already broached at Iliad
Iliad
2.673–674. ^ Kenneth Dover, Greek Homosexuality (Harvard University Press, 1978, 1989), p. 1 et passim. ^ "Alexander came to rest at Phaselis, a coastal city which was later renowned for the possession of Achilles' original spear." Robin Lane Fox, Alexander the Great, 1973, p. 144. ^ Pausanias, iii.3.6; see Christian Jacob and Anne Mullen-Hohl, "The Greek Traveler's Areas of Knowledge: Myths and Other Discourses in Pausanias' Description of Greece", Yale French Studies 59: Rethinking History: Time, Myth, and Writing (1980:65–85, especially 81). ^ "Petteia". Archived 9 December 2006 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Greek Board Games". Archived 8 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Latrunculi". Archived 15 September 2006 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Ioannis Kakridis (1988). Ελληνική Μυθολογία [Greek mythology]. Athens: Ekdotiki Athinon. Vol. 5, p. 92. ^ Cf. Homer, Iliad
Iliad
24.80–84. ^ a b Herodotus, Histories 5.94; Pliny, Naturalis Historia
Naturalis Historia
5.125; Strabo, Geographica
Geographica
13.1.32 (C596); Diogenes Laertius
Diogenes Laertius
1.74. ^ a b c d e f Guy Hedreen (July 1991). "The Cult of Achilles
Achilles
in the Euxine". Hesperia. 60 (3): 313–330.  ^ Cicero, De Natura Deorum 3.45. ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece 3.20.8. ^ Lycophron 856. ^ Hildebrecht Hommel (1980). "Der Gott Achilleus". Sitzungsberichte der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften (1): 38–44.  ^ J. T. Hooker (1988). "The cults of Achilleus". Rheinisches Museum für Philologie. 131 (3): 1–7.  ^ Quintus Smyrnaeus, 3.770–779. ^ Pliny, Naturalis Historia
Naturalis Historia
4.12.83 (chapter 4.26). ^ Pliny, Naturalis Historia
Naturalis Historia
4.13.93 (chapter 4.27): "Researches which have been made at the present day place this island at a distance of 140 miles from the Borysthenes, of 120 from Tyras, and of fifty from the island of Peuce. It is about ten miles in circumference." Though afterwards he speaks again of "the remaining islands in the Gulf of Carcinites" which are "Cephalonesos, Rhosphodusa [or Spodusa], and Macra". ^ Pomponius Mela, De situ orbis 2.7. ^ Proclus, Chrestomathia 2. ^ Pindar, Nemea 4.49ff.; Arrian, Periplus of the Euxine Sea
Periplus of the Euxine Sea
21. ^ Pindar, Olympia 2.78ff. ^ D. Page, Lyrica Graeca Selecta, Oxford 1968, p. 89, no. 166. ^ a b Nicolae Densuşianu: Dacia preistorică. Bucharest: Carol Göbl, 1913. ^ Dionysius Periegetes, Orbis descriptio 5.541, quoted in Densuşianu 1913. ^ Arrian, Periplus of the Euxine Sea
Periplus of the Euxine Sea
21; Scholion to Pindar, Nemea 4.79. ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece 3.19.11. ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece 3.19.13. ^ Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae 22.8. ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece 3.25.4. ^ Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri
Anabasis Alexandri
1.12.1, Cicero, Pro Archia Poeta 24. ^ Dio Cassius 78.16.7. ^ Pantelis Michelakis, Achilles
Achilles
in Greek Tragedy, 2002, p. 22 ^ Plato, Symposium, translated Benjamin Jowett, Dover Thrift Editions, page 8 ^ S. Radt. Tragicorum Graecorum fragmenta, vol. 4, (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1977) frr. 149–157a. ^ a b Latacz 2010 ^ Aeneid
Aeneid
2.29, 1.30, 3.87. ^ Odes 4.6.17–20. ^ Ekonomou, Andrew (2007). Byzantine Rome and the Greek Popes. UK: Lexington Books. p. 123. Retrieved 14 September 2015.  ^ Jeffreys, Elizabeth; Croke, Brian. Studies in John Malalas. Australian Association for Byzantine Studies, Department of Modern Greek, University of Sydney,. p. 206. Retrieved 14 September 2015.  ^ Entry at Musical World. ^ Beolens, Bo; Watkins, Michael; Grayson, Michael (2011). The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. xiii + 296 pp. ISBN 978-1-4214-0135-5. ("Achilles", p. 1).

