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Advanced Television Systems Committee
Advanced Television Systems Committee
(ATSC) standards are a set of standards for digital television transmission over terrestrial, cable, and satellite networks. It is largely a replacement for the analog NTSC
NTSC
standard, and like that standard, used mostly in the United States, Mexico
Mexico
and Canada. Other former users of NTSC, like Japan, have not used ATSC
ATSC
during their digital television transition. The ATSC
ATSC
standards were developed in the early 1990s by the Grand Alliance, a consortium of electronics and telecommunications companies that assembled to develop a specification for what is now known as HDTV. The standard is now administered by the Advanced Television Systems Committee. The standard includes a number of patented elements, and licensing is required for devices that use these parts of the standard. Key among these is the 8VSB modulation system used for over-the-air broadcasts. ATSC
ATSC
includes two primary high definition video formats, 1080i
1080i
and 720p. It also includes standard-definition formats, although initially only HDTV services were launched in the digital format. ATSC
ATSC
can carry multiple channels of information on a single stream, and it is common for there to be a single high-definition signal and several standard-definition signals carried on a single (former) NTSC
NTSC
channel allocation.

Contents

1 Background 2 Digital switchover 3 Audio 4 Video

4.1 MPEG-2 4.2 H.264/MPEG-4 AVC

5 Transport stream (TS) 6 Modulation
Modulation
and transmission 7 Other systems 8 Mobile TV 9 Future

9.1 ATSC
ATSC
2.0 9.2 ATSC
ATSC
3.0

10 Countries and territories using ATSC

10.1 North America 10.2 Asia/Pacific

11 See also 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External links

Background[edit] The high-definition television standards defined by the ATSC
ATSC
produce wide screen 16:9 images up to 1920×1080 pixels in size – more than six times the display resolution of the earlier standard. However, many different image sizes are also supported. The reduced bandwidth requirements of lower-resolution images allow up to six standard-definition "subchannels" to be broadcast on a single 6 MHz TV channel. ATSC
ATSC
standards are marked A/x (x is the standard number) and can be downloaded for free from the ATSC's website at ATSC.org. ATSC
ATSC
Standard A/53, which implemented the system developed by the Grand Alliance, was published in 1995; the standard was adopted by the Federal Communications Commission in the United States
United States
in 1996. It was revised in 2009. ATSC
ATSC
Standard A/72 was approved in 2008 and introduces H.264/AVC video coding to the ATSC
ATSC
system. ATSC
ATSC
supports 5.1-channel surround sound using Dolby Digital's AC-3 format. Numerous auxiliary datacasting services can also be provided. Many aspects of ATSC
ATSC
are patented, including elements of the MPEG video coding, the AC-3 audio coding, and the 8VSB modulation.[1] The cost of patent licensing, estimated at up to $50 per digital TV receiver,[2] has prompted complaints by manufacturers.[3] As with other systems, ATSC
ATSC
depends on numerous interwoven standards, e.g. the EIA-708
EIA-708
standard for digital closed captioning, leading to variations in implementation. Digital switchover[edit] See also: Digital television
Digital television
transition in the United States, Digital television in Canada, and Television in Mexico ATSC
ATSC
replaced much of the analog NTSC
NTSC
television system[4] in the United States[5][6] on June 12, 2009, on August 31, 2011 in Canada, on December 31, 2012 in South Korea, and[7] on December 31, 2015 in Mexico.[8] Broadcasters who used ATSC
ATSC
and wanted to retain an analog signal were temporarily forced to broadcast on two separate channels, as the ATSC system requires the use of an entire separate channel. Channel numbers in ATSC
ATSC
do not correspond to RF frequency ranges, as they did with analog television. Instead, virtual channels, sent as part of the metadata along with the program(s), allow channel numbers to be remapped from their physical RF channel to any other number 1 to 99, so that ATSC
ATSC
stations can either be associated with the related NTSC channel numbers, or all stations on a network can use the same number. There is also a standard for distributed transmission systems (DTx), a form of single-frequency network which allows for the synchronised operation of multiple on-channel booster stations. Audio[edit] Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
AC-3 is used as the audio codec, though it was standardized as A/52 by the ATSC. It allows the transport of up to five channels of sound with a sixth channel for low-frequency effects (the so-called "5.1" configuration). In contrast, Japanese ISDB
ISDB
