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The 5th century
5th century
is the time period from 401
401
to 500
500
in accordance with the Julian calendar
Julian calendar
in Anno Domini
Anno Domini
/ Common Era. The 5th century
5th century
is noted for being a time of repeated disaster and instability both internally and externally for the Western Roman Empire, which finally collapsed, and came to an end in 476
476
AD. The Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
was ruled by a succession of weak emperors, and true power began to fall increasingly into the hands of powerful generals. Internal instability and the pressing military problem of foreign invaders resulted in the ransacking of Rome
Rome
by a Visigoth
Visigoth
army in 410. Some recovery took place during the following decades, but the Western Empire received another serious blow when a second barbarian group, the Vandals, occupied Carthage, capital of the extremely important province of Africa. Attempts to retake the province were interrupted by the invasion of the Huns
Huns
under Attila. After Attila's defeat, both Eastern and Western empires joined forces for a final assault on Vandal
Vandal
North Africa, but this campaign was a spectacular failure. In the far east, a lot of nomadic barbarian tribes northern to China
China
immigrated into the central part of China
China
and established a series of dynasties, which launched a 300-year division of China
China
between the north and the south and long-lasting wars.

Contents

1 Events 2 Significant people 3 Inventions, discoveries, introductions 4 References

Events[edit]

Romulus Augustus, Last Western Roman Emperor

380
380
– 415: Chandragupta II
Chandragupta II
reigns over the golden age of the Gupta Empire. 399
399
– 412: The Chinese Buddhist
Buddhist
monk Faxian
Faxian
sails through the Indian Ocean and travels throughout Sri Lanka and India to gather Buddhist scriptures. 401: Kumarajiva, a Buddhist
Buddhist
monk and translator of sutras into Chinese, arrives in Chang'an Early 5th century
5th century
– Baptistry of Neon, Ravenna, Italy, is built. 5th century
5th century
- North Acropolis, Tikal, Guatemala, is built. Maya culture. 405: Mesrop Mashtots
Mesrop Mashtots
introduces number 36 of the 38 letters of the newly created Armenian Alphabet 406: The eastern frontier of the Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
collapses as waves of Suebi, Alans, and Vandals
Vandals
cross the then frozen river Rhine near Mainz
Mainz
and enter Gaul. 407: Constantine III leads many of the Roman military units from Britain to Gaul
Gaul
and occupies Arles
Arles
(Arelate). This is generally seen as Rome's withdrawal from Britain. 410: Rome
Rome
ransacked by the Visigoths
Visigoths
led by King Alaric. 411: Suebi
Suebi
establish the first independent Christian kingdom of Western Europe in Gallaecia. 413: St. Augustine, Bishop of Hippo, begins to write The City of God. 415
415
– 455: Kumaragupta, Gupta emperor 420: The Jin dynasty comes to an end by Liu Yu. 420
420
– 589: Northern and Southern dynasties
Northern and Southern dynasties
in China. 426: K'inich Yax K'uk' Mo'
K'inich Yax K'uk' Mo'
re-established Copan.