References[edit]

Homer, Iliad Homer, Odyssey
Odyssey
XI, 467–540 Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca III, xiii, 5–8 Apollodorus, Epitome III, 14-V, 7 Ovid, Metamorphoses
Metamorphoses
XI, 217–265; XII, 580-XIII, 398 Ovid, Heroides
Heroides
III Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica
Argonautica
IV, 783–879 Dante Alighieri, The Divine Comedy, Inferno, V.

Bibliography[edit]

Ileana Chirassi Colombo (1977), "Heroes Achilleus – Theos Apollon." In Il Mito Greco, edd. Bruno Gentili and Giuseppe Paione. Rome: Edizione dell'Ateneo e Bizzarri. Anthony Edwards (1985a), " Achilles
Achilles
in the Underworld: Iliad, Odyssey, and Æthiopis". Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies. 26: pp. 215–227. Anthony Edwards (1985b), " Achilles
Achilles
in the Odyssey: Ideologies of Heroism in the Homeric Epic". Beiträge zur klassischen Philologie. 171. Anthony Edwards (1988), "Kleos Aphthiton and Oral Theory," Classical Quarterly. 38: pp. 25–30. Jakob Escher-Bürkli: Achilleus 1. In: Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft (RE). Vol. I,1, Stuttgart 1893, Col. 221–245. Guy Hedreen (1991). "The Cult of Achilles
Achilles
in the Euxine". Hesperia. American School of Classical Studies at Athens. 60 (3): 313–330. doi:10.2307/148068. JSTOR 148068.  Karl Kerényi (1959). The Heroes of the Greeks. New York/London: Thames and Hudson.  Joachim Latacz
Joachim Latacz
(2010). "Achilles". In Anthony Grafton; Glenn Most; Salvatore Settis. The Classical Tradition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. pp. 3–5. ISBN 978-0-674-03572-0.  Hélène Monsacré (1984), Les larmes d'Achille. Le héros, la femme et la souffrance dans la poésie d'Homère, Paris: Albin Michel. Gregory Nagy (1984), The Name of Achilles: Questions of Etymology and 'Folk Etymology', Illinois Classical Studies. 19. Gregory Nagy (1999), The Best of The Acheans: Concepts of the Hero in Archaic Greek Poetry. Johns Hopkins University Press (revised edition, online). Dorothea Sigel; Anne Ley; Bruno Bleckmann. "Achilles". In Hubert Cancik; et al. Brill’s New Pauly. Brill Reference Online. doi:10.1163/1574-9347_bnp_e102220. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) Dale S. Sinos (1991), The Entry of Achilles
Achilles
into Greek Epic, Ph. D. thesis, Johns Hopkins University. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University Microfilms International. Jonathan S. Burgess (2009), The Death and Afterlife of Achilles. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Achilles.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Achilles.

Trojan War
Trojan War
Resources Gallery of the Ancient Art: Achilles  Achilles. Wikisource.  Poem by Florence Earle Coates

v t e

Characters in the Iliad

Achaeans

Acamas Achilles Agamemnon Agapenor Ajax the Greater Ajax the Lesser Alcimus Anticlus Antilochus Arcesilaus Ascalaphus Automedon Balius and Xanthus Bias Calchas Diomedes Elephenor Epeius Eudoros Euryalus Eurybates Eurydamas Eurypylus Guneus Helen Ialmenus Idomeneus Leitus Leonteus Lycomedes Machaon Medon Meges Menelaus Menestheus Meriones Neoptolemus Nestor Nireus Odysseus Palamedes Patroclus Peneleos Philoctetes Phoenix Podalirius Podarces Polites Polypoetes Promachus Protesilaus Prothoenor Schedius Stentor Sthenelus Talthybius Teucer Thersites Thoas Thrasymedes Tlepolemus

Trojans

Aeneas Aesepus Agenor Alcathous Amphimachus Anchises Andromache Antenor Antiphates Antiphus Archelochus Asius Asteropaios Astyanax Atymnius Axylus Briseis Calesius Caletor Cassandra Chryseis Chryses Clytius Coön Dares Phrygius Deiphobus Dolon Epistrophus Euphemus Euphorbus Glaucus Gorgythion Hector Hecuba Helenus Hyperenor Hypsenor Ilioneus Imbrius Iphidamas Kebriones Laocoön Lycaon Melanippus Mentes Mydon Mygdon of Phrygia Othryoneus Pandarus Panthous Paris Pedasus Peirous Phorcys Polites Polydamas Polybus Polydorus Priam Pylaemenes Pylaeus Pyraechmes Rhesus of Thrace Sarpedon Theano Ucalegon

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 57405

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