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SHAIVISM/TANTRA/NATH

* Kashmir Shaivism
Kashmir Shaivism
* Pratyabhijna
Pratyabhijna
* Nath
Nath
* Inchegeri Sampradaya
Inchegeri Sampradaya

NEW MOVEMENTS

* Neo-Advaita
Neo-Advaita
* Nondualism
Nondualism

Concepts CLASSICAL ADVAITA VEDANTA

* Atman * Brahman
Brahman
* Avidya * Ajativada
Ajativada
* Mahāvākyas
Mahāvākyas
* Om * Tat Tvam Asi * Three Bodies * Aham * Cause and effect * Kosha
Kosha

KASHMIR SHAIVISM

* Pratyabhijna
Pratyabhijna
* so\'ham

Practices

* Guru
Guru
* Meditation * Svādhyāya
Svādhyāya
* Sravana, manana, nididhyasana * Jnana yoga
Jnana yoga
* Rāja yoga
Rāja yoga
* "Unfoldment of the middle" * Self-enquiry
Self-enquiry

Moksha
Moksha

* Moksha
Moksha
* Anubhava
Anubhava
* Turiya * Sahaja
Sahaja

Texts ADVAITA VEDANTA Prasthanatrayi
Prasthanatrayi

* Principal Upanishads
Principal Upanishads
* Brahma Sutras
Brahma Sutras
* Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
* Shankara * Upadesasahasri
Upadesasahasri
* Attributed to Shankara * Vivekachudamani
Vivekachudamani
* Atma bodha
Atma bodha
* Other * Avadhuta Gita
Avadhuta Gita
* Yoga Vasistha
Yoga Vasistha
* Yoga Yajnavalkya
Yoga Yajnavalkya
* Advaita Bodha Deepika
Advaita Bodha Deepika
* Dŗg-Dŗśya-Viveka
Dŗg-Dŗśya-Viveka
* Vedantasara of Sadananda

KASHMIR SHAIVISM

* Shiva Sutras of Vasugupta
Shiva Sutras of Vasugupta

NEO-VEDANTA

* Works by Vivekananda

INCHEGERI SAMPRADAYA

* Dasbodh
Dasbodh

Teachers CLASSICAL ADVAITA VEDANTA

* Gaudapada
Gaudapada
* Adi Shankara * Mandana Misra * Suresvara * Vācaspati Miśra
Vācaspati Miśra
* Padmapadacharya
Padmapadacharya
* Amalananda
Amalananda
* Chandrashekarendra Saraswati
Chandrashekarendra Saraswati
* Jagadguru
Jagadguru
of Sringeri Sharada Peetham
Sringeri Sharada Peetham

MODERN ADVAITA VEDANTA

* Vijnanabhiksu
Vijnanabhiksu
* Swami Sivananda
Swami Sivananda
* Swami Chinmayananda * Swami Dayananda * Ramana Maharshi
Ramana Maharshi
* Nisargadatta Maharaj
Nisargadatta Maharaj

SHAIVISM/TANTRA/NATH

* Gorakshanath
Gorakshanath
* Matsyendranath
Matsyendranath

* Advaita
Advaita
teachers

NEO-ADVAITA

* Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
* Swami Vivekananda
Swami Vivekananda
* H. W. L. Poonja
H. W. L. Poonja
* Andrew Cohen * Gangaji
Gangaji
* Mooji
Mooji

OTHER

* Osho * Eckhart Tolle
Eckhart Tolle
* Robert Adams

Influences

* Mimamsa
Mimamsa
* Nyaya
Nyaya
* Samkhya
Samkhya
* Sramanic movement * Yoga
Yoga

HINDUISM

* Vedas
Vedas
* Upanishads
Upanishads
* Vedanta
Vedanta

BUDDHISM

* Precanonical Buddhism
Buddhism
* Madhyamika
Madhyamika
* Yogacara
Yogacara
* Buddha-nature
Buddha-nature

Monasteries and Orders CLASSICAL ADVAITA VEDANTA

* Dashanami Sampradaya
Dashanami Sampradaya
* Shri Gaudapadacharya Math
Shri Gaudapadacharya Math
* Sringeri Sharada Peetham
Sringeri Sharada Peetham
* Govardhana Pīṭhaṃ * Dvāraka Pīṭhaṃ * Jyotirmaṭha Pīṭhaṃ

MODERN ADVAITA VEDANTA

* Divine Life Society
Divine Life Society
* Chinmaya Mission
Chinmaya Mission
* Arsha Vidya Gurukulam

NEO-VEDANTA

* Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
Mission

Scholarship Academic

* Paul Deussen
Paul Deussen
* Daniel H. H. Ingalls * Richard De Smet
Richard De Smet
* Paul Deussen
Paul Deussen
* Eliot Deutsch
Eliot Deutsch
* Sengaku Mayeda
Sengaku Mayeda
* Max Muller
Max Muller
* Hajime Nakamura * Patrick Olivelle * Anantanand Rambachan
Anantanand Rambachan
* Arvind Sharma
Arvind Sharma

Non-academic

* David Godman
David Godman

Categories

* Advaita
Advaita
* Advaita Vedanta
Advaita Vedanta
* Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
* Advaita
Advaita
Shaivism
Shaivism
* Kashmir Shaivism
Kashmir Shaivism
* Inchegeri Sampradaya
Inchegeri Sampradaya
* Nondualism
Nondualism
* Neo-Advaita
Neo-Advaita
teachers

* v * t * e

Part of a series on

HINDU PHILOSOPHY

ORTHODOX

* SAMKHYA * YOGA * NYAYA * VAISHESHIKA * MIMAMSA

VEDANTA

* Advaita
Advaita
* Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
* Dvaita
Dvaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
* Bhedabheda * Dvaitadvaita * Achintya Bheda Abheda * Shuddhadvaita
Shuddhadvaita

HETERODOX

* CHARVAKA * ĀJīVIKA * BUDDHISM * JAINISM

OTHER SCHOOLS

* Vaishnava * Smarta * Shakta

* Shaiva
Shaiva
: Pratyabhijña * Pashupata * Siddhanta

* Tantra
Tantra

TEACHERS (Acharyas )

NYAYA

* Akṣapāda Gotama * Jayanta Bhatta * Raghunatha Siromani

MīMāṃSā

* Jaimini
Jaimini
* Kumārila Bhaṭṭa
Kumārila Bhaṭṭa
* Prabhākara

ADVAITA VEDANTA

* Gaudapada
Gaudapada
* Adi Shankara * Vācaspati Miśra
Vācaspati Miśra
* Vidyaranya * Sadananda * Madhusūdana Sarasvatī * Vijnanabhiksu
Vijnanabhiksu
* Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
* Vivekananda * Ramana Maharshi
Ramana Maharshi
* Siddharudha * Chinmayananda * Nisargadatta

VISHISHTADVAITA

* Nammalvar
Nammalvar
* Alvars
Alvars
* Yamunacharya
Yamunacharya
* Ramanuja
Ramanuja
* Vedanta
Vedanta
Desika * Pillai Lokacharya
Pillai Lokacharya
* Manavala Mamunigal
Manavala Mamunigal

DVAITA

* Madhvacharya
Madhvacharya
* Jayatirtha
Jayatirtha
* Vyasatirtha
Vyasatirtha
* Sripadaraja
Sripadaraja
* Vadirajatirtha * Vijayendra Tirtha
Vijayendra Tirtha
* Raghavendra Swami * Padmanabha Tirtha
Padmanabha Tirtha
* Naraharitirtha
Naraharitirtha

ACHINTYA BHEDA ABHEDA

* Chaitanya Mahaprabhu
Chaitanya Mahaprabhu
* Jiva Goswami
Jiva Goswami
* Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati
Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati
* Prabhupada

* Tantra
Tantra
* Shakta

* Abhinavagupta
Abhinavagupta
* Nigamananda Paramahansa
Nigamananda Paramahansa
* Ramprasad Sen * Bamakhepa
Bamakhepa
* Kamalakanta Bhattacharya * Anandamayi Ma
Anandamayi Ma

OTHERS

SAMKHYA

* Kapila
Kapila

YOGA

* Patanjali
Patanjali

VAISHESHIKA

* Kanada , Prashastapada

DVAITADVAITA

* Nimbarka

SHUDDHADVAITA

* Vallabha
Vallabha
Acharya
Acharya

MAJOR TEXTS

* Sruti * Smriti
Smriti

------------------------- VEDAS

* Rigveda
Rigveda
* Yajurveda
Yajurveda
* Samaveda
Samaveda
* Atharvaveda
Atharvaveda

UPANISHADS

* Principal Upanishads
Principal Upanishads
* Minor Upanishads
Upanishads

Other scriptures

* Bhagavat Gita * Agama (Hinduism)

------------------------- SHASTRAS AND SUTRAS

* Brahma Sutras
Brahma Sutras
* Samkhya
Samkhya
Sutras * Mimamsa
Mimamsa
Sutras * Nyāya Sūtras
Nyāya Sūtras
* Vaiśeṣika Sūtra
Vaiśeṣika Sūtra
* Yoga
Yoga
Sutras

* Pramana
Pramana
Sutras

* Puranas
Puranas
* Dharma
Dharma
Shastra
Shastra
* Artha
Artha
Śastra * Kamasutra
Kamasutra
* Tirumurai
Tirumurai
* Shiva Samhita
Shiva Samhita

* Hinduism
Hinduism
* Other Indian philosophies

* v * t * e

ADI SHANKARA (pronounced ) was an early 8th century Indian philosopher and theologian who consolidated the doctrine of Advaita Vedanta
Vedanta
. He is credited with unifying and establishing the main currents of thought in Hinduism
Hinduism
.