Copan

430: The Ilopango volcano erupts, thereby devastating the Mayan cities in present-day El Salvador. 431: First Council of Ephesus, the third ecumenical council which upholds the title Theotokos
Theotokos
or "mother of God", for Mary, the mother of Jesus Christ. 439: Vandals
Vandals
conquer Carthage. At some point after 440, the Anglo-Saxons
Anglo-Saxons
settle in Britain. The traditional story is that they were invited there by Vortigern. 450: Historical linguist Albert C. Baugh dates Old English
Old English
from around this year.[1] 450: Several stone inscriptions were made witness to edicts from West Java. Amongst others, the Tugu inscription
Tugu inscription
announced decrees of Purnavarman, the King of Tarumanagara, one of the earliest Hindu kingdoms of Java.[2] (up until the year 669) 451: Council of Chalcedon, the fourth ecumenical council which taught Jesus Christ
Jesus Christ
as one divine person in two natures. 451: The Persians declare war on the Armenians. 451: The Huns
Huns
under Attila
Attila
facing the Romans and the Visigoths
Visigoths
are defeated in the Battle of Chalons.[3] 452: The Metropolis
Metropolis
of Aquileia
Aquileia
is destroyed by Attila
Attila
the Hun
Hun
and his army. 452: Pope Leo I
Pope Leo I
meets in person with Attila
Attila
on the Mincio
Mincio
River and convinces him not to ransack Rome. 453: Death of Attila. The Hun
Hun
Empire is divided between Atilla's sons. 454: Battle of Nedao. Germanic tribes destroy the main Hun
Hun
army and do away with the Hun
Hun
domination. 455: Vandals
Vandals
Sack Rome. 455: The city of Chichen Itza
Chichen Itza
is founded in Mexico. 455
455
– 467: Skandagupta, the last great Gupta emperor 469: Death of Dengizich, last Khan of the Hun
Hun
Empire. 470: Riothamus, King of the Britons, helps the Roman Emperor
Emperor
in Brittany
Brittany
against the Visigoths. 476: Deposition of Romulus Augustulus
Romulus Augustulus
by Odoacer: traditional date for the Fall of Rome
Rome
in the West. 477
477
or 495: Chan Buddhists found the Shaolin Monastery
Shaolin Monastery
on Mount Song in Henan, China. 480: Assassination of Julius Nepos, the last de jure Emperor
Emperor
of the Western Roman Empire, in Dalmatia. 481: Clovis I
Clovis I
becomes King of the Western Franks
Western Franks
upon the death of Childeric I. 482: This year, the territory of modern Ukraine
Ukraine
established Kiev. [4] 486: Clovis defeats Syagrius
Syagrius
and conquers the last free remnants of the Western Roman Empire. 490: (approximate date) Battle of Mount Badon. According to legend, British forces led by Arthur defeated the invading Saxons. 491: King Clovis I
Clovis I
defeats and subjugates the Kingdom of Thuringia
Thuringia
in Germany. 493: Theodoric the Great
Theodoric the Great
ousts Odoacer
Odoacer
to become King of Italy. 494: Northern Gaul
Gaul
is united under the Frankish King Clovis I, founder of the Merovingian dynasty. 496: Battle of Tolbiac. King Clovis subjugates the Alamanni, and is baptized as a Catholic with a large number of Franks by Remigius, bishop of Reims. Buddhism
Buddhism
reaches Burma
Burma
and Indonesia. African and Indonesian settlers reach Madagascar. The Hopewell tradition
Hopewell tradition
comes to an end in North America. Tbilisi
Tbilisi
was founded by King Vakhtang Gorgasali.

Significant people[edit]

