The 7×57mm cartridge, also known as the 7mm Mauser, 7×57mm Mauser,
Mauser in the USA and .275 Rigby in the United Kingdom is
a first-generation smokeless powder rimless bottlenecked rifle
cartridge. It was developed by
Paul Mauser of the
Mauser company in
1892 and adopted as a military cartridge by
Spain in 1893. It was
subsequently adopted by several other countries as the standard
military cartridge. It is recognised as a milestone in modern
cartridge design, and although now obsolete as a military cartridge,
it remains in widespread international use as a sporting round. The
7×57mm has been described as "a ballistician's delight".[citation
needed] Many sporting rifles in this calibre were made by British
riflemakers, among whom John Rigby was prominent; and, catering for
the British preference for calibres to be designated in inches, Rigby
called this chambering the .275 bore after the measurement of a
7 mm rifle's bore across the lands.
2 Cartridge dimensions
3 7×57mmR (rimmed)
4 Sporting round
5 Military use
6 Military ammunition
7 Military users
7.1 Chambered service weapons
8 Use as a parent case
10 See also
Paul Mauser visited the Kingdom of
Spain in 1892 after the delivery of
trial rifles in 1891 and brought with him a new rifle designed to use
a new cartridge of 7 mm caliber. He had developed this cartridge for
use with the then-new smokeless propellant, introduced as
Poudre B in
the 1886 pattern 8mm Lebel, which started a military rifle ammunition
revolution. At the time of its development 7×57mm
Mauser was a
high-performance smokeless-powder cartridge. The
Mauser Model 1892
rifle turned out to be a transitional design that was manufactured in
limited numbers for the Spanish Army. It was quickly improved to
Mauser Model 1893 featuring a new internal box magazine where the
cartridges were stored in a staggered column. The Spaniards were so
impressed with the
Mauser Model 1892 and 1893 rifles and their new
Mauser cartridge that they not only ordered rifles and
ammunition with Mauser, but also awarded him the Grand Cross of the
Spanish Military Order of Merit, the highest decoration
The 7×57mm cartridge has 3.90 ml (60 grains H2O) cartridge case
capacity. The exterior shape of the case was designed to promote
reliable case feeding and extraction in bolt action rifles and machine
guns alike, under extreme conditions.
C.I.P. cartridge dimensions. All sizes in millimeters
Americans would define the shoulder angle at alpha/2 ≈ 20.55
degrees. The common rifling twist rate for this cartridge is
220 mm (1 in 8.66 in), 4 grooves, diameter of lands =
6.98 mm (0.275 in), diameter of grooves = 7.24 mm
(0.285 in), land width = 3.90 mm (0.154 in) and the
primer type is large rifle.
European 7 mm cartridges all have 7.24 mm (0.285 in)
grooves diameter. American 7 mm cartridges have 7.21 mm
(0.284 in) grooves diameter.
According to the official
C.I.P. (Commission Internationale Permanente
pour l'Epreuve des Armes à Feu Portatives) rulings the 7×57mm case
can handle up to 390.00 MPa (56,565 psi) Pmax piezo
C.I.P. regulated countries every rifle cartridge combo
has to be proofed at 125% of this maximum
C.I.P. pressure to certify
for sale to consumers.
SAAMI Maximum Average Pressure (MAP) for this cartridge is
51,000 psi (351.63 MPa) piezo pressure or 46,000 CUP.
Although this lower specification is in deference to the purportedly
weaker actions of the older
Mauser 93 and 95 rifles which are still in
circulation, this concern is misplaced, as the original ammunition
developed for, and issued with, the M93 Spanish
Mauser produced an
average pressure of 50,370 CUP in those rifles.