His works in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
discuss the unity of the ātman and Nirguna Brahman
Brahman
"brahman without attributes". He wrote copious commentaries on the Vedic canon ( Brahma Sutras
Brahma Sutras
, Principal Upanishads
Principal Upanishads
and Bhagavad Gita ) in support of his thesis. His works elaborate on ideas found in the Upanishads. Shankara's publications criticised the ritually-oriented Mīmāṃsā
Mīmāṃsā
school of Hinduism. He also explained the key difference between Hinduism
Hinduism
and Buddhism, stating that Hinduism
Hinduism
asserts "Atman (Soul, Self) exists", while Buddhism
Buddhism
asserts that there is "no Soul, no Self".

Shankara travelled across the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
to propagate his philosophy through discourses and debates with other thinkers. He established the importance of monastic life as sanctioned in the Upanishads
Upanishads
and Brahma
Brahma
Sutra, in a time when the Mīmāṃsā
Mīmāṃsā
school established strict ritualism and ridiculed monasticism. He is reputed to have founded four mathas ("monasteries"), which helped in the historical development, revival and spread of Advaita Vedanta
Advaita Vedanta
of which he is known as the greatest revivalist. Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
is believed to be the organiser of the Dashanami monastic order and unified the Shanmata tradition of worship. He is also known as Adi Shankaracharya, Shankara Bhagavatpada, sometimes spelled as Sankaracharya, (Ādi) Śaṅkarācārya, Śaṅkara Bhagavatpāda and Śaṅkara Bhagavatpādācārya.

CONTENTS

* 1 Biography

* 1.1 Sources * 1.2 Birth-dates * 1.3 Life * 1.4 Philosophical tour and disciples * 1.5 Death

* 2 Works

* 2.1 Authentic works * 2.2 Works of doubtful authenticity or not authentic * 2.3 Themes

* 3 Philosophy and practice

* 3.1 Knowledge of Brahman
Brahman
* 3.2 Practice

* 4 Shankara\'s Vedanta
Vedanta
and Mahayana Buddhism
Buddhism

* 4.1 Differences

* 4.1.1 Atman * 4.1.2 Logic versus revelation

* 4.2 Similarities

* 5 Historical and cultural impact

* 5.1 Historical context * 5.2 Influence on Hinduism
Hinduism
* 5.3 Critical assessment * 5.4 Mathas * 5.5 Smarta Tradition

* 6 Film * 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 References

* 10 Sources

* 10.1 Published sources * 10.2 Web-sources

* 11 Further reading * 12 External links

BIOGRAPHY

SOURCES

There are at least fourteen different known biographies of Adi Shankara's life. Many of these are called the Śankara Vijaya , while some are called Guruvijaya, Sankarabhyudaya and Shankaracaryacarita. Of these, the Brhat-Sankara-Vijaya by Citsukha is the oldest hagiography but only available in excerpts, while Sankaradigvijaya by Vidyaranya and Sankaravijaya by Anandagiri are the most cited. Other significant biographies are the Mādhavīya Śaṅkara Vijayaṃ (of Mādhava, c. 14th century), the Cidvilāsīya Śaṅkara Vijayaṃ (of Cidvilāsa, c. between the 15th and 17th centuries), and the Keraļīya Śaṅkara Vijayaṃ (of the Kerala
Kerala
region, extant from c. the 17th century). These, as well as other biographical works on Shankara, were written many centuries to a thousand years after Shankara's death, in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and non- Sanskrit
Sanskrit
languages, and the biographies are filled with legends and fiction, often mutually contradictory.

Scholars note that one of the most cited Shankara hagiography by Anandagiri includes stories and legends about historically different people, but all bearing the same name of Sri Shankaracarya or also referred to as Shankara but likely meaning more ancient scholars with names such as Vidya-sankara, Sankara-misra and Sankara-nanda. Some biographies are probably forgeries by those who sought to create a historical basis for their rituals or theories.

Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
died in the thirty third year of his life, and reliable information on his actual life is scanty.

BIRTH-DATES

The birthplace of Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
at Kalady
Kalady

The Sringeri
Sringeri
records state that Shankara was born in the 14th year of the reign of "VikramAditya", but it is unclear as to which king this name refers. Though some researchers identify the name with Chandragupta II
Chandragupta II
(4th century CE), modern scholarship accepts the VikramAditya as being from the Chalukya dynasty
Chalukya dynasty
of Badami , most likely Vikramaditya II
Vikramaditya II
(733–746 CE),

Several different dates have been proposed for Shankara:

* 509–477 BCE
BCE
: This dating, is based on records of the heads of the Shankara's cardinal institutions Maṭhas at Dvaraka Pitha
Dvaraka Pitha
, the Govardhana matha and Badri and the Kanchi Peetham . This conforms to the chronology calculated based off the Hindu
Hindu
Puranas. * 44–12 BCE
BCE
: the commentator Anandagiri believed he was born at Chidambaram
Chidambaram
in 44 BCE
BCE
and died in 12 BCE. * 6th century CE: Telang placed him in this century. Sir R. G. Bhandarkar believed he was born in 680 CE. * 788–820 CE: This was proposed by early 20th scholars and was customarily accepted by scholars such as Max Müller
Max Müller
, Macdonnel, Pathok, Deussen and Radhakrishna, and others. The date 788–820 is also among those considered acceptable by Swami Tapasyananda , though he raises a number of questions. * sometime between 700-750 CE: late 20th-century scholarship has questioned the 788-820 CE dates, placing Adi Shankara's life of 32 years in the first half of the 8th century. * 805–897 CE: Venkiteswara not only places Shankara later than most, but also had the opinion that it would not have been possible for him to have achieved all the works apportioned to him, and has him live ninety two years.

The popularly accepted dating places Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
to be a scholar from the first half of the 8th century CE.

LIFE

Shankara was most likely born in the southern Indian state of Kerala , according to the oldest biographies in a village named Kaladi
Kaladi
sometimes spelled as Kalati or Karati, but some texts suggest the birthplace to be Chidambaram
Chidambaram
in Tamil Nadu. His father died while Shankara was very young. Shankara's upanayanam , the initiation into student-life, had to be delayed due to the death of his father, and was then performed by his mother. Idol of Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
at his Samadhi
Samadhi
Mandir, behind Kedarnath
Kedarnath
Temple , in Kedarnath
Kedarnath
, India Murti of Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
at the SAT Temple in Santa Cruz, California

Shankara's hagiography describe him as someone who was attracted to the life of Sannyasa
Sannyasa
(hermit) from early childhood. His mother disapproved. A story, found in all hagiographies, describe Shankara at age eight going to a river with his mother, Sivataraka, to bathe, and where he is caught by a crocodile. Shankara called out to his mother to give him permission to become a Sannyasin or else the crocodile will kill him. The mother agrees, Shankara is freed and leaves his home for education. He reaches a Saivite sanctuary along a river in a north-central state of India, and becomes the disciple of a teacher named Govinda Bhagavatpada
Govinda Bhagavatpada
. The stories in various hagiographies diverge in details about the first meeting between Shankara and his Guru, where they met, as well as what happened later. Several texts suggest Shankara schooling with Govindapada happened along the river Narmada
Narmada
in Omkareshwar
Omkareshwar
, a few place it along river Ganges in Kashi ( Varanasi
Varanasi
) as well as Badari ( Badrinath
Badrinath
in the Himalayas).