HDTV broadcasts use MPEG's Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) as the audio codec, which also allows 5.1 audio output. DVB (see below) allows both. MPEG-2
MPEG-2
audio was a contender for the ATSC
ATSC
standard during the DTV "Grand Alliance" shootout, but lost out to Dolby AC-3. The Grand Alliance issued a statement finding the MPEG-2
MPEG-2
system to be "essentially equivalent" to Dolby, but only after the Dolby selection had been made. Later, a story emerged that MIT had entered into an agreement with Dolby whereupon the university would be awarded a large sum of money if the MPEG-2
MPEG-2
system was rejected. Dolby also offered an incentive for Zenith to switch their vote (which they did); however, it is unknown whether they accepted the offer.[9] Video[edit] The ATSC
ATSC
system supports a number of different display resolutions, aspect ratios, and frame rates. The formats are listed here by resolution, form of scanning (progressive or interlaced), and number of frames (or fields) per second (see also the TV resolution overview at the end of this article). For transport, ATSC
ATSC
uses the MPEG
MPEG
systems specification, known as an MPEG
MPEG
transport stream, to encapsulate data, subject to certain constraints. ATSC
ATSC
uses 188-byte MPEG
MPEG
transport stream packets to carry data. Before decoding of audio and video takes place, the receiver must demodulate and apply error correction to the signal. Then, the transport stream may be demultiplexed into its constituent streams. MPEG-2[edit] There are four basic display sizes for ATSC, generally known by referring to the number of lines of the picture height. NTSC
NTSC
and PAL image sizes are smallest, with a width of 720 (or 704) and a height of 480 or 576 lines. The third size is HDTV images that have 720 scan lines in height and are 1280 pixels wide. The largest size has 1080 lines high and 1920 pixels wide. 1080-line video is actually encoded with 1920×1088 pixel frames, but the last eight lines are discarded prior to display. This is due to a restriction of the MPEG-2
MPEG-2
video format, which requires the height of the picture in luma samples (i.e. pixels) to be divisible by 16. The lower resolutions can operate either in progressive scan or interlaced mode, but not the largest picture sizes. The 1080-line system does not support progressive images at the highest frame rates of 50, 59.94 or 60 frames per second, because such technology was seen as too advanced at the time. The standard also requires 720-line video be progressive scan, since that provides better picture quality than interlaced scan at a given frame rate, and there was no legacy use of interlaced scan for that format. The result is that the combination of maximum frame rate and picture size results in the same maximum number of samples per second for both the 1080-line interlaced format and the 720-line format, as 1980*1080*30 is equal to 1280*720*60. A similar equality relationship applies for 576 lines at 25 frame per second versus 480 lines at 30 frames per second. A terrestrial (over-the-air) transmission carries 19.39 megabits of data per second (a fluctuating bandwidth of about 18.3 Mbit/s left after overhead such as error correction, program guide, closed captioning, etc.), compared to a maximum possible MPEG-2
MPEG-2
bitrate of 10.08  Mbit/s (7  Mbit/s typical) allowed in the DVD
DVD
standard and 48  Mbit/s (36  Mbit/s typical) allowed in the Blu-ray disc standard. Although the ATSC
ATSC
A/53 standard limits MPEG-2
MPEG-2
transmission to the formats listed below (with integer frame rates paired with 1000/1001-rate versions), the U.S. Federal Communications Commission declined to mandate that television stations obey this part of the ATSC's standard. In theory, television stations in the U.S. are free to choose any resolution, aspect ratio, and frame/field rate, within the limits of Main Profile @ High Level. Many stations do go outside the bounds of the ATSC
ATSC
specification by using other resolutions – for example, 352 x 480 or 720 x 480. "EDTV" displays can reproduce progressive scan content and frequently have a 16:9 wide screen format. Such resolutions are 704×480 or 720×480[citation needed] in NTSC
NTSC
and 720×576 in PAL, allowing 60 progressive frames per second in NTSC
NTSC
or 50 in PAL.

ATSC
ATSC
Standard A/53 Part 4:2009 ( MPEG-2
MPEG-2
Video
Video
System Characteristics)

Resolution Aspect ratio Pixel
Pixel
aspect ratio Scanning Frame rate
Frame rate
(Hz)

Vertical Horizontal

1080 1920 16:9 1:1 progressive 23.976 24 29.97 30

interlaced 29.97 (59.94 fields/s) 30 (60 fields/s)

720 1280 16:9 1:1 progressive 23.976 24 29.97 30 59.94 60

480 704 4:3 or 16:9 SMPTE 259M progressive 23.976 24 29.97 30 59.94 60

interlaced 29.97 (59.94 fields/s) 30 (60 fields/s)

640 4:3 1:1 progressive 23.976 24 29.97 30 59.94 60

interlaced 29.97 (59.94 fields/s) 30 (60 fields/s)

ATSC
ATSC
also supports PAL
PAL
frame rates and resolutions which are defined in ATSC
ATSC
A/63 standard.