Aegidius, Gallo-Roman warlord, founder of the Kingdom of Soissons
Kingdom of Soissons
(d. 464/465, reigned 457-464/465). Aelia Eudoxia, Roman Empress (before 385-404). Aetius, Roman magister militum, considered the last of the great Roman generals (391-454). Alaric I, King of the Visigoths, primarily known for the Sack of Rome in 410
410
(c. 370/375-410, reigned 395-410). Alaric II, King of the Visigoths
Visigoths
in Toulouse (c. 458/466-507, reigned 484-507). Ambrosius Aurelianus, war leader of the Romano-British. Anastasius I Dicorus, Roman Emperor
Emperor
(c. 431-518, reigned 491-518). Anthemius, Roman politician, Praetorian prefect of the East, de facto regent (possibly d. 414). Primarily remembered for constructing the Theodosian_Walls. Anthemius, Roman Emperor
Emperor
(c. 420-472, reigned 467-472). Arcadius, Roman Emperor
Emperor
(377-408, reigned 383-408). Ariadne, Roman Empress (c. 450-515). Arvandus, Roman politician, Praetorian prefect of Gaul, and alleged usurper. Aspar, Eastern Roman general and politician (c. 400-471). Ataulf, King of the Visigoths
Visigoths
(c. 370-415, reigned 411-415). Attila, King of the Huns Augustine of Hippo, Bishop, theologian Avitus, Roman Emperor
Emperor
(c. 380/395-456/457, reigned 455-456). Bahram V, Sassanid
Sassanid
Shah of Persia Basiliscus, Roman Emperor
Emperor
(d. 476/477, reigned 475-476). Basiliscus, Roman Caesar (reigned 476-477/478). Batuo, first abbot of the Shaolin Monastery Bodhidharma, founder of Chan Buddhism Bonifacius, Roman comes and general, in charge of the Diocese of Africa
Africa
(d. 432). Burdunellus, Roman usurper (d. 496, reigned 496). Castinus, Roman patricius, general, and politician. Chandragupta II, (380-415) Gupta Emperor John Chrysostom, Patriarch of Constantinople Clovis I, King of the Franks (c. 466-511, reigned 481-511). The first Frankish King to unite the Franks; first Barbarian King to convert to Catholicism. Constans II, Roman Emperor
Emperor
(d. 411, reigned 409-411). Constantine III, Roman Emperor
Emperor
(d. 411, reigned 407-411). Constantius III, Roman Emperor
Emperor
(d. 421, reigned 421). Cyril of Alexandria, Patriarch of Alexandria, theologian Dioscorus, Patriarch of Alexandria Euric, King of the Visigoths
Visigoths
(c. 440-484, reigned 466-484). Faxian, Chinese Buddhist
Buddhist
monk Fan Ye, Chinese historian Galla Placidia, Roman Empress and regent (388-450, reigned 423-437). Gelasius, Bishop of Rome Genseric, King of the Vandals
Vandals
and founder of the Vandal
Vandal
Kingdom in North Africa
Africa
(c. 389-477, reigned 428-477). Gerontius, Roman general and rebel (d. 411). Glycerius, Roman Emperor
Emperor
(c. 420- after 480, reigned 473-474). Goar, King of the Alans
Alans
(before 390-c. 450, reigned 406-c. 450). Gratian, Roman usurper (d. 407, reigned 407). Gunderic, King of the Vandals
Vandals
(379-428, reigned 407-428). Gundobad, Roman Patrician and later King of the Burgundians (c. 452-516, reigned 473-516). Gunthamund, King of the Vandals, ruler of the Vandal
Vandal
Kingdom (c. 450-496, reigned 484-496). Gunther, King of the Burgundians (d. 437, reigned c. 407-437). Known primarily for conflicts with the Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
and the Huns. He was remembered in medieval legend and he appears as a mythologized figure in the Nibelungenlied. Heraclianus, Roman provincial governor and usurper (d. 413, reigned 412-413). Honorius, Roman Emperor
Emperor
(384-423, reigned 393-423). Huiyuan, Chinese Buddhist Huneric, King of the Vandals, ruler of the Vandal
Vandal
Kingdom (d. 484, reigned 477-484). Hypatia of Alexandria, woman philosopher Illus, Byzantine general and rebel (d. 488). Jerome, Christian hermit, priest, Latin
Latin
translator of the Bible and author of theological works. Joannes, Roman usurper (d. 425, reigned 423-425). John Cassian, Christian monk and theologian Jovinus, Gallo-Roman senator and usurper (d. 413, reigned 411-413). Julius Nepos, Roman Emperor
Emperor
(c. 430-480, reigned 474-480). Justa, Byzantine rebel, leader of a Samaritan revolt (reigned 484). Kālidāsa, Great Sanskrit poet[5] K'inich Popol Hol, Ruler of Copan
Copan
437-455 K'inich Yax K'uk' Mo', Ruler of Copan
Copan
426-437 Ku Ix, Ruler of Copan
Copan
465-476 Kumaragupta
Kumaragupta
I, Gupta emperor Kumarajiva, (344-413), Kuchean Buddhist
Buddhist
monk and Chinese translator Muyal Jol, Ruler of Copan
Copan
485-504 Leo I, Bishop of Rome, theologian Leo I the Thracian, Roman Emperor
Emperor
(401-474, reigned 457-474). Leo II, Roman Emperor
Emperor
(467-474, reigned 474). Leontius, Byzantine usurper and rebel (d. 488, reigned 484-488). Libius Severus, Roman Emperor
Emperor
(c. 420-465, reigned 461-465). Longinus, Byzantine politician and rebel, instigator of the Isaurian War. Longinus of Cardala, Byzantine politician and rebel, fought in the Isaurian War (d. 497). Majorian, Roman Emperor
Emperor
(c. 420-461, reigned 457-461). Marcian, Roman Emperor
Emperor
(392-457, reigned 450-457). Marcian, Byzantine usurper (reigned c. 479-484). Marcus, Roman usurper (d. 407, reigned 406-407). Marcus, Roman Caesar and briefly co-emperor (d. 476, reigned 475-476). Masties, Roman-Berber ruler in North Africa. Maximus of Hispania, Roman usurper (d. 422, reigned 409-411, 419-421). Mesrop Mashtots, Armenian monk Nestorius, Archbishop of Constantinople, father of Nestorian heresy Niall Noigiallach, founder of one of Ireland's greatest dynasties Odoacer, Scirian general, later King of Italy
Italy
(433-493, reigned 476-493). Olybrius, Roman Emperor
Emperor
(d. 472, reigned 472). Orestes, Roman general and politician (d. 476). Palladius, Roman Caesar (c. 420-455, reigned 455). Patricius, Roman Caesar (reigned 470-471). Patrick, (Patricius) Catholic Bishop, missionary to Ireland Pei Songzhi, Chinese historian Pelagius, Catholic priest; father of Pelagianism Petronius Maximus, Roman Emperor
Emperor
(c. 396-455, reigned 455). Priscus Attalus, Roman usurper (d. after 416, reigned 409, 414-415). Pulcheria, Roman Empress and regent (398/399-453, reigned 414-453). Rechiar, King of Galicia (d. 456, reigned 448-456). Ricimer, Western Roman general, politician, and ruler (c. 405-472). Riothamus, King of the Britons, a candidate for the legendary King Arthur Romanus, Roman usurper (d. 470, reigned 470). Romulus Augustulus, Roman Emperor
Emperor
(c. 461- after 507, reigned 475-476). Tyrannius Rufinus, priest of Aquileia, hermit, Latin
Latin
translator Sebastianus, Roman usurper (d. 413, reigned 412-413). Skandagupta, Gupta emperor Socrates Scholasticus, Byzantine Church historian Sozomen, Christian church historian Stilicho, Roman magister militum, de facto regent of the Western Roman Empire (c. 359-408). Syagrius, Roman military commander, last ruler of the Kingdom of Soissons (430-486/487, reigned 464-486). Theoderic the Great, king of the Ostrogoths and ruler of Italy (454-526, reigned 475-526). Theodoric II, King of the Visigoths
Visigoths
(c. 426-466, reigned 453-466). Theodosius II, Roman Emperor
Emperor
(401-450, reigned 408-450). Valentinian III, Roman Emperor
Emperor
(419-455, reigned 425-455). Verina, Roman Empress (d. 484). Vortigern, warlord in Sub-Roman Britain, remembered as a King of the Britons. Emperor
Emperor
Xiaowen of Northern Wei, barbaric-born Chinese emperor of northern China
China
who promoted traditional Chinese culture. Yazdegerd I, Sassanid
Sassanid
Shah of Persia Zeno, Roman Emperor
Emperor
(c. 425-491, reigned 474-475, 476-491). Zu Chongzhi, Chinese astronomer and mathematician

Inventions, discoveries, introductions[edit]

Horse collar
Horse collar
invented in China Heavy plow in use in Slavic lands Metal horseshoes become common in Gaul Anglo-Saxon runes
Anglo-Saxon runes
alphabet introduced in England Armenian alphabet
Armenian alphabet
created by Mesrob Mashtots c. 405

References[edit]

^ A History of the English Language (D. Appleton- Century
Century
Company, 1935) ^ Taylor (2003), p. 19. ^ Roberts, J: "History of the World.". Penguin, 1994. ^ "Kyiv's 1,530th birthday marked with fun, protest".  ^ "Kalidasa - Indian author". britannica.com. 

Millennia Centuries Decades Years

v t e

Decades and years

5th century 3rd century ← 4th century ← ↔ → 6th century → 7th century

390s 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399

400s 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409

410s 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419

420s 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429

430s 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439

440s 440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449

450s 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 458 459

460s 460 461 462 463 464 465 466 467 468 469

470s 470 471 472 473 474 475 476 477 478 479

480s 480 481 482 483 484 485 486 487 488 489

490s 490 491 492 493 494 495 496 497 498 499

500s 500 501 502 503 504 505 506 507 508 509

v t e

Centuries and millennia

Millennium Century

BC (BCE)

4th 40th 39th 38th 37th 36th 35th 34th 33rd 32nd 31st

3rd 30th 29th 28th 27th 26th 25th 24th 23rd 22nd 21st

2nd 20th 19th 18th 17th 16th 15th 14th 13th 12th 11th

1st 10th 9th 8th 7th 6th 5th 4th 3rd 2nd 1st

AD (CE)

1st 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th

2nd 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th 20th

3rd 21st 22nd 23rd 24th 25th 26th 2

.