The biographies vary in their description of where he went, who he met and debated and many other details of his life. Most mention Shankara studying the Vedas
Vedas
, Upanishads
Upanishads
and Brahmasutra
Brahmasutra
with Govindapada, and Shankara authoring several key works in his youth, while he was studying with his teacher. It is with his teacher Govinda, that Shankara studied Gaudapadiya Karika, as Govinda was himself taught by Gaudapada. Most also mention a meeting with scholars of the Mimamsa
Mimamsa
school of Hinduism
Hinduism
namely Kumarila and Prabhakara, as well as Mandana and various Buddhists, in Shastrarth (an Indian tradition of public philosophical debates attended by large number of people, sometimes with royalty). Thereafter, the biographies about Shankara vary significantly. Different and widely inconsistent accounts of his life include diverse journeys, pilgrimages, public debates, installation of yantras and lingas, as well as the founding of monastic centers in north, east, west and south India.

PHILOSOPHICAL TOUR AND DISCIPLES

While the details and chronology vary, most biographies mention Adi Shankara traveling widely within India, Gujarat to Bengal, and participating in public philosophical debates with different orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy
Hindu philosophy
, as well as heterodox traditions such as Buddhists, Jains, Arhatas, Saugatas, and Carvakas . During his tours, he is credited with starting several Matha
Matha
(monasteries), however this is uncertain. Ten monastic orders in different parts of India are generally attributed to Shankara's travel-inspired Sannyasin schools, each with Advaita
Advaita
notions, of which four have continued in his tradition: Bharati (Sringeri), Sarasvati (Kanchi), Tirtha and Asramin (Dvaraka). Other monasteries that record Shankara's visit include Giri, Puri, Vana, Aranya, Parvata and Sagara – all names traceable to Ashrama system in Hinduism
Hinduism
and Vedic literature.

Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
had a number of disciple scholars during his travels, including Padmapada (also called Sanandana, associated with the text Atma-bodha), Sureshvara, Tothaka, Citsukha, Prthividhara, Cidvilasayati, Bodhendra, Brahmendra, Sadananda and others, who authored their own literature on Shankara and Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta.

DEATH

Adi Sankara is believed to have died aged 32, at Kedarnath
Kedarnath
in the northern Indian state of Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand
, a Hindu
Hindu
pilgrimage site in the Himalayas. Some texts locate his death in alternate locations such as Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
(Tamil Nadu) and somewhere in the state of Kerala.

WORKS

For more details on this topic, see Adi Shankara bibliography .

Adi Shankara's works are the foundation of Advaita Vedanta
Advaita Vedanta
school of Hinduism, and his doctrine, states Sengaku Mayeda, "has been the source from which the main currents of modern Indian thought are derived". Over 300 texts are attributed to his name, including commentaries (Bhāṣya), original philosophical expositions (Prakaraṇa grantha) and poetry (Stotra). However most of these are not authentic works of Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
and are likely to be works of his admirers or scholars whose name was also Shankaracharya. Piantelli has published a complete list of works attributed to Adi Sankara, along with issues of authenticity for most.

AUTHENTIC WORKS

Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
is most known for his systematic reviews and commentaries (Bhasyas) on ancient Indian texts. Shankara's masterpiece of commentary is the Brahmasutrabhasya (literally, commentary on Brahma
Brahma
Sutra
Sutra
), a fundamental text of the Vedanta
Vedanta
school of Hinduism.

His commentaries on ten Mukhya (principal) Upanishads
Upanishads
are also considered authentic by scholars, and these are: Bhasya on the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
, the Chandogya Upanishad
Chandogya Upanishad
, the Aitareya Upanishad
Upanishad
, the Taittiriya Upanishad
Taittiriya Upanishad
, the Kena Upanishad
Kena Upanishad
, the Isha Upanishad
Upanishad
, the Katha Upanishad
Katha Upanishad
, the Mundaka Upanishad
Mundaka Upanishad
, the Prashna Upanishad
Upanishad
, and the Mandukya Upanishad
Mandukya Upanishad
. Of these, the commentary on Mandukya, is actually a commentary on Madukya-Karikas by Gaudapada
Gaudapada
.

Other authentic works of Shankara include commentaries on the Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
(part of his Prasthana Trayi Bhasya). His Vivarana (tertiary notes) on the commentary by Vedavyasa on Yogasutras as well as those on Apastamba Dharma-sũtras (Adhyatama-patala-bhasya) are accepted by scholars as authentic works of Adi Shankara. Among the Stotra (poetic works), the Daksinamurti Stotra, the Bhajagovinda Stotra, the Sivanandalahari, the Carpata-panjarika, the Visnu-satpadi, the Harimide, the Dasa-shloki, and the Krishna-staka are likely to be authentic.

Shankara also authored Upadesasahasri
Upadesasahasri
, his most important original philosophical work. Of other original Prakaranas (प्रकरण, monographs, treatise), seventy six works are attributed to Adi Shankara. Modern era Indian scholars such as Belvalkar as well as Upadhyaya accept five and thirty nine works respectively as authentic.

Shankara's stotras considered authentic include those dedicated to Krishna ( Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
) and one to Shiva
Shiva
( Shaivism
Shaivism
) – often considered two different sects within Hinduism. Scholars suggest that these stotra are not sectarian, but essentially Advaitic and reach for a unified universal view of Vedanta.

Adi Shankara's commentary on the Brahma Sutras
Brahma Sutras
is the oldest surviving. However, in that commentary, he mentions older commentaries like those of Dravida, Bhartrprapancha and others which are either lost or yet to be found.

WORKS OF DOUBTFUL AUTHENTICITY OR NOT AUTHENTIC

Commentaries on Nrisimha-Purvatatapaniya and Shveshvatara Upanishads are attributed to Adi Shankara, but their authenticity is highly doubtful. Similarly, commentaries on several early and later Upanishads
Upanishads
attributed to Shankara are rejected by scholars to be his works, and are likely works of later scholars; these include: Kaushitaki Upanishad, Maitri Upanishad, Kaivalya Upanishad, Paramahamsa Upanishad, Sakatayana Upanishad, Mandala Brahmana Upanishad, Maha Narayana Upanishad, Gopalatapaniya Upanishad. However, in Brahmasutra-Bhasya, Shankara cites some of these Upanishads
Upanishads
as he develops his arguments, but the historical notes left by his companions and disciples, along with major differences in style and the content of the commentaries on later Upanishad
Upanishad
have led scholars to conclude that the commentaries on later Upanishads
Upanishads
were not Shankara's work.

The authenticity of Shankara being the author of Vivekacūḍāmaṇi has been questioned, but scholars generally credit it to him.

Aparoksha Anubuti and Atmabodha are also attributed to Shankara, as his original philosophical treatises, but this is doubtful. Paul Hacker has also expressed some reservations that the compendium Sarva-darsana-siddhanta Sangraha was completely authored by Shankara, because of difference in style and thematic inconsistencies in parts. Similarly, Gayatri-bhasya is doubtful to be Shankara's work. Other commentaries that are highly unlikely to be Shankara's work include those on Uttaragita, Siva-gita, Brahma-gita, Lalita-shasranama, Suta-samhita and Sandhya-bhasya. The commentary on the Tantric work Lalita-trisati-bhasya attributed to Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
is also unauthentic.

Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
is also widely credited with commentaries on other scriptural works, such as the Vishnu sahasranāma and the Sānatsujātiya , but both these are considered apocryphal by scholars who have expressed doubts. Hastamalakiya-bhasya is also widely believed in India to be Shankara's work and it is included in Samata-edition of Shankara's works, but some scholars consider it to be the work of Shankara's student.