ATSC
ATSC
Standard A/63:1997 (Standard for Coding 25/50 Hz Video)

Resolution Aspect ratio Pixel
Pixel
aspect ratio Scanning Frame rate
Frame rate
(Hz)

Vertical Horizontal

1080 1920 16:9 1:1 interlaced 25 (50 fields/s)

progressive 25

720 1280 16:9 1:1 progressive 50

576 720 4:3 or 16:9 SMPTE 259M progressive 25 50

interlaced 25 (50 fields/s)

544 4:3 or 16:9 SMPTE 259M three quarters progressive 25

interlaced 25 (50 fields/s)

480 4:3 or 16:9 SMPTE 259M two thirds progressive 25

interlaced 25 (50 fields/s)

352 4:3 or 16:9 SMPTE 259M half progressive 25

interlaced 25 (50 fields/s)

288 352 4:3 or 16:9 CIF progressive 25

The ATSC
ATSC
A/53 specification imposes certain constraints on MPEG-2 video stream:

The maximum bit rate value in the sequence header of the MPEG-2
MPEG-2
video stream is 19.4  Mbit/s for broadcast television, and 38.8  Mbit/s for the "high data rate" mode (e.g., cable television). The actual MPEG-2
MPEG-2
video bit rate will be lower, since the MPEG-2
MPEG-2
video stream must fit inside a transport stream. The amount of MPEG-2
MPEG-2
stream buffer required at the decoder (the vbv_buffer_size_value) must be less than or equal to 999,424 bytes. In most cases, the transmitter can't start sending a coded image until within a half-second of when it's to be decoded (vbv_delay less than or equal to 45000 90-kHz clock increments). The stream must include colorimetry information (gamma curve, the precise RGB colors used, and the relationship between RGB and the coded YCbCr). The video must be 4:2:0 (chrominance resolution must be 1/2 of luma horizontal resolution and 1/2 of luma vertical resolution).

The ATSC
ATSC
specification and MPEG-2
MPEG-2
allow the use of progressive frames coded within an interlaced video sequence. For example, NBC
NBC
stations transmit a 1080i60 video sequence, meaning the formal output of the MPEG-2
MPEG-2
decoding process is sixty 540-line fields per second. However, for prime-time television shows, those 60 fields can be coded using 24 progressive frames as a base – actually, an 1080p24 video stream (a sequence of 24 progressive frames per second) is transmitted, and MPEG-2
MPEG-2
metadata instructs the decoder to interlace these fields and perform 3:2 pulldown before display, as in soft telecine. The ATSC
ATSC
specification also allows 1080p30 and 1080p24 MPEG-2 sequences, however they are not used in practice, because broadcasters want to be able to switch between 60 Hz interlaced (news), 30 Hz progressive or PsF (soap operas), and 24 Hz progressive (prime-time) content without ending the 1080i60 MPEG-2 sequence. The 1080-line formats are encoded with 1920 × 1088 pixel luma matrices and 960 × 540 chroma matrices, but the last 8 lines are discarded by the MPEG-2
MPEG-2
decoding and display process. H.264/MPEG-4 AVC[edit]

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ATSC
standards. Please help to ensure that disputed statements are reliably sourced. (June 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

In July 2008, ATSC
ATSC
was updated to support the ITU-T H.264 video codec. The new standard is split in two parts:

A/72 part 1: Video
Video
System Characteristics of AVC in the ATSC
ATSC
Digital Television System[10] A/72 part 2 : AVC Video
Video
Transport Subsystem Characteristics[11]

The new standards support 1080p
1080p
at 50, 59.94 and 60 frames per second; such frame rates require H.264/AVC High Profile Level 4.2, while standard HDTV frame rates only require Levels 3.2 and 4, and SDTV frame rates require Levels 3 and 3.1.[dubious – discuss]

ATSC
ATSC
Standard A/72 Part 1:2008 ( Video
Video
System Characteristics of AVC)

Resolution Aspect ratio Pixel
Pixel
aspect ratio Scanning Frame rate
Frame rate
(Hz) Level

Vertical Horizontal

1080 1920 16:9 1:1 progressive 23.976 24 29.97 30 25 4

progressive 59.94 60 50 4.2

interlaced 29.97 (59.94 fields/s) 30 (60 fields/s) 25 (50 fields/s) 4

1440 16:9 HDV (4:3) progressive 23.976 24 29.97 30 25 4

progressive 59.94 60 50 4.2

interlaced 29.97 (59.94 fields/s) 30 (60 fields/s) 25 (50 fields/s) 4

720 1280 16:9 1:1 progressive 23.976 24 29.97 30 59.94 60 25 50 3.2, 4

480 720 4:3 or 16:9 SMPTE 259M (10:11 or 40:33) progressive 23.976 24 29.97 30 59.94 60 25 50 3.1, 4

interlaced 29.97 (59.94 fields/s) 30 (60 fields/s) 25 (50 fields/s) 3

704 4:3 or 16:9 SMPTE 259M (10:11 or 40:33) progressive 23.976 24 29.97 30 59.94 60 25 50 3.1, 4

interlaced 29.97 (59.94 fields/s) 30 (60 fields/s) 25 (50 fields/s) 3

640 4:3 1:1 progressive 23.976 24 29.97 30 59.94 60 25 50 3.1, 4

interlaced 29.97 (59.94 fields/s) 30 (60 fields/s) 25 (50 fields/s) 3

544 4:3 SMPTE 259M three quarters (40:33) progressive 23.976 25 3

interlaced 29.97 (59.94 fields/s) 25 (50 fields/s)

