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1824
1824
(MDCCCXXIV ) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
and a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar , the 1824th year of the Common Era
Common Era
(CE) and Anno Domini
Anno Domini
(AD) designations, the 824th year of the 2nd millennium
2nd millennium
, the 24th year of the 19th century
19th century
, and the 5th year of the 1820s decade. As of the start of 1824, the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

CONTENTS

* 1 Events

* 1.1 January– March
March
* 1.2 April–June * 1.3 July–September * 1.4 October–December * 1.5 Date unknown

* 2 Births

* 2.1 January–June * 2.2 July–December

* 3 Deaths

* 3.1 January–June * 3.2 July–December

* 4 References

EVENTS

JANUARY–MARCH

* January 8 – After much controversy, Michael Faraday
Michael Faraday
is finally elected as a member of the Royal Society
Royal Society
, with only one vote against him. * January 22 – The Ashanti crush British forces in the Gold Coast , killing the British governor Sir Charles MacCarthy (see also Wars between Britain and Ashanti in Ghana and Ashanti Confederacy ). * January 24 – The first issue of the radical quarterly founded by Jeremy Bentham
Jeremy Bentham
, The Westminster Review , is published in London. * February 10 Simón Bolívar
Simón Bolívar
is proclaimed dictator of Peru
Peru
. * February 21 – The Chumash Revolt of 1824 begins against the Spanish presence in California
California
. * March 5 – The First Anglo-Burmese War
First Anglo-Burmese War
begins. * March 7 – The Florida State Capitol
Florida State Capitol
moves from St. Augustine to Tallahassee . * March 11 – The United States War Department creates the Bureau of Indian Affairs . * March 17 – The Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 is signed.

APRIL–JUNE

* April 9 – The first permanent settlers arrive to construct the new city of Tallahassee, Florida
Tallahassee, Florida
, selected to be the capital of the Florida Territory
Florida Territory
newly acquired from the Kingdom of Spain; the area has been selected because of it is roughly equidistant from the territory's main cities, Pensacola and St. Augustine . * April 19 Lord Byron
Lord Byron
(George Gordon Byron), the British poet, dies at the age of 36 in the Greek city of Missolonghi
Missolonghi
, where he had taken ill while making plans to liberate the Greeks from Ottoman rule, "not in combat, but of a fever caught in the unhealthy conditions at Missolonghi... exacerbated, it is generally agreed, by the over-zealous actions of his doctors, who bled him excessively." * May 7 – Beethoven 's Symphony No. 9 (the "Choral") premieres at the Theater am Kärntnertor in Vienna
Vienna
. The deaf composer has to be turned around on the stage, to witness the enthusiastic audience reaction. * May 24 First Anglo-Burmese War
First Anglo-Burmese War
: The British take Rangoon , Burma
Burma
. * June 16 – The Royal Society
Royal Society
for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals is established in Great Britain.

JULY–SEPTEMBER

* July 2 – The Confederation of the Equator
Confederation of the Equator
begins in Pernambuco, Brazil : Wealthy landowners against the government of Emperor Pedro I initiate a secessionist movement for the independence of Pernambuco. * July 10 Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette
Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette
and a beloved hero of the American Revolution, departs from the port of Le Havre
Le Havre
in France
France
on the ship HMS Cadmus for a triumphant return to the United States ; he arrives in New York on August 15 . * July 13 – King Kamehameha II
Kamehameha II
of Hawaii
Hawaii
dies of measles , during a visit to the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, before he can meet with King George VI. Because of the slow communications of the era, news of the King's death doesn't reach Hawaii
Hawaii
until the following March
March
; his funeral will take place on May 11 , 1825 . His wife, Queen Kaʻahumanu , who had served as regent during his absence, reigns until her death in 1832
1832
. * July 19 – Don Agustín de Iturbide
Agustín de Iturbide
, who had formerly been President of Mexico
President of Mexico
and then proclaimed himself Emperor Agustin the First, until being overthrown on March
March
19 , 1823 , is executed by a firing squad in the city of Padilla, five days after returning from exile in England. * August 4 – The Battle of Kos is fought between Turkish and Greek forces. * August 6 Peruvian War of Independence
Peruvian War of Independence
Battle of Junín
Battle of Junín
: Pro-independence forces defeat the Spanish, in the highlands of the Junín Region. * August 16 – Lafayette visits the United States, departing on September 7 , 1825 . * September 13 – With his crew and 29 convicts aboard the Amity, John Oxley
John Oxley
arrives at and founds the Moreton Bay Penal Settlement at what is now Redcliffe in Queensland
Queensland
, Australia, after leaving Sydney . * September 16 – Charles X succeeds his brother Louis XVIII , as King of France.

OCTOBER–DECEMBER

* October 4 – The First Constitution of Mexico is enacted, declaring the country to be a federal republic . * October 10 – The Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Town Council founds the Edinburgh Municipal Fire Brigade, the first fire brigade in Britain, under the leadership of James Braidwood . * October 21 Joseph Aspdin patents Portland cement
Portland cement
. * November 5 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
, the first technological university in the English-speaking world, is founded in Troy, New York . * November 19 – In the worst flood to date in Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
, water rises 421 cm above normal, and 200 lose their lives. * November 30 – The first sod is turned in Ontario
Ontario
, for the first of four Welland Canals (the canal opens for a trial run exactly 5 years later to the day). * December 3 U.S. presidential election, 1824 : None of the four candidates for U.S. President gain a majority of the electoral votes, so the election is thrown into the U.S. House of Representatives
U.S. House of Representatives
. * December 9 Battle of Ayacucho : Peruvian forces defeat the Spanish. * December 23 – Chief Pushmataha of the Choctaw
Choctaw
Nation dies in Washington. * December 24 – The First American fraternity, Chi Phi (ΧΦ), is founded at Princeton University.

Lafayette , portrait by Joseph-Désiré Court

* December 28 – The Bathurst War
Bathurst War
comes to an end, with the defeat of the Wiradjuri.

DATE UNKNOWN

* The Egyptians capture Crete
Crete
. * The Montparnasse Cemetery
Montparnasse Cemetery
is established in Paris, France. * The Dutch sign the Masang Agreement, temporarily ending hostilities in the Padri War
Padri War
. * The name Australia, recommended by Matthew Flinders
Matthew Flinders
in 1804
1804
, is finally adopted as the official name of the country once known as New Holland . * The Panoramagram is invented as the first stereoscopic viewer. * The Fort Vancouver
Fort Vancouver
trading post is established on the lower Columbia River
Columbia River
by the Hudson\'s Bay Company . * The Colorado potato beetle
Colorado potato beetle
is first described, by Thomas Say
Thomas Say
.

BIRTHS

JANUARY–JUNE

Bedřich Smetana
Bedřich Smetana
Gustav Kirchhoff William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin

* January 7 Julia Kavanagh , Irish novelist (d. 1877
1877
) * January 8 Wilkie Collins
Wilkie Collins
, British novelist (d. 1889
1889
) * January 15 Marie Duplessis , French courtesan (d. 1847
1847
) * January 21 – Thomas Jonathan "Stonewall" Jackson , American Confederate general (d. 1863
1863
) * February 7 William Huggins , British astronomer (d. 1910
1910
) * February 8 Barnard Elliott Bee, Jr.
Barnard Elliott Bee, Jr.
, American Confederate general (d. 1861
1861
) * February 12 Dayananda Saraswati
Dayananda Saraswati
, Hindu religious leader, Vedic scholar who founded the reform movement Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj
(d. 1883
1883
) * February 14 Winfield Scott Hancock
Winfield Scott Hancock
, American Civil War
American Civil War
Union general, Democratic presidential candidate (d. 1886
1886
) * February 16 Peter Kosler , Slovenian cartographer, geographer (d. 1879
1879
) * February 27 Prince Kuni Asahiko of Japan (d. 1891
1891
) * March
March
2 – Bedřich Smetana
Bedřich Smetana
, Czech composer (d. 1885
1885
) * March
March
9 – Amasa Leland Stanford , Governor of California
California
(d. 1893
1893
) * March
March
12 – Gustav Kirchhoff , German physicist (d. 1887
1887
) * March
March
19 – William Allingham , Irish author (d. 1889
1889
) * March
March
22 – Charles Pfizer , German-American chemist, co-founder of Pfizer
Pfizer
(d. 1906
1906
) * March
March
25 – Clinton L. Merriam , American politician (d. 1900
1900
) * March
March
27 – Johann Wilhelm Hittorf , German physicist (d. 1914
1914
) * April 6 – George Waterhouse , 7th Prime Minister of New Zealand (d. 1906
1906
) * April 13 – William Alexander , Anglican bishop, Primate of All Ireland (d. 1911
1911
) * May 6 Tokugawa Iesada , 13th shogun of Tokugawa shogunate
Tokugawa shogunate
of Japan (d. 1858
1858
) * May 9 Jacob ben Moses Bachrach , noted Polish-born apologist of Rabbinic Judaism (d. 1896
1896
) * May 16 Levi P. Morton , 22nd Vice President of the United States (d. 1920
1920
) * May 23 Ambrose Burnside
Ambrose Burnside
, American Civil War
American Civil War
general, inventor , politician from Rhode Island
Rhode Island
(d. 1881
1881
) * June 7 Bernhard von Gudden
Bernhard von Gudden
, German neuroanatomist, psychiatrist (d. 1886
1886
) * June 20 George Edmund Street
George Edmund Street
, British architect (d. 1881
1881
) * June 26 William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin
William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin
, Irish-born physicist, engineer (d. 1907
1907
) * June 28 Paul Broca , French physician, anthropologist (d. 1880 ) * July 12 Eugène Boudin
Eugène Boudin
, French painter (d. 1898
1898
)

JULY–DECEMBER

Dayananda Saraswati
Dayananda Saraswati

* July 21 – Stanley Matthews , American politician, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States
United States
(d. 1889
1889
) * July 27 Alexandre Dumas, fils
Alexandre Dumas, fils
, French writer (d. 1895
1895
) * August 3 William Burnham Woods
William Burnham Woods
, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States
United States
(d. 1887
1887
) * August 7 Gideon T. Stewart
Gideon T. Stewart
, American temperance movement leader (d. 1907
1907
)

* September 4

* Anton Bruckner
Anton Bruckner
, Austrian composer (d. 1896
1896
) * Phoebe Cary , American poet, sister to Alice Cary (1820–1871) (d. 1871
1871
)

* September 27 Benjamin Apthorp Gould , American astronomer (d. 1896
1896
) * October 2 Henry C. Lord , American railroad executive (d. 1884 ) * October 5 – Henry Chadwick , English-born American baseball writer, historian (d. 1908
1908
) * October 18 Juan Valera y Alcalá-Galiano , Spanish author (d. 1905
1905
) * October 27 Edward Maitland , British writer (d. 1897
1897
) * November 24 Frederick Miller , German-American brewer, businessman (d. 1888
1888
) * December 10 George MacDonald
George MacDonald
, Scottish writer (d. 1905
1905
) * December 11 Jonathan Letterman
Jonathan Letterman
, American surgeon, "Father of Battlefield Medicine" (d. 1872
1872
) * December 14 Pierre Puvis de Chavannes
Pierre Puvis de Chavannes
, French painter (d. 1898
1898
) * December 18 – John Hall , 12th Prime Minister of New Zealand (d. 1907
1907
) * December 27 Charlotta Norberg , Swedish ballerina (d. 1892
1892
)

DEATHS

JANUARY–JUNE

* January 21 – Jean-Baptiste Drouet , French revolutionary (b. 1765 ) * January 26 Théodore Géricault , French painter (b. 1791
1791
) * February 21 Eugène de Beauharnais , son of Joséphine de Beauharnais (b. 1781 ) * April 19 – George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron , English poet (b. 1788
1788
) * May 15 Johann Philipp Stadion, Count von Warthausen , German statesman (b. 1763
1763
) * May 26 Capel Lofft
Capel Lofft
, English writer (b. 1751 ) * May 29 Jean-Baptiste Willermoz , French Freemason (b. 1730
1730
) * June 16 Charles-François Lebrun, duc de Plaisance
Charles-François Lebrun, duc de Plaisance
, Third Consul of France
France
(b. 1739 ) * June 18 Ferdinand III, Grand Duke of Tuscany
Ferdinand III, Grand Duke of Tuscany
(b. 1769 ) * June 21 Étienne Aignan , French writer (b. 1773 )

JULY–DECEMBER

Louis XVIII of France
France

* July 14 Kamehameha II
Kamehameha II
, King of Hawaii
Hawaii
(b. 1797
1797
) * July 19 Agustín de Iturbide
Agustín de Iturbide
, Emperor of Mexico
Emperor of Mexico
(b. 1783 ) * July 20 Maine de Biran , French philosopher (b. 1766 ) * July 21 Buddha Loetla Nabhalai
Buddha Loetla Nabhalai
, King of Siam (b. 1767 ) * August 12 Charles Nerinckx , Belgian-born founder of the Sisters of Loretto (b. 1761 ) * September 16 – King Louis XVIII of France
France
(b. 1755 ) * October 30 Charles Maturin , Irish writer (b. 1773 ) * December 5 – Anne Louise Boyvin d\'Hardancourt Brillon de Jouy , French confidant of Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
(b. 1744 )

REFERENCES

* ^ Paul E. Hoffman, Florida's Frontiers (Indiana University Press, 2002) p298 * ^ Edward John Trelawny, Records of Shelley, Byron and the Author (Penguin, 2013) * ^ Sketch of the Life and Military Services of Gen. La Fayette, During the American Revolution, p17 * ^ Lincoln C. Yamashita, Warriors: Pu` Ali Koa (Trafford Publishing, 2011) p46 * ^ Evan Lampe, Work, Class, and Power in the Borderlands of the Early American Pacific: The Labors of Empire (Lexington Books, 2013) p97 * ^ John Milton Niles, View of South-America and Mexico, by a citizen of the United States
United States
(H. Huntington, 1825) pp805-206 * ^ Will Fowler, Santa Anna of Mexico (University of Nebraska Press, 2

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