A rimmed cartridge was developed from the 7×57mm shortly after its
introduction for use in break-action rifles and combination guns. A
rimmed cartridge greatly simplifies the issues of designing an
extractor, particularly in a combination gun or "drilling" which must
also be designed to extract rimmed shotgun shells. While various
modern break-action and single-shot rifle and pistol designs have been
developed that can reliably extract rimless cartridges, most of these
date from the 1970s or later. While the external
dimensions of the two versions are nearly identical other than the
rim, there are differences in the internal design. In particular, the
cartridge web, the area immediately above the rim on the rimmed
version or the rebate on the rimless version, is thinner in the rimmed
case, and some authorities recommend limiting the rimmed cartridge to
41,000 CUP because of this.
7×57mmR cartridge dimensions. All sizes in millimeters (mm).
7×57mm hunting cartridge
The ballistics of the 7×57mm became popular with deer and plains game
hunters. The relatively flat trajectory and manageable recoil ensured
its place as a sportsman's cartridge. The 7×57mm can offer very good
penetrating ability due to a fast twist rate that enables it to fire
long, heavy bullets with a high sectional density. This made it
popular in Africa, where it was used on animals up to and including
elephants, for which it was particularly favoured by noted ivory
hunter W.D.M. "Karamojo" Bell, who shot about 800 African Elephants
with 1893 pattern 7×57mm military ball ammunition using Rigby Mauser
98 rifles, when most ivory hunters were using larger-caliber
rifles. Bell selected the cartridge for moderate recoil, and used
11.2-gram (172.8 gr) long round-nosed military full metal jacket
bullets for reliable penetration. Bell sectioned an elephant skull to
determine the size and location of the brain, and used careful aim to
ensure bullet placement in the brain.
The 7×57mm was also the favored cartridge of Eleanor O'Connor, wife
of famous hunter and author Jack O'Connor. Eleanor accompanied her
husband on multiple hunting expeditions all over the world, killing
small and large game with the 7×57mm. Though not as
popular today, the 7×57mm is still produced by most major ammunition
manufacturers and many modern rifles are available chambered for the
The 7×57mm round was also used by the Indian hunter and
Jim Corbett to put down the infamous man-eating
Leopard of Rudraprayag
Leopard of Rudraprayag besides a few other Man-Eaters of Kumaon.
Corbett's writings mention using the .275 Mauser-Rigby rifle with
attached torch to despatch the leopard on a dark summer night in May
1926. For man-eating tigers, Corbett preferred a double-barrelled
.450/400 Nitro Express
.450/400 Nitro Express rifle but retained the Mauser-Rigby as a backup
Able to handle a wide range of projectile weights, easy to reload,
mild in recoil and accurate, the 7×57 offers a lot. This is well
known to hunters, through both personal experience and the reading of
a well-documented track record extending back more than 100 years.
Metallic Silhouette shooters are also discovering the
versatility and competitiveness of the 7×57.
The military of the Kingdom of
Spain adopted the
Mauser Model 1893
rifle. It was chambered for the new 7×57mm
Mauser cartridge. The
original cartridge featured a long, 11.2-gram (173 gr)
round-nose, full-metal-jacketed bullet with a muzzle velocity of about
700 m/s (2,300 ft/s) with 2,744 J (2,024 ft⋅lbf)
muzzle energy from a 740 mm (29.1 in) barreled rifle. For
the late 19th century, these ballistics were impressive, and the
loading provided a fairly flat trajectory combined with excellent
penetration. At the same time, it exhibited relatively modest free
recoil. That was a combination of attributes that made it popular with
both soldiers and sportsmen alike.
The qualities of the 7×57mm as a military round were shown in the
Spanish–American War of 1898. At the commencement of the American
assault on the strategic Cuban city of Santiago, 750 Spanish troops
defended positions on San Juan and Kettle Hills. The attacking force
numbered approximately 6,600 American soldiers, most of them armed
with then-new smokeless-powder
Krag–Jørgensen rifle in .30-40 Krag
caliber, and supported by artillery and
Gatling gun fire. Though
the assault was successful, the Americans soon realized that they had
suffered more than 1,400 casualties, nearly 20 per cent of their
forces. A U.S. board of investigation later concluded that the
casualties were primarily due to the superior firepower of the Spanish
Mauser rifles.
During the Second
Boer War in South Africa, British authorities were
obliged to re-evaluate rifle and ammunition design and tactics after
Boer sharpshooters and snipers armed with
Mauser Model 1895
rifles firing 7×57mm rounds with withering effectiveness, easily
.303 British cartridge as regards accurate long-range
.303 British cartridge at that time was still using
cordite propellant, in contrast to the Mauser's higher-performance
ballistite type smokeless powder. The British modernized the .303
British cartridge to the Mark 7 variant with a "spitzer" bullet, and
updated their rifle to the Short Magazine
Lee–Enfield No. 1 Mk III.
The oldest 1893 pattern military ball ammunition was loaded with a
11.2-gram (172.8 gr) long round-nosed bullet fired at a muzzle
velocity of 670 m/s (2,198 ft/s) with 2,514 J
(1,854 ft⋅lbf) muzzle energy from a 589 mm (23.2 in)
long barrel. It had a maximum range of 3,250 m
(3,554 yd). In 1893 this ballistic performance made it the
high-performance service cartridge champion of its day when compared
to other 1893 pattern smokeless-powder cartridges such as the 8mm
Lebel, .303 British, and 8×50mmR Mannlicher.
In 1913, following the lead of French and German Army commands in
developing the spitzer or pointed-tip bullet shape, the Spanish
ordnance authorities issued a redesigned 7×57mm cartridge with a
spitzer bullet (7mm Cartucho para
Mauser Tipo S). It was loaded
with a 9-gram (138.9 gr) spitzer bullet fired at a muzzle
velocity of 850 m/s (2,789 ft/s) with 3,251 J
(2,398 ft⋅lbf) muzzle energy from a 589 mm (23.2 in)
long barrel. It had a maximum range of 3,700 m
(4,046 yd). The new spitzer bullet style was partially
responsible for the cartridge's improved performance as it
significantly reduced air drag within normal combat ranges and
withstood higher accelerations in the barrel.
After that military ball ammunition loaded with a 10.5-gram
(162.0 gr) spitzer bullet fired at a muzzle velocity of
750 m/s (2,461 ft/s) with 2,953 J (2,178 ft⋅lbf)
muzzle energy from a 589 mm (23.2 in) long barrel became
available. Besides a pointed nose this projectile also had a boat tail
to reduce drag. It had a maximum range of 5,000 m
At one time, the 7×57mm
Mauser cartridge saw widespread military use.
It was used by:
Orange Free State
First Philippine Republic
Kingdom of Serbia
South African Republic
Chambered service weapons
Mauser Model 1893,
Mauser Model 1895 and
Mauser Model 1899, FN Mauser
M1924/30, Remington Rolling Block, Venezuelan FN Model 1949, Hotchkiss
Model 1922 machine gun, Madsen machine gun, Colt R75 Browning
Rifle model 1925, M1941 Johnson.
Use as a parent case
.257 Roberts uses the 7×57mm
Mauser as its parent cartridge.
Mauser is also used as the parent case for a host of
modified variants that are not officially registered with or
C.I.P. or its American equivalent, SAAMI. These
cartridges are known as wildcat cartridges. The US wildcat cartridge
P.O. Ackley developed several 7×57mm
Mauser based wildcat
Mauser Ackley Improved is an alternate version of the
Mauser cartridge with 40 degree shoulder. This wildcat was
designed to be easily made by rechambering existing firearms, and fire
forming the ammunition to decrease body taper and increase shoulder
angle, resulting in a higher case capacity. Dies for this wildcat
chambering are readily available.
The .228 Ackley Magnum is also based on the 7×57mm
but is also necked down to .228 caliber (5.79 mm). Bullets in this
caliber are hard to find but provide greater weight than .223 caliber
bullets, up to 100 grains (6.5 g), without excessively quick twist
.257 Roberts Ackley Improved is a second generation wildcat
cartridge based on the
.257 Roberts cartridge.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to 7x57.