528 4:3 SMPTE 259M three quarters (40:33) progressive 23.976 25 3

interlaced 29.97 (59.94 fields/s) 25 (50 fields/s)

352 4:3 SMPTE 259M half (20:11) progressive 23.976 25 3

interlaced 29.97 (59.94 fields/s) 25 (50 fields/s)

240 352 4:3 SIF (10:11) progressive 23.976 25 3

120 176 4:3 SIF half (10:11) progressive 23.976 25 1.1

Transport stream (TS)[edit] Main article: MPEG
MPEG
transport stream The file extension ".TS" stands for "transport stream", which is a media container format. It may contain a number of streams of audio or video content multiplexed within the transport stream. Transport streams are designed with synchronization and recovery in mind for potentially lossy distribution (such as over-the-air ATSC
ATSC
broadcast) in order to continue a media stream with minimal interruption in the face of data loss in transmission. When an over-the-air ATSC
ATSC
signal is captured to a file via hardware/software the resulting file is often in a .TS file format. Modulation
Modulation
and transmission[edit] Main articles: 8VSB and QAM tuner ATSC
ATSC
signals are designed to use the same 6 MHz bandwidth as analog NTSC
NTSC
television channels (the interference requirements of A/53 DTV standards with adjacent NTSC
NTSC
or other DTV channels are very strict). Once the digital video and audio signals have been compressed and multiplexed, the transport stream can be modulated in different ways depending on the method of transmission.

Terrestrial (local) broadcasters use 8VSB modulation that can transfer at a maximum rate of 19.39 Mbit/s, sufficient to carry several video and audio programs and metadata. Cable television
Cable television
stations can generally operate at a higher signal-to-noise ratio and can use either the 16VSB as defined in ATSC or the 256-QAM
256-QAM
defined in SCTE, to achieve a throughput of 38.78 Mbit/s, using the same 6 MHz channel.

The proposals for modulation schemes for digital television were developed when cable operators carried standard-resolution video as uncompressed analog signals. In recent years, cable operators have become accustomed to compressing standard-resolution video for digital cable systems, making it harder to find duplicate 6 MHz channels for local broadcasters on uncompressed "basic" cable. Currently, the Federal Communications Commission
Federal Communications Commission
requires cable operators in the United States
United States
to carry the analog or digital transmission of a terrestrial broadcaster (but not both), when so requested by the broadcaster (the "must-carry rule"). The Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission in Canada
Canada
does not have similar rules in force with respect to carrying ATSC
ATSC
signals. However, cable operators have still been slow to add ATSC
ATSC
channels to their lineups for legal, regulatory, and plant & equipment related reasons. One key technical and regulatory issue is the modulation scheme used on the cable: cable operators in the U.S. (and to a lesser extent Canada) can determine their own method of modulation for their plants. Multiple standards bodies exist in the industry: the SCTE defined 256-QAM
256-QAM
as a modulation scheme for cable in a cable industry standard, ANSI/ SCTE 07 2006: Digital Transmission Standard For Cable Television. Consequently, most U.S. and Canadian cable operators seeking additional capacity on the cable system have moved to 256-QAM from the 64-QAM
64-QAM
modulation used in their plant, in preference to the 16VSB standard originally proposed by ATSC. Over time 256-QAM
256-QAM
is expected to be included in the ATSC
ATSC
standard. There is also a standard for transmitting ATSC
ATSC
via satellite; however, this is only used by TV networks[citation needed]. Very few teleports outside the U.S. support the ATSC
ATSC
satellite transmission standard, but teleport support for the standard is improving. The ATSC
ATSC
satellite transmission system is not used for direct-broadcast satellite systems; in the U.S. and Canada
Canada
these have long used either DVB-S (in standard or modified form) or a proprietary system such as DSS or DigiCipher 2. Other systems[edit] See also: Digital terrestrial television

ATSC
ATSC
coexists with the DVB-T
DVB-T
standard, and with ISDB-T. A similar standard called ADTB-T was developed for use as part of China's new DMB-T/H
DMB-T/H
dual standard. While China
China
has officially chosen a dual standard, there is no requirement that a receiver work with both standards and there is no support for the ADTB modulation from broadcasters or equipment and receiver manufacturers. For compatibility with material from various regions and sources, ATSC supports the 480i
480i
video format used in the NTSC
NTSC
analog system (480 lines, approximately 60 fields or 30 frames per second), 576i
576i
formats used in most PAL
PAL
regions (576 lines, 50 fields or 25 frames per second), and 24 frames-per-second formats used in film.