THEMES

Using ideas in ancient Indian texts, Shankara systematized the foundation for Advaita Vedanta
Advaita Vedanta
in 8th century CE, one of the six orthodox schools of Hinduism
Hinduism
founded many centuries earlier by Badarayana
Badarayana
. His thematic focus extended beyond metaphysics and soteriology , and he laid a strong emphasis on Pramanas
Pramanas
, that is epistemology or "means to gain knowledge, reasoning methods that empower one to gain reliable knowledge". Rambachan, for example, summarizes the widely held view on one aspect of Shankara's epistemology before critiquing it as follows,

According to these studies, Shankara only accorded a provisional validity to the knowledge gained by inquiry into the words of the Śruti
Śruti
(Vedas) and did not see the latter as the unique source (pramana) of Brahmajnana. The affirmations of the Śruti, it is argued, need to be verified and confirmed by the knowledge gained through direct experience (anubhava) and the authority of the Śruti, therefore, is only secondary. —  Anantanand Rambachan
Anantanand Rambachan

Sengaku Mayeda
Sengaku Mayeda
concurs, adding Shankara maintained the need for objectivity in the process of gaining knowledge (vastutantra), and considered subjective opinions (purushatantra) and injunctions in Śruti
Śruti
(codanatantra) as secondary. Mayeda cites Shankara's explicit statements emphasizing epistemology (pramana-janya) in section 1.18.133 of Upadesasahasri
Upadesasahasri
and section 1.1.4 of Brahmasutra-bhasya. According to Michael Comans, Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
considered perception and inference as primary most reliable epistemic means, and where these means to knowledge help one gain "what is beneficial and to avoid what is harmful", there is no need for or wisdom in referring to the scriptures. In certain matters related to metaphysics and ethics, says Shankara, the testimony and wisdom in scriptures such as the Vedas
Vedas
and the Upanishads
Upanishads
become important.

Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
cautioned against cherrypicking a phrase or verse out of context from Vedic literature, and remarks in the opening chapter of his Brahmasutra-Bhasya that the Anvaya (theme or purport) of any treatise can only be correctly understood if one attends to the Samanvayat Tatparya Linga, that is six characteristics of the text under consideration: (1) the common in Upakrama (introductory statement) and Upasamhara (conclusions); (2) Abhyasa (message repeated); (3) Apurvata (unique proposition or novelty); (4) Phala (fruit or result derived); (5) Arthavada (explained meaning, praised point) and (6) Yukti (verifiable reasoning). While this methodology has roots in the theoretical works of Nyaya
Nyaya
school of Hinduism, Shankara consolidated and applied it with his unique exegetical method called Anvaya-Vyatireka, which states that for proper understanding one must "accept only meanings that are compatible with all characteristics" and "exclude meanings that are incompatible with any".

Hacker and Phillips note that this insight into rules of reasoning and hierarchical emphasis on epistemic steps is "doubtlessly the suggestion" of Shankara in Brahma-sutra, an insight that flowers in the works of his companion and disciple Padmapada. Merrell-Wolff states that Shankara accepts Vedas
Vedas
and Upanishads
Upanishads
as a source of knowledge as he develops his philosophical theses, yet he never rests his case on the ancient texts, rather proves each thesis, point by point using pramanas (epistemology), reason and experience.

Adi Shankara, in his text Upadesasahasri, discourages ritual worship such as oblations to Deva (God), because that assumes the Self within is different from the Brahman. The "doctrine of difference" is wrong, asserts Shankara, because, "he who knows the Brahman
Brahman
is one and he is another, does not know Brahman". However, Shankara also asserts that Self-knowledge is realized when one's mind is purified by an ethical life that observes Yamas
Yamas
such as Ahimsa (non-injury, non-violence to others in body, mind and thoughts) and Niyamas . Rituals and rites such as yajna (a fire ritual), asserts Shankara, can help draw and prepare the mind for the journey to Self-knowledge. He emphasizes the need for ethics such as Akrodha
Akrodha
and Yamas
Yamas
during Brahmacharya
Brahmacharya
, stating the lack of ethics as causes that prevent students from attaining knowledge.

Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
has been varyingly called as influenced by Shaivism
Shaivism
and Shaktism. However, his works and philosophy suggest greater overlap with Vaishnavism, influence of Yoga
Yoga
school of Hinduism, but most distinctly his Advaitin convictions with a monistic view of spirituality.

PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE

ATMA SHATKAM (THE SONG OF THE SELF) :

I am Consciousness, I am Bliss , I am Shiva, I am Shiva.

Without hate, without infatuation, without craving, without greed; Neither arrogance, nor conceit, never jealous I am; Neither dharma, nor artha, neither kama, nor moksha am I; I am Consciousness, I am Bliss, I am Shiva, I am Shiva.

Without sins, without merits, without elation, without sorrow; Neither mantra, nor rituals, neither pilgrimage, nor Vedas; Neither the experiencer, nor experienced, nor the experience am I, I am Consciousness, I am Bliss, I am Shiva, I am Shiva.

Without fear, without death, without discrimination, without caste; Neither father, nor mother, never born I am; Neither kith, nor kin, neither teacher, nor student am I; I am Consciousness, I am Bliss, I am Shiva, I am Shiva.

Without form, without figure, without resemblance am I; Vitality of all senses, in everything I am; Neither attached, nor released am I; I am Consciousness, I am Bliss, I am Shiva, I am Shiva. —Adi Shankara, Nirvana
Nirvana
Shatakam, Hymns 3–6

KNOWLEDGE OF BRAHMAN

Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
systematised the works of preceding philosophers. His system marks a turn from realism to idealism. His Advaita ("non-dualism") interpretation of the sruti postulates the identity of the Self (Atman ) and the Whole ( Brahman
Brahman
). According to Adi Shankara, the one unchanging entity (Brahman) alone is real, while changing entities do not have absolute existence. The key source texts for this interpretation, as for all schools of Vedānta, are the Prasthanatrayi
Prasthanatrayi
–the canonical texts consisting of the Upanishads
Upanishads
, the Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
and the Brahma Sutras
Brahma Sutras
.

PRACTICE

Advaita Vedanta
Advaita Vedanta
is based on śāstra ("scriptures"), yukti ("reason") and anubhava ("experiential knowledge"), and aided by karmas ("spiritual practices"). Starting from childhood, when learning has to start, the philosophy has to be a way of life. Shankara's primary objective was to understand and explain how moksha is achievable in this life, what it is means to be liberated, free and a Jivanmukta . His philosophical thesis was that jivanmukti is self-realization, the awareness of Oneness of Self and the Universal Spirit
Spirit
called Brahman.

Shankara considered the purity and steadiness of mind achieved in Yoga
Yoga
as an aid to gaining moksha knowledge, but such yogic state of mind cannot in itself give rise to such knowledge. To Shankara, that knowledge of Brahman
Brahman
springs only from inquiry into the teachings of the Upanishads. The method of yoga, encouraged in Shankara's teachings notes Michael Comans, includes withdrawal of mind from sense objects as in Patanjali's system, but it is not complete thought suppression, instead it is a "meditative exercise of withdrawal from the particular and identification with the universal, leading to contemplation of oneself as the most universal, namely, Consciousness". Shankara rejected those yoga system variations that suggest complete thought suppression leads to liberation, as well the view that the Shrutis teach liberation as something apart from the knowledge of the oneness of the Self. Knowledge alone and insights relating to true nature of things, taught Shankara, is what liberates. He placed great emphasis on the study of the Upanisads, emphasizing them as necessary and sufficient means to gain Self-liberating knowledge. Sankara also emphasized the need for and the role of Guru (Acharya, teacher) for such knowledge.

SHANKARA\'S VEDANTA AND MAHAYANA BUDDHISM

Shankara's Vedanta
Vedanta
shows similarities with Mahayana Buddhism; opponents have even accused Shankara of being a "crypto-Buddhist," a qualification which is rejected by the Advaita Vedanta
Advaita Vedanta
tradition, given the differences between these two schools. According to Shankara, a major difference between Advaita
Advaita
and Mahayana Buddhism
Buddhism
are their views on Atman and Brahman. According to both Loy and Jayatilleke, more differences can be discerned.

DIFFERENCES

Atman

According to Shankara, Hinduism
Hinduism
believes in the existence of Atman, while Buddhism
Buddhism
denies this. Shankara citing Katha Upanishad
Katha Upanishad
, asserted that the Hindu
Hindu
Upanishad
Upanishad
starts with stating its objective as

... this is the investigation whether after the death of man the soul exists; some assert the soul exists; the soul does not exist, assert others." At the end, states Shankara, the same Upanishad
Upanishad
concludes with the words, "it exists."

Buddhists and Lokāyatas , wrote Shankara, assert that soul does not exist.

There are also differences in the understanding of what "liberation" means. Nirvana
Nirvana
, a term more often used in Buddhism, is the liberating realization and acceptance that there is no Self (anatman ). Moksha
Moksha
, a term more common in Hinduism, is liberating realization and acceptance of Self and Universal Soul, the consciousness of one's Oneness with all existence and understanding the whole universe as the Self.

Logic Versus Revelation

Stcherbatsky in 1927 criticized Shankara for demanding the use of logic from Madhyamika
Madhyamika
Buddhists, while himself resorting to revelation as a source of knowledge. Sircar in 1933 offered a different perspective and stated, "Sankara recognizes the value of the law of contrariety and self-alienation from the standpoint of idealistic logic; and it has consequently been possible for him to integrate appearance with reality."

Recent scholarship states that Shankara's arguments on revelation are about apta vacana (Sanskrit: आप्तवचन, sayings of the wise, relying on word, testimony of past or present reliable experts). It is part of his and Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta's epistemological foundation. Advaita Vedanta
Advaita Vedanta
school considers such testimony epistemically valid asserting that a human being needs to know numerous facts, and with the limited time and energy available, he can learn only a fraction of those facts and truths directly. Shankara considered the teachings in the Vedas
Vedas
and Upanishads
Upanishads
as apta vacana and a valid source of knowledge. He suggests the importance of teacher-disciple relationship on combining logic and revelation to attain moksha in his text Upadeshasahasri . Rambachan and others state Shankara methodology did not rely exclusively on Vedic statements, but included a range of logical methods, reasoning methodology and pramanas .

SIMILARITIES

Despite Adi Shankara's criticism of certain schools of Mahayana Buddhism, Shankara's philosophy shows strong similarities with the Mahayana Buddhist philosophy
Buddhist philosophy
which he attacks. According to S.N. Dasgupta,

Shankara and his followers borrowed much of their dialectic form of criticism from the Buddhists. His Brahman
Brahman
was very much like the sunya of Nagarjuna
Nagarjuna
The debts of Shankara to the self-luminosity of the Vijnanavada Buddhism
Buddhism
can hardly be overestimated. There seems to be much truth in the accusations against Shankara by Vijnana Bhiksu and others that he was a hidden Buddhist himself. I am led to think that Shankara's philosophy is largely a compound of Vijnanavada and Sunyavada Buddhism
Buddhism
with the Upanisad notion of the permanence of self superadded.

According to Mudgal, Shankara's Advaita
Advaita
and the Buddhist Madhyamaka view of ultimate reality is compatible because they are both transcendental, indescribable, non-dual and only arrived at through a via negativa (neti neti ). Mudgal concludes therefore that

... the difference between Sunyavada (Mahayana) philosophy of Buddhism
Buddhism
and Advaita
Advaita
philosophy of Hinduism
Hinduism
may be a matter of emphasis, not of kind.

HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL IMPACT

See also: History of Hinduism
Hinduism
Adi Sankara Keerthi Sthampa Mandapam, Kalady, Kerala
Kerala

HISTORICAL CONTEXT

Further information: History of India
History of India
and History of Hinduism
Hinduism

Shankara lived in the time of the so-called "Late classical Hinduism", which lasted from 650 till 1100 CE. This era was one of political instability that followed Gupta dynasty
Gupta dynasty
and King Harsha of the 7th century CE. It was a time of social and cultural change as the ideas of Buddhism, Jainism
Jainism
and various traditions within Hinduism were competing for members. Buddhism
Buddhism
in particular had emerged as a powerful influence in India's spiritual traditions in the first 700 years of the 1st millennium CE. Shankara, and his contemporaries, made a significant contribution in understanding Buddhism
Buddhism
and the ancient Vedic traditions, then transforming the extant ideas, particularly reforming the Vedanta
Vedanta
tradition of Hinduism, making it India's most important tradition for more than a thousand years.

INFLUENCE ON HINDUISM

Shankara has an unparallelled status in the tradition of Advaita Vedanta
Vedanta
. He travelled all over India to help restore the study of the Vedas. His teachings and tradition form the basis of Smartism
Smartism
and have influenced Sant Mat lineages.

He introduced the Pañcāyatana form of worship , the simultaneous worship of five deities – Ganesha, Surya, Vishnu, Shiva
Shiva
and Devi. Shankara explained that all deities were but different forms of the one Brahman
Brahman
, the invisible Supreme Being.

Benedict Ashley credits Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
for unifying two seemingly disparate philosophical doctrines in Hinduism, namely Atman and Brahman
Brahman
. Isaeva states Shankara's influence included reforming Hinduism, founding monasteries, edifying disciples, disputing opponents and engaging in philosophic activity that, in the eyes of Indian tradition, help revive "the orthodox idea of the unity of all beings" and Vedanta
Vedanta
thought.

Prior to Shankara, views similar to his already existed, but did not occupy a dominant position within the Vedanta. Nakamura states that the early Vedanta
Vedanta
scholars were from the upper classes of society, well-educated in traditional culture. They formed a social elite, "sharply distinguished from the general practitioners and theologians of Hinduism." Their teachings were "transmitted among a small number of selected intellectuals". Works of the early Vedanta
Vedanta
schools do not contain references to Vishnu or Shiva. It was only after Shankara that "the theologians of the various sects of Hinduism
Hinduism
utilized Vedanta
Vedanta
philosophy to a greater or lesser degree to form the basis of their doctrines," while the Nath
Nath
-tradition established by him, led "its theoretical influence upon the whole of Indian society became final and definitive."

CRITICAL ASSESSMENT

Some scholars doubt Shankara's early influence in India. The Buddhist scholar Richard E. King states,

Although it is common to find Western scholars and Hindus arguing that Sankaracarya was the most influential and important figure in the history of Hindu
Hindu
intellectual thought, this does not seem to be justified by the historical evidence.

According to King and Roodurmun, until the 10th century Shankara was overshadowed by his older contemporary Mandana-Misra , the latter considered to be the major representative of Advaita. Other scholars state that the historical records for this period are unclear, and little reliable information is known about the various contemporaries and disciples of Shankara. For example, Advaita
Advaita
tradition holds that Mandana-Misra is the same person as Suresvara, a name he adopted after he became a disciple of Shankara after a public debate which Shankara won.

Some scholars state that Maṇḍana-Miśra and Sureśvara must have been two different scholars, because their scholarship is quite different. Other scholars, on the other hand, state that Mandana-Miśra and Shankara do share views, because both emphasize that Brahman-Atman can not be directly perceived, rather it is discovered and defined through elimination of division (duality) of any kind. The Self-realization (Soul-knowledge), suggest both Mandana Misra and Shankara, can be described cataphatically (positive liberation, freedom through knowledge, jivanmukti moksha) as well as apophatically (removal of ignorance, negation of duality, negation of division between people or souls or spirit-matter). While both share core premises, states Isaeva, they differ in several ways, with Mandana Misra holding Vedic knowledge as an absolute and end in itself, while Shankara holds Vedic knowledge and all religious rites as subsidiary and means to the human longing for "liberation, freedom and moksha".

Several scholars suggest that the historical fame and cultural influence of Shankara grew centuries later, particularly during the era of Muslim invasions and consequent devastation of India. Many of Shankara's biographies were created and published in and after 14th century, such as the widely cited Vidyaranya's Śankara-vijaya. Vidyaranya , also known as Madhava, who was the 12th Jagadguru
Jagadguru
of the Śringeri Śarada Pītham from 1380 to 1386, inspired the re-creation of the Hindu
Hindu
Vijayanagara Empire
Vijayanagara Empire
of South India in response to the devastation caused by the Islamic Delhi Sultanate
Delhi Sultanate
. He and his brothers, suggest Paul Hacker and other scholars, wrote about Śankara as well as extensive Advaitic commentaries on Vedas
Vedas
and Dharma. Vidyaranya was a minister in Vijayanagara Empire
Vijayanagara Empire
and enjoyed royal support, and his sponsorship and methodical efforts helped establish Shankara as a rallying symbol of values, and helped spread historical and cultural influence of Shankara's Vedanta
Vedanta
philosophies. Vidyaranya also helped establish monasteries (mathas) to expand the cultural influence of Shankara. It may be these circumstances, suggest scholars, that grew and credited Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
for various Hindu
Hindu
festive traditions such as the Kumbh Mela
Kumbh Mela
– one of the world's largest periodic religious pilgrimages.

MATHAS

See also: Dashanami Sampradaya
Dashanami Sampradaya
(Vidyashankara temple) at Sringeri Sharada Peetham
Sringeri Sharada Peetham
, Shringeri
Shringeri

Shankara is regarded as the founder of the Daśanāmi Sampradāya of Hindu
Hindu
monasticism and Ṣaṇmata of Smarta tradition . He unified the theistic sects into a common framework of Shanmata system. Advaita Vedanta
Vedanta
is, at least in the west, primarily known as a philosophical system. But it is also a tradition of renunciation . Philosophy and renunciation are closely related:

Most of the notable authors in the advaita tradition were members of the sannyasa tradition, and both sides of the tradition share the same values, attitudes and metaphysics.

Shankara, himself considered to be an incarnation of Shiva
Shiva
, established the Dashanami Sampradaya, organizing a section of the Ekadandi monks under an umbrella grouping of ten names. Several other Hindu
Hindu
monastic and Ekadandi traditions remained outside the organisation of the Dasanāmis.

Adi Sankara organised the Hindu
Hindu
monks of these ten sects or names under four Maṭhas (Sanskrit: मठ) (monasteries), with the headquarters at Dvārakā
Dvārakā
in the West, Jagannatha Puri
Jagannatha Puri
in the East, Sringeri
Sringeri
in the South and Badrikashrama in the North. Each math was headed by one of his four main disciples, who each continues the Vedanta
Vedanta
Sampradaya.

Yet, according to Pandey, these Mathas were not established by Shankara himself, but were originally ashrams established by Vibhāņdaka and his son Ŗșyaśŗnga . Shankara inherited the ashrams at Dvārakā
Dvārakā
and Sringeri, and shifted the ashram at Śŗngaverapura to Badarikāśrama, and the ashram at Angadeśa to Jagannātha Purī.

Monks of these ten orders differ in part in their beliefs and practices, and a section of them is not considered to be restricted to specific changes made by Shankara. While the dasanāmis associated with the Sankara maths follow the procedures enumerated by Adi Śankara, some of these orders remained partly or fully independent in their belief and practices; and outside the official control of the Sankara maths.

The advaita sampradaya is not a Saiva
Saiva
sect, despite the historical links with Shaivism:

Advaitins are non-sectarian, and they advocate worship of Siva and Visnu equally with that of the other deities of Hinduism, like Sakti, Ganapati and others.

Nevertheless, contemporary Sankaracaryas have more influence among Saiva
Saiva
communities than among Vaisnava communities. The greatest influence of the gurus of the advaita tradition has been among followers of the Smartha Tradition , who integrate the domestic Vedic ritual with devotional aspects of Hinduism.

According to Nakamura, these mathas contributed to the influence of Shankara, which was "due to institutional factors". The mathas which he built exist until today, and preserve the teachings and influence of Shankara, "while the writings of other scholars before him came to be forgotten with the passage of time".

The table below gives an overview of the four Amnaya Mathas founded by Adi Shankara, and their details.

Shishya (lineage) DIRECTION MAṭHA MAHāVāKYA VEDA SAMPRADAYA

Padmapāda
Padmapāda
EAST Govardhana Pīṭhaṃ Prajñānam brahma (Consciousness is Brahman) Rig Veda
Veda
Bhogavala

Sureśvara SOUTH Sringeri
Sringeri
Śārada Pīṭhaṃ Aham brahmāsmi (I am Brahman) Yajur Veda
Veda
Bhūrivala

Hastāmalakācārya WEST Dvāraka Pīṭhaṃ Tattvamasi (That thou art) Sama Veda
Veda
Kitavala

Toṭakācārya NORTH Jyotirmaṭha Pīṭhaṃ Ayamātmā brahma (This Atman is Brahman) Atharva Veda
Veda
Nandavala

According to the tradition in Kerala, after Sankara's samadhi at Vadakkunnathan Temple, his disciples founded four mathas in Thrissur city, namely Edayil Madhom , Naduvil Madhom , Thekke Madhom and Vadakke Madhom .

SMARTA TRADITION

Main article: Smarta Tradition

Traditionally, Shankara is regarded as the greatest teacher and reformer of the Smarta.

According to Alf Hiltebeitel , Shankara established the nondualist interpretation of the Upanishads
Upanishads
as the touchstone of a revived smarta tradition:

Practically, Shankara fostered a rapprochement between Advaita
Advaita
and smarta orthodoxy, which by his time had not only continued to defend the varnasramadharma theory as defining the path of karman, but had developed the practice of pancayatanapuja ("five-shrine worship") as a solution to varied and conflicting devotional practices. Thus one could worship any one of five deities (Vishnu, Siva, Durga, Surya, Ganesa) as one's istadevata ("deity of choice").

FILM

* In 1977 Jagadguru
Jagadguru
Aadisankaran , a Malayalam film directed by P. Bhaskaran was released in which Murali Mohan plays the role of Adult Aadi Sankaran and Master Raghu plays childhood. * In 1983 a film directed by G. V. Iyer named Adi Shankaracharya was premiered, the first film ever made entirely in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
language in which all of Adi Shankaracharya's works were compiled. The movie received the Indian National Film Awards for Best Film , Best Screenplay , Best Cinematography and Best Audiography . * In 2013, a film Sri Jagadguru
Jagadguru
Aadi Sankara directed by J. K. Bharavi in Telugu Language was completed and released.

SEE ALSO

* Hinduism
Hinduism
portal * Indian religions portal * India portal

* Adi Shri Gauḍapādāchārya * Advaita
Advaita
* Brahman
Brahman
* Jnana Yoga
Yoga
* Upanishads
Upanishads
* Sannyasa
Sannyasa
* Shri Gaudapadacharya Mutt * Shri Govinda Bhagavatpadacharya * Vairagya * Vivekachudamani
Vivekachudamani
* Soundarya Lahari
Soundarya Lahari
* Shivananda Lahari
Shivananda Lahari
* Self-consciousness (Vedanta) * Sringeri Sharada Peetham
Sringeri Sharada Peetham
, Shringeri
Shringeri
(An Advaita
Advaita
monastery)

NOTES

* ^ Modern scholarship places Shankara in the earlier part of the 8th century CE (c. 700–750). Earlier generations of scholars proposed 788–820 CE. Other proposals are 686–718 CE, 44 BCE, or as early as 509–477 BCE. * ^ Swami Vivekananda
Swami Vivekananda
translates Shivoham, Shivoham as "I am he, I am he". * ^ Brahman
Brahman
is not to be confused with the personalised godhead Brahma
Brahma
. * ^ Shankara (?): "(...) Lokayatikas and Bauddhas who assert that the soul does not exist. There are four sects among the followers of Buddha: 1. Madhyamicas who maintain all is void; 2. Yogacharas, who assert except sensation and intelligence all else is void; 3. Sautranticas, who affirm actual existence of external objects no less than of internal sensations; 4. Vaibhashikas, who agree with later (Sautranticas) except that they contend for immediate apprehension of exterior objects through images or forms represented to the intellect." * ^ Shcherbatsky: "Shankara accuses them of disregarding all logic and refuses to enter in a controversy with them. The position of Shankara is interesting because, at heart, he is in full agreement with the Madhyamikas, at least in the main lines, since both maintain the reality of the One-without-a-second, and the mirage of the manifold. But Shankara, as an ardent hater of Budhism, could never confess that. He therefore treats the Madhyamika
Madhyamika
with great contempt on the charge that the Madhyamika
Madhyamika
denies the possibility of cognizing the Absolute by logical methods (pramana). Vachaspati Mishra
Vachaspati Mishra
in the Bhamati
Bhamati
rightly interprets this point as referring to the opinion of the Madhyamikas that logic is incapable to solve the question about what existence or non-existence really are. This opinion Shankara himself, as is well known, shares. He does not accept the authority of logic as a means of cognizing the Absolute, but he deems it a privilege of the Vedantin to fare without logic, since he has Revelation to fall back upon. From all his opponents, he requires strict logical methods."

REFERENCES

* ^ A B C Sharma 1962 , p. vi. * ^ Sengaku Mayeda, Shankara, Encyclopedia Britannica * ^ A B C D Comans 2000 , p. 163. * ^ A B C D E Y. Keshava Menon, The Mind of Adi Shankaracharya 1976 pp 108 * ^ A B "(53) Chronological chart of the history of Bharatvarsh since its origination". Encyclopedia of Authentic Hinduism. This site claims to integrate characters from the epics into a continuous chronology. They present the list of Dwarka and Kanchi Acharyas, along with their putative dates. * ^ Johannes de Kruijf and Ajaya Sahoo (2014), Indian Transnationalism Online: New Perspectives on Diaspora, ISBN 978-1-4724-1913-2 , page 105, QUOTE: "IN OTHER WORDS, ACCORDING TO ADI SHANKARA\'S ARGUMENT, THE PHILOSOPHY OF ADVAITA VEDANTA STOOD OVER AND ABOVE ALL OTHER FORMS OF HINDUISM AND ENCAPSULATED THEM. THIS THEN UNITED HINDUISM; (...) ANOTHER OF ADI SHANKARA\'S IMPORTANT UNDERTAKINGS WHICH CONTRIBUTED TO THE UNIFICATION OF HINDUISM WAS HIS FOUNDING OF A NUMBER OF MONASTIC CENTERS."

* ^ Shankara, Student's Encyclopedia Britannia - India (2000), Volume 4, Encyclopaedia Britannica (UK) Publishing, ISBN 978-0-85229-760-5 , page 379, QUOTE: "SHANKARACHARYA, PHILOSOPHER AND THEOLOGIAN, MOST RENOWNED EXPONENT OF THE ADVAITA VEDANTA SCHOOL OF PHILOSOPHY, FROM WHOSE DOCTRINES THE MAIN CURRENTS OF MODERN INDIAN THOUGHT ARE DERIVED."; David Crystal (2004), The Penguin Encyclopedia, Penguin Books, page 1353, QUOTE: " IS THE MOST FAMOUS EXPONENT OF ADVAITA VEDANTA SCHOOL OF HINDU PHILOSOPHY AND THE SOURCE OF THE MAIN CURRENTS OF MODERN HINDU THOUGHT." * ^ Christophe Jaffrelot (1998), The Hindu Nationalist Movement in India, Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0-231-10335-0 , page 2, QUOTE: "THE MAIN CURRENT OF HINDUISM - IF NOT THE ONLY ONE - WHICH BECAME FORMALIZED IN A WAY THAT APPROXIMATES TO AN ECCLESIASTICAL STRUCTURE WAS THAT OF SHANKARA". * ^ Sri Adi Shankaracharya, Sringeri
Sringeri
Sharada Peetham, India * ^ "How Adi Shankaracharya united a fragmented land with philosophy, poetry and pilgrimage". * ^ Shyama Kumar Chattopadhyaya (2000) The Philosophy of Sankar\'s Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta, Sarup Steven Collins (1994), Religion
Religion
and Practical Reason (Editors: Frank Reynolds, David Tracy), State Univ of New York Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-2217-5 , page 64; Quote: "Central to Buddhist soteriology is the doctrine of not-self (Pali: anattā, Sanskrit: anātman, the opposed doctrine of ātman is central to Brahmanical thought). Put very briefly, this is the doctrine that human beings have no soul, no self, no unchanging essence."; Edward Roer (Translator), Shankara\'s Introduction, p. 2, at Google Books , pages 2–4 Katie Javanaud (2013), Is The Buddhist \'No-Self\' Doctrine Compatible With Pursuing Nirvana?, Philosophy Now; John C. Plott et al. (2000), Global History of Philosophy: The Axial Age, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0158-5 , page 63, Quote: "The Buddhist schools reject any Ātman concept. As we have already observed, this is the basic and ineradicable distinction between Hinduism
Hinduism
and Buddhism". * ^ The Seven Spiritual Laws Of Yoga, Deepak Chopra, John Wiley & Sons, 2006, ISBN 81-265-0696-2 , ISBN 978-81-265-0696-5 * ^ A B C D E F G H Mayeda 2006 , pp. 3–5. * ^ A B C D E F Isaeva 1993 , pp. 69–82. * ^ Vidyasankar, S. "The Sankaravijaya literature". Retrieved 2006-08-23. * ^ Tapasyananda, Swami (2002). Sankara-Dig-Vijaya. viii. * ^ A B Pande 2011 , p. 35. * ^ The hagiographies of Shankara mirror the pattern of synthesizing facts, fiction and legends as with other ancient and medieval era Indian scholars. Some biographic poems depict Shankara as a reincarnation of deity Shiva
Shiva
, much like other Indian scholars are revered as reincarnation of other deities; for example, Mandana-misra is depicted as an embodiment of deity Brahma
Brahma
, Citsukha of deity Varuna
Varuna
, Anandagiri of Agni
Agni
, among others. See Isaeva (1993 , pp. 69–72). * ^ A B Isaeva 1993 , pp. 83–87. * ^ A B K. A. Nilakantha Sastry, A History of South India, 4th ed., Oxford University Press, Madras, 1976. * ^ http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/government-wrong-on-adi-shankaras-birth-year-kanchi-seer/article7908827.ece * ^ http://bharatbhumika.blogspot.com/2014/08/puranic-chronology-of-india.html * ^ The dating of 788–820 is accepted in Keay, p. 194. * ^ Madhava-Vidyaranya. Sankara Digvijaya - The traditional life of Sri Sankaracharya, Sri Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
Math. ISBN 81-7823-342-8 . Source: (accessed: Wed Sep 14, 2016), p.20 * ^ Tapasyananda, Swami (2002). Shankara-Dig-Vijaya. pp. xv–xxiv.

* ^ Adi Shankara, Encyclopedia Britannica (2015) * ^ N. V. Isaeva (1993). Shankara and Indian Philosophy. State University of New York Press. pp. 84–87 with footnotes. ISBN 978-0-7914-1281-7 . * ^ Students\' Britannica India. Popular Prakashan. 2000. pp. 379–. ISBN 978-0-85229-760-5 . * ^ Narasingha Prosad Sil (1997). Swami Vivekananda: A Reassessment. Susquehanna University Press. p. 192. ISBN 978-0-945636-97-7 . * ^ this may be the present day Kalady
Kalady
in central Kerala * ^ Pande 2011 , pp. 75–76. * ^ Y Keshava Menon 1976, The Mind of Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
pp 109 * ^ A B C Isaeva 1993 , pp. 74–75. * ^ A B C D E Pande 2011 , pp. 31–32, also 6–7, 67–68. * ^ Isaeva 1993 , pp. 76–77. * ^ A B C Pande 2011 , pp. 5–36. * ^ A B C Isaeva 1993 , pp. 82–91. * ^ Isaeva 1993 , pp. 71–82, 93–94. * ^ A B C D E Mayeda 2006 , pp. 6–7. * ^ Isaeva 1993 , pp. 2–3. * ^ A B C Paul Hacker, Philology and Confrontation: Paul Hacker on Traditional and Modern Vedanta
Vedanta
(Editor: Wilhelm Halbfass), State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-2582-4 , pages 30–31 * ^ W Halbfass (1983), Studies in Kumarila and Sankara, Studien zur Indologie und Iranistik, Monographic 9, Reinbeck * ^ M Piantelly, Sankara e la Renascita del Brahmanesimo, Indian Philosophical Quarterly, Vol. 4, No. 3 (Apr. 1977), pages 429–435 * ^ Kena Upanishad
Kena Upanishad
has two commentaries that are attributed to Shankara – Kenopnishad Vakyabhasya and Kenopnishad Padabhasya; scholars contest whether both are authentic, several suggesting that the Vakyabhasya is unlikely to be authentic; see Pande (2011 , pp. 107). * ^ A B C Isaeva 1993 , pp. 93–97. * ^ A B C D E F G H Pande 2011 , pp. 105–113. * ^ A B A Rambachan (1991), Accomplishing the Accomplished: Vedas as a Source of Valid Knowledge in Sankara, University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 978-0-8248-1358-1 , pages xii–xiii * ^ A B Wilhelm Halbfass (1990), Tradition and Reflection: Explorations in Indian Thought, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-0362-4 , pages 205–208 * ^ A B Pande 2011 , pp. 351–352. * ^ A B C D E John Koller (2007), in Chad Meister and Paul Copan (Editors): The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Religion, Routledge, ISBN 978-1-134-18001-1 , pages 98–106 * ^ Pande 2011 , pp. 113–115. * ^ Mishra, Godavarisha. "A Journey through Vedantic History - Advaita
Advaita
in the Pre-Sankara, Sankara and Post- Sankara Periods" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 June 2006. Retrieved 2006-07-24. * ^ Vidyasankar, S. "Sankaracarya". Archived from the original on 16 June 2006. Retrieved 2006-07-24. * ^ A B Paul Hacker, Sankaracarya and Sankarabhagavatpada: Preliminary Remarks Concerning the Authorship Problem', in Philology and Confrontation: Paul Hacker on Traditional and Modern Vedanta (Editor: Wilhelm Halbfass), State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-2582-4 , pp. 41–56 * ^ Adi Shankaracharya, Vivekacūḍāmaṇi S Madhavananda (Translator), Advaita
Advaita
Ashrama (1921)