List of rifle cartridges
Table of handgun and rifle cartridges
7 mm caliber
^ RWS Ammunition Ballistic Data & Application Consultant Archived
2009-08-31 at the Wayback Machine. Cartridges of the World, Frank C.
Barnes, 6th ed.
^ a b c d Jim Wilson "A Perfectly Delightful Cartridge: 7×57 mm
Mauser" American Rifleman November 2009 pp.53–55
^ De Haas & Zwoll, p. 130.
Mauser Rifles and Pistols by W. H. B. Smith
C.I.P. TDCC datasheet 7 x 57
SAAMI Velocity & Pressure Data: Centerfire Rifle" (PDF).
2013-01-11. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-07-15. Retrieved
^ a b Allan Jones, ed. (2007), Speer Reloading Manual, #14 (2nd
Printing), p. 360, ISBN 978-0-9791860-0-4
^ Whittemore, J.M. (1899). Report Of Test Of
Mauser Arms And
Ammunition Relative To Pressures And Velocities. US
^ Cardenal, Salvador (1895), De Salvat, ed., "Contribución
experimental al estudio de los efectos de los modernos proyectiles de
guerra y de su tratamiento", Hojas selectas (published 1904): 716, La
presión desarrollada en la recámara por la expansión de los gases
de combustión de la pólvora sin humo equivale á 3.500 kilogramos -
The pressure developed in the chamber by expansion of the combustion
gases of smokeless gunpowder equals 3,500 kg/cm2 (49782 psi)
^ Norma homepage: 7×57 R Mauser, August 2012
C.I.P. TDCC datasheet 7 x 57 R
^ Passmore, James. "
W.D.M. Bell and His Elephants".
^ "The 7×57, 7mm
Mauser Ballistics". Archived from the original on
2016-03-26. Retrieved 2017-03-23.
^ Springfield Model 1892-99
Mauser Model 95 / Plezier
Mauser 7×57mm Archived 2010-03-07 at the
^ Cushman, David. "History of the
.303 British Calibre Service
^ a b c FN
Mauser Model 98
Rifle and Carbine Operator's Manual page 28
Archived May 10, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
^ The Spanish Modelo 1893
Rifle by Paul Scarlata • Shooting
Times • September 23, 2010
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Walter, John (2006). Rifles of the World.
Krause Publications. pp. 307–310.
^ a b c d e f g h Robert, Ball (2011).
Mauser Military Rifles of the
World. Gun Digest Books. pp. 73–76,255.
^ RK Smith~Dan Reynolds~Cliff Carlisle. "
Brazil Page". Retrieved 18
^ (unknown. "BRAZILIAN MAUSER MODEL 1894 RIFLE". Retrieved 18 November
^ "MAUSER - Swedish M1894 rifle". Retrieved 18 November 2017.
^ a b c "The Model 1893/95 "
Boer Model" Mauser". Shooting Times.
^ a b c d e f Kieran. "Weapons of the Second
Boer War". Kieran
McMullen. Retrieved 2016-03-18.
^ a b Haas, Frank De; Zwoll, Wayne (2003). Bolt Action Rifles. Krause
Publications. pp. 134–141. ISBN 0-87349-660-4.
^ Manowar. "Serbian
Rifle M1899 Captured by Austro-Hungary".
Retrieved 25 February 2015.
^ Sams 1898.
^ FN Model 1949
^ P.O. Ackley's wildcats
C.I.P. decisions, texts and tables (free current
C.I.P. CD-ROM version
download (ZIP and RAR format))
1918 T Gewehr
Rifle Type A
Model M Stutzen
KK Model 201
98 Infantry Rifle
98 .375 Holland and Holland
98 .416 Rigby
M03 Anniversary Model
Model 72E Field
6.5 x 55 Swedish Mauser
7.63 x 25mm Mauser
7.65 x 53mm Mauser
7 x 57mm Mauser
9 x 25mm Mauser
9.3 x 57mm Mauser
9 x 57mm Mauser
10.75 x 68mm Mauser
11 x 60mm Mauser