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While the ATSC
ATSC
system has been criticized as being complicated and expensive to implement and use,[12] both broadcasting and receiving equipment are now comparable in cost with that of DVB. The ATSC
ATSC
signal is more susceptible to changes in radio propagation conditions than DVB-T
DVB-T
and ISDB-T. It also lacks true hierarchical modulation, which would allow the SDTV
SDTV
part of an HDTV signal (or the audio portion of a television program) to be received uninterrupted even in fringe areas where signal strength is low. For this reason, an additional modulation mode, enhanced-VSB (E-VSB) has been introduced, allowing for a similar benefit. In spite of ATSC's fixed transmission mode, it is still a robust signal under various conditions. 8VSB was chosen over COFDM
COFDM
in part because many areas are rural and have a much lower population density, thereby requiring larger transmitters and resulting in large fringe areas. In these areas, 8VSB was shown to perform better than other systems. COFDM
COFDM
is used in both DVB-T
DVB-T
and ISDB-T, and for 1seg, as well as DVB-H and HD Radio
HD Radio
in the United States. In metropolitan areas, where population density is highest, COFDM
COFDM
is said to be better at handling multipath propagation. While ATSC
ATSC
is also incapable of true single-frequency network (SFN) operation, the distributed transmission mode, using multiple synchronized on-channel transmitters, has been shown to improve reception under similar conditions. Thus, it may not require more spectrum allocation than DVB-T
DVB-T
using SFNs. A comparison study found that ISDB-T
ISDB-T
and DVB-T
DVB-T
performed similarly, and that both were outperformed by DVB-T2.[13] Mobile TV[edit] Main article: ATSC-M/H Mobile reception of digital stations using ATSC
ATSC
has, until 2008, been difficult to impossible, especially when moving at vehicular speeds. To overcome this, there are several proposed systems that report improved mobile reception: Samsung/Rhode & Schwarz's A-VSB, Harris/LG's MPH, and a recent proposal from Thomson/Micronas; all of these systems have been submitted as candidates for a new ATSC standard, ATSC-M/H. After one year of standardization, the solution merged between Samsung's AVSB and LGE's MPH technology has been adopted and would have been deployed in 2009. This is in addition to other standards like the now-defunct MediaFLO, and worldwide open standards such as DVB-H
DVB-H
and T-DMB. Like DVB-H
DVB-H
and ISDB
ISDB
1seg, the proposed ATSC
ATSC
mobile standards are backward-compatible with existing tuners, despite being added to the standard well after the original standard was in wide use. Mobile reception of some stations will still be more difficult, because 18 UHF channels in the U.S. have been removed from TV service, forcing some broadcasters to stay on VHF. This band requires larger antennas for reception, and is more prone to electromagnetic interference from engines and rapidly changing multipath conditions.[citation needed] Future[edit] ATSC
ATSC
2.0[edit] ATSC
ATSC
2.0 is a major new revision of the standard which will be backward compatible with ATSC
ATSC
1.0. The standard will allow interactive and hybrid television technologies by connecting the TV with the Internet
Internet
services and allowing interactive elements into the broadcast stream. Other features include advanced video compression, audience measurement, targeted advertising, enhanced programming guides, video on demand services, and the ability to store information on new receivers, including Non-realtime (NRT) content.[14][15][16] ATSC
ATSC
3.0[edit] Main article: ATSC
ATSC
3.0 See also: List of ATSC
ATSC
standards § ATSC_3.0 ATSC 3.0 will provide even more services to the viewer and increased bandwidth efficiency and compression performance, which requires breaking backwards compatibility with the current version. On November 17, 2017 the FCC voted 3-2 in favor of authorizing voluntary deployments of ATSC
ATSC
3.0, and issued a Report and Order to that effect. ATSC 3.0 broadcasts and receivers are expected to emerge within the next decade.[17] LG Electronics
LG Electronics
tested the standard with 4K on February 23, 2016. With the test considered a success, South Korea
South Korea
announced that ATSC
ATSC
3.0 broadcasts would start in February 2017.[18] On March 28, 2016, the Bootstrap component of ATSC 3.0 (System Discovery and Signalling) was upgraded from candidate standard to finalized standard.[19] On June 29, 2016, NBC
NBC
affiliate WRAL-TV
WRAL-TV
in Raleigh, North Carolina, a station known for its pioneering roles in testing the original DTV standards, launched an experimental ATSC 3.0 channel carrying the station's programming in 1080p, as well as a 4K demo loop.[20]

ATSC
ATSC
3.0's multiple layers. The standards within ATSC 3.0 are rolled into each of the layers.

Structure/ ATSC 3.0 System Layers[21]

Bootstrap: System Discovery and Signalling Physical Layer: Transmission (OFDM) Protocols: IP, MMT Presentation: Audio and Video
Video
standards (to be determined), Ultra HD with High Definition and standard definition multicast, Immersive Audio Applications: Screen is a web page

Countries and territories using ATSC[edit] North America[edit]

 Bahamas plans for transition to ATSC
ATSC
standards were officially announced on December 14, 2011; national public broadcaster ZNS-TV announced it would be upgrading to ATSC
ATSC
digital television with mobile DTV capabilities, in line with its neighbors, the United States
United States
and Puerto Rico.[22]   Canada
Canada
switched to ATSC
ATSC
on August 31, 2011 in provincial/territorial capitals and locations with 300,000 or more people; expected to continue broadcasting analog over-the-air television signals in 22 markets until August 31, 2012.[23] As of 2017, many smaller towns and repeater stations still transmit in NTSC, but many UHF stations have been ordered by the government (in June 2017) to vacate the signal space, to free it up for wireless users. These stations have until June 2022 to shut off their UHF transmitters. Note this will still leave some NTSC
NTSC
transmissions in Canada
Canada
for the foreseeable future.[24]   Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
plans announced August 10, 2010; transition to be complete by September 24, 2015.[25]   Mexico
Mexico
plans announced July 2, 2004,[26] started conversion in 2013[27] full transition was scheduled for December 31, 2015,[8] but due to technical and economic issues for some transmitters, the full transition was extended to be completed in December 31, 2016.   United States
United States
switched to ATSC
ATSC
on June 12, 2009, excluding LPTV stations and translators due to economic concerns with an upcoming spectrum auction for Digital signals on LPTV and Translators.[28]

 Puerto Rico  U.S. Virgin Islands

Asia/Pacific[edit]

  South Korea
South Korea
completed terrestrial transition on December 31, 2012. Allows analog broadcasts on its northern border in order to be received in North Korea.[29][30] Analog cable is yet to be switched off.  Timor-Leste (experimented with ISDB-T)   United States
United States
Minor Outlying Islands switched to ATSC
ATSC
on June 12, 2009, excluding LPTV stations; transition to be complete by March 29, 2016.[28]

 American Samoa  Guam  Northern Mariana Islands

See also[edit]

Advanced Television Systems Committee ATSC
ATSC
tuner List of ATSC
ATSC
standards Broadcast flag Broadcast safe Digital terrestrial television
Digital terrestrial television
(DTT) Digital Video Broadcasting
Digital Video Broadcasting
(DVB) EIA-708 ISDB
ISDB
– Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting OpenCable T-DMB
T-DMB
– South Korean terrestrial mobile digital broadcasting system DMB-T/H
DMB-T/H
Chinese terrestrial digital broadcasting system Ultra high definition television
Ultra high definition television
(UHDTV) – Digital video formats with resolutions of 3840×2160 and 7680×4320

References[edit]

^ "TV makers to fight royalties". www.chinadaily.com.cn. Retrieved March 16, 2018.  ^ FCC Opens Inquiry Into Patent
Patent
Costs For Digital TVs, Dow Jones, February 25, 2009 ^ Amtran affiliate accuses Funai of unfair competition, Lisa Wang, Taipei Times, February 24, 2009 ^ "Best Buy Exits the Analog TV Business, Outlines Plans to Help With Digital Broadcast Transition". businesswire.com. Retrieved March 16, 2018.  ^ A New Era in Television Broadcasting – DTVTransition.org ^ "Congress delays DTV switch". February 4, 2009. Retrieved March 16, 2018 – via Christian Science Monitor.  ^ The Commission establishes a new approach for Canadian conventional television Archived May 19, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b "DOF - Diario Oficial de la Federación". dof.gob.mx. Retrieved March 16, 2018.  ^ Keith J. Winsteln (November 8, 2002), "MIT Getting Millions For Digital TV Deal" (PDF), The Tech, Massachusetts Institute of Technology  ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on April 7, 2014. Retrieved 2014-04-03.  ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on April 7, 2014. Retrieved 2014-04-03.  ^ Nick (October 16, 2008). " ATSC
ATSC
vs DVB for North American amateurs". nsayer.blogspot.com. Retrieved March 16, 2018.  ^ Julian Clover DVB-T
DVB-T
far superior to ISDB, DVB-T2
DVB-T2
beats them both, in broadbandtvnews November 2, 2010 ^ 2013_electronic.indd Archived May 9, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.. (PDF) . Retrieved on May 11, 2014. ^ George Winslow. "With ATSC
ATSC
2.0, Broadcasting Gets Facelift". Broadcasting & Cable, June 6, 2011. ^ "A/103:2012, Non-Real-Time Content Delivery" (PDF). atsc.org. Retrieved March 16, 2018.  ^ "FCC Authorizes Next Gen TV Broadcast Standard". Federal Communications Commission. Retrieved 2017-11-18.  ^ Tribbey, Chris (March 7, 2016). " ATSC 3.0 Passes Key Test, But Is It Ready to Graduate?". Broadcasting & Cable: 16–17.  ^ "First Element of ATSC 3.0 Approved for Standard". tvtechnology.com. Retrieved March 16, 2018.  ^ "WRAL Launches ATSC 3.0 Service". TVNewsCheck. Retrieved 29 June 2016.  ^ http://www.tvtechnology.com/portals/0/ATSC30Layers.png ^ Bahamas national TV to get multi-million dollar digital upgrade – video. The Bahamas
The Bahamas
Investor. Retrieved on May 11, 2014. ^ "CRTC allows CBC to continue broadcasting analog television signals in 22 markets until August 2012". News Releases. Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission. August 16, 2011. Retrieved June 4, 2013.  ^ "Analog TV users will soon see fewer stations Toronto Star". thestar.com. Retrieved 2017-07-22.  ^ Advanced Television Systems Committee, Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
Adopts ATSC
ATSC
Digital Television
Digital Television
Standard Archived August 23, 2010, at the Wayback Machine., August 12, 2010 ^ Hester, Lisa (July 6, 2004). " Mexico
Mexico
To Adopt The ATSC
ATSC
DTV Standard". Advanced Television Systems Committee. Archived from the original on June 6, 2014. Retrieved June 4, 2013. On July 2 the Government of Mexico
Mexico
formally adopted the ATSC
ATSC
Digital Television (DTV) Standard for digital terrestrial television broadcasting.  ^ Dibble, Sandra (May 30, 2013). "New turn for Tijuana's transition to digital broadcasting". San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved June 4, 2013.  ^ a b "Low Power Television (LPTV) Service", CDBS Database, Federal Communications Commission, retrieved April 3, 2013  ^ "N. Korea in the process of introducing digital TV broadcasting". Yonhap News Agency. March 19, 2013. Retrieved June 4, 2013.  ^ "North Korean television sets still receive South Korean signals". News Focus International. Retrieved July 12, 2015. 

Further reading[edit]

Joel Brinkley (1998), Defining Vision: The Battle for the Future of Television, New York: Harcourt Brace.

External links[edit]

ATSC
ATSC
website ATSC
ATSC
standards download page ATSC-MH Platform for testing and deploying Mobile TV in the US ATSC
ATSC
Mobile DTV
Mobile DTV
(ATSC-MH) Analysis, Monitoring, Measurement ATSC
ATSC
Mobile DTV
Mobile DTV
(ATSC-MH) Mobile DTV
Mobile DTV
Viewer ATSC 3.0 Overview ATSC 3.0 Scheduler

v t e

Digital video resolutions

Designation

Usage examples Definition (lines) Rate (Hz)

Interlaced (fields) Progressive (frames)

Low, MP@LL

LDTV, VCD, HTV 240, 288 (SIF)   24, 30; 25

Standard, MP@ML

SDTV, SVCD, DVD, DV 480 (NTSC), 576 (PAL) 60, 50 24, 30; 25

Enhanced, HMP@HML

EDTV 480 (NTSC-HQ), 576   60, 50

High, MP@HL

HDTV, BD, HD DVD, HDV 720   24, 30, 60; 25, 50

1080 25, 30 24, 50, 60

Ultra-high

UHDTV 2160, 4320   60, 120,180

v t e

Broadcast video formats

Television

Analog

525 lines

System M NTSC NTSC-J PAL-M

625 lines

PAL

System B System D System G System H System I System K

PAL-N PALplus SECAM

System B System D System G System K System L (SECAM-L)

Audio

BTSC (MTS) EIAJ NICAM SAP Sound-in-Syncs Zweikanalton
Zweikanalton
(A2/IGR)

Hidden signals

Captioning CGMS-A EPG GCR PDC Teletext VBI VEIL VIT VITC WSS XDS

Historical

Pre-1940 Mechanical television 180-line 405-line

System A

441-line 819-line MAC MUSE

Digital

Interlaced

SDTV

480i 576i

HDTV

1080i

Progressive

LDTV

1seg 240p 288p

EDTV

480p 576p

HDTV

720p 1080p

UHDTV

2160p 4320p

MPEG-2
MPEG-2
standards

ATSC DVB ISDB DTMB DVB 3D-TV

MPEG-4 AVC standards

ATSC
ATSC
A/72 DMB DTMB DVB SBTVD 1seg

HEVC standards

ATSC
ATSC
3.0

Audio

AC-3 (5.1) DTS MPEG-1 Audio Layer II MPEG
MPEG
Multichannel PCM LPCM AAC HE-AAC

Hidden signals

AFD Broadcast flag Captioning CPCM EPG Teletext

Technical issues

14:9 compromise Broadcast-safe Digital cinema
Digital cinema
(DCI) Display motion blur Moving image formats MPEG
MPEG
transport stream Reverse Standards Conversion Standards conversion Television transmitter Video
Video
on demand Video
Video
processing Widescreen signaling Templates (Analogue TV Topics)

v t e

High-definition (HD)

Concepts

High-definition television High-definition video Ultra-high-definition television

Analog broadcast (All defunct)

819 line system HD MAC MUSE (Hi-Vision)

Digital broadcast

ATSC DMB-T/H DVB ISDB SBTVD

Audio

Dolby Digital Surround sound DSD DXD DTS

Filming and storage

DCI HDV

HD media and compression

Blu-ray CBHD D-VHS DVD-Audio H.264 H.265 HD DVD HD VMD MPEG-2 MVC Super Audio CD Ultra HD
Ultra HD
Blu-ray Uncompressed VC-1

Connectors

Component DisplayPort DVI HDMI VGA

Deployments

List of digital television deployments by country

v t e

Digital television
Digital television
in North America

Terrestrial

Digital broadcasting

ATSC
ATSC
tuners Digital subchannels Virtual channels Distributed transmission system Datacasting

Guide Plus National Datacast UpdateLogic

Metropolitan Television Alliance Grand Alliance

Digital switchover

All-Channel Receiver Act SAFER Act Digital channel election Set-top boxes Digital television
Digital television
adapter U.S. Converter Box Coupon Program

legislation

Analog passthrough DVD
DVD
recorders Digital video recorders

Digital standards

ATSC
ATSC
Standards

ATSC ATSC-M/H 8VSB A-VSB E-VSB PSIP PMCP full list

Standard-definition TV

480i 576i

Enhanced-definition TV

480p 576p

High-definition TV

720p 1080i 1080p

Ultra high-definition
Ultra high-definition
TV

2160p

Serial digital interface Smart antennas

CEA-909

Digital networks

see Template:American broadcast television Template:Canadian television networks

National deployment

List by country Canada Mexico United States

HDTV transition wireless spectrum auction

Cable

Digital cable

Digital-cable-ready TV

QAM tuners

Interactive-digital-cable-ready TV

OpenCable Application Platform

Encryption Must-carry

Subscription TV

AllVid CableCARD Downloadable Conditional Access System Tru2way

Satellite TV

DVB-S

Dish Network GlobeCast World TV Free-to-air receiver Bell TV/Telus Satellite TV Dish México

DigiCipher 2

4DTV Shaw Direct

Digital Satellite Service/DVB-S2

DirecTV

IPTV

AT&T U-verse Bell Fibe TV FibreOP Telus Optik TV

Technical issues

14:9 Active Format Description Broadcast flag Channel protection ratios HDTV blur Hierarchical modulation Pirate decryption Standards conversion Video
Video
on demand

v t e

Telecommunications

History

Beacon Broadcasting Cable protection system Cable TV Communications satellite Computer network Drums Electrical telegraph Fax Heliographs Hydraulic telegraph Internet Mass media Mobile phone Optical telecommunication Optical telegraphy Pager Photophone Prepay mobile phone Radio Radiotelephone Satellite communications Semaphore Smartphone Smoke signals Telecommunications history Telautograph Telegraphy Teleprinter
Teleprinter
(teletype) Telephone The Telephone Cases Television Timeline of communication technology Undersea telegraph line Videoconferencing Videophone Videotelephony Whistled language

Pioneers

Edwin Howard Armstrong John Logie Baird Paul Baran Alexander Graham Bell Tim Berners-Lee Jagadish Chandra Bose Vint Cerf Claude Chappe Donald Davies Lee de Forest Philo Farnsworth Reginald Fessenden Elisha Gray Erna Schneider Hoover Charles K. Kao Hedy Lamarr Innocenzo Manzetti Guglielmo Marconi Antonio Meucci Radia Perlman Alexander Stepanovich Popov Johann Philipp Reis Nikola Tesla Camille Tissot Alfred Vail Charles Wheatstone Vladimir K. Zworykin

Transmission media

Coaxial cable Fiber-optic communication

Optical fiber

Free-space optical communication Molecular communication Radio waves Transmission line

Network topology and switching

Links Nodes Terminal node Network switching (circuit packet) Telephone exchange

Multiplexing

Space-division Frequency-division Time-division Polarization-division Orbital angular-momentum Code-division

Networks

ARPANET BITNET Cellular network Computer CYCLADES Ethernet FidoNet Internet ISDN LAN Mobile NGN NPL network Public Switched Telephone Radio Telecommunications equipment Television Telex WAN Wireless World Wide Web

Cate

.