* ^ John Grimes (2004), The Vivekacudamani of Sankaracarya Bhagavatpada: An Introduction and Translation, Ashgate, ISBN 978-0-7546-3395-2 , see Introduction; Klaus Klostermaier (1985), Mokṣa and Critical Theory, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 35, No. 1 (Jan., 1985), pp. 61–71; Dhiman, S. (2011), Self-Discovery and the Power of Self-Knowledge, Business Renaissance Quarterly, 6(4) * ^ Johannes Buitenen (1978). The Mahābhārata (vol. 3). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-84665-1

* ^ Note: some manuscripts list this verse as 2.18.133, while Mayeda lists it as 1.18.133, because of interchanged chapter numbering; see Upadesa Sahasri: A Thousand Teachings, S Jagadananda (Translator, 1949), ISBN 978-81-7120-059-7 , Verse 2.8.133, page 258; Karl H Potter (2014), The Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies, Volume 3, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0-691-61486-1 , page 249 * ^ Mayeda 2006 , pp. 46–47. * ^ Brahmasutra-bhasya 1.1.4, S Vireswarananda (Translator), page 35 * ^ Michael Comans 2000 , p. 168. * ^ Michael Comans 2000 , pp. 167-169. * ^ George Thibaut (Translator), Brahma
Brahma
Sutras: With Commentary of Shankara, Reprinted as ISBN 978-1-60506-634-9 , pages 31–33 verse 1.1.4 * ^ Mayeda 2006 , pp. 46–53. * ^ Mayeda & Tanizawa (1991), Studies on Indian Philosophy in Japan, 1963–1987, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 41, No. 4, pages 529–535 * ^ Michael Comans (1996), Śankara and the Prasankhyanavada, Journal of Indian Philosophy, Vol. 24, No. 1, pages 49–71 * ^ Stephen Phillips (2000) in Roy W. Perrett (Editor), Epistemology: Indian Philosophy, Volume 1, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-8153-3609-9 , pages 224–228 with notes 8, 13 and 63 * ^ Franklin Merrell-Wolff (1995), Transformations in Consciousness: The Metaphysics and Epistemology, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-2675-3 , pages 242–260 * ^ Will Durant (1976), Our Oriental Heritage: The Story of Civilization, Simon see Karl Potter (2008), Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies Vol. III, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0310-7 , page 16; For an example of Shankara's reasoning "why rites and ritual actions should be given up", see Karl Potter on page 220; Elsewhere, Shankara's Bhasya on various Upanishads
Upanishads
repeat "give up rituals and rites", see for example Shankara\'s Bhasya on Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
pages 348–350, 754–757 * ^ Sanskrit:Upadesha sahasri English Translation: S Jagadananda (Translator, 1949), Upadeshasahasri, Vedanta
Vedanta
Press, ISBN 978-81-7120-059-7 , page 16–17; OCLC
OCLC
218363449 * ^ Karl Potter (2008), Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies Vol. III, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0310-7 , pages 219–221 * ^ A B Mayeda 2006 , pp. 92–93. * ^ Karl Potter (2008), Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies Vol. III, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0310-7 , pages 218–219 * ^ Isaeva 1993 , pp. 3, 29–30. * ^ Swami Vivekananda
Swami Vivekananda
(2015). The Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda. Manonmani Publishers (Reprint). p. 1786.

* ^

* Original Sanskrit: NIRVANASHTAKAM Sringeri
Sringeri
Vidya Bharati Foundation (2012); * English Translation 1: K Parappaḷḷi and CNN Nair (2002), Saankarasaagaram, Bhartiya Vidya Bhavan, ISBN 978-81-7276-268-1 , pages 58–59; * English Translation 2: Igor Kononenko (2010), Teachers of Wisdom, ISBN 978-1-4349-9898-9 , page 148; * English Translation 3: Nirvana
Nirvana
Shatakam Isha Foundation (2011); Includes translation, transliteration and audio.

* ^ A B Nakamura 2004 , p. 680. * ^ Sharma 2000 , p. 64. * ^ Scheepers 2000 , p. 123. * ^ "Study the Vedas
Vedas
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Brahman
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Vedānta, Philosophy East & West. Vol. 43, Issue 1, pages 19–38 * ^ Isaeva 1993 , pp. 60, 145–154. * ^ A B David Loy (1982), Enlightenment in Buddhism
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Nirvana
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Moksha
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of Religions: An Evangelical Proposal, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-975182-2 , page 131 * ^ Sankara Charya, The Twelve Principal Upanishads, p. 49, at Google Books
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Vedanta, Penn State Press, ISBN 978-0-271-02832-3 , pages 70–71 * ^ Aptavacana Sanskrit-English Dictionary, Cologne University, Germany * ^ M. Hiriyanna (2000), The Essentials of Indian Philosophy, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-1330-4 , pages 42–44 * ^ Isaeva 1993 , pp. 219–223 with footnote 34. * ^ Isaeva 1993 , pp. 210–221. * ^ Anantanand Rambachan
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(1991), Accomplishing the Accomplished: The Vedas
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as a Source of Valid Knowledge in Sankara, University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 978-0-8248-1358-1 , Chapters 2–4 * ^ S.N. Dasgupta (1997). History of Indian Philosophy, Volume 1. p. 494. * ^ Mudgal, S.G. (1975), Advaita
Advaita
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Religion
(Editors: Chad Meister, Paul Copan), Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-78294-4 , pages 99–108 * ^ TMP Mahadevan (1968), Shankaracharya, National Book Trust, pages 283–285, OCLC
OCLC
254278306 * ^ Frank Whaling (1979), ŚAṄKARA AND BUDDHISM, Journal of Indian Philosophy, Vol. 7, No. 1, pages 1–42 * ^ Karl Potter (1998), Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies: Advaita
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Vedānta up to Śaṃkara and his pupils, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0310-7 , pages 1–21, 103–119 * ^ Per Durst-Andersen and Elsebeth F. Lange (2010), Mentality and Thought: North, South, East and West, CBS Press, ISBN 978-87-630-0231-8 , page 68 * ^ Ron Geaves (March 2002). "From Totapuri to Maharaji: Reflections on a Lineage (Parampara)". 27th Spalding Symposium on Indian Religions, Oxford. * ^ Klaus Klostermaier (2007), A Survey of Hinduism, Third Edition, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-7082-4 , page 40 * ^ Benedict Ashley, O.P. The Way toward Wisdom. p. 395. ISBN 0-268-02028-0 . OCLC
OCLC
609421317 . * ^ N. V. Isaeva (1992). Shankara and Indian Philosophy. State University of New York Press. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-7914-1281-7 . OCLC 24953669 . * ^ Nakamura 2004 , p. 690. * ^ A B C Nakamura 2004 , p. 693. * ^ Nakamura 2004 , p. 692. * ^ Nakamura 2004 , p. 691. * ^ Feuerstein 1978 . * ^ A B C D Paul Hacker, Philology and Confrontation: Paul Hacker on Traditional and Modern Vedanta
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Advaita
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SOURCES

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WEB-SOURCES

* ^ A B C D E F G H I Sankara Acarya Biography – Monastic Tradition Archived 8 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ "Adi Shankara\'s four Amnaya Peethams". Archived from the original on 26 June 2006. Retrieved 2006-08-20.

FURTHER READING

* Ingalls, Daniel H. H. (1954). "Śaṁkara\'s Arguments against the Buddhists". Philosophy East and West. Hawaii: University of Hawaii Press. 3 (4): 291–306. doi :10.2307/1397287 . JSTOR
JSTOR
1397287 . * Mishra, Parameshwar Nath
Nath
(2003), "Era of Adi Shankaracharya 507 B.C.-475 B.C.", Howrah Samskriti Rakshak Parishad, West Bengal. * Mishra, Parameshwar Nath, "Amit Kalrekha", 3 vols. (in Hindi), Howrah Samskriti Rakshak Parishad, West Bengal. * Succession of Shankaracharyas (a chronology) (from Gaudapada onwards) * Reigle, David (2001). "The Original Sankaracarya" (PDF). Fohat. 5 (3): 57–60, 70–71. * Frank Whaling (1979), ŚAṄKARA AND BUDDHISM, Journal of Indian Philosophy, Vol. 7, No. 1, pages 1–42 * "Sri Shankaracharya in Cambodia..?" by S. Srikanta Sastri
S. Srikanta Sastri

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