Concepts CLASSICAL ADVAITA VEDANTA
Tat Tvam Asi
* Three Bodies
* Cause and effect
* Sravana, manana, nididhyasana
* "Unfoldment of the middle"
Texts ADVAITA VEDANTA
* Attributed to Shankara
Advaita Bodha Deepika
Advaita Bodha Deepika
* Vedantasara of Sadananda
Shiva Sutras of Vasugupta
Shiva Sutras of Vasugupta
* Works by Vivekananda
Teachers CLASSICAL ADVAITA VEDANTA
* Adi Shankara
Sringeri Sharada Peetham
Sringeri Sharada Peetham
MODERN ADVAITA VEDANTA
* Swami Chinmayananda
* Swami Dayananda
H. W. L. Poonja
H. W. L. Poonja
* Andrew Cohen
* Robert Adams
* Sramanic movement
Monasteries and Orders CLASSICAL ADVAITA VEDANTA
Shri Gaudapadacharya Math
Shri Gaudapadacharya Math
Sringeri Sharada Peetham
Sringeri Sharada Peetham
* Govardhana Pīṭhaṃ
* Dvāraka Pīṭhaṃ
* Jyotirmaṭha Pīṭhaṃ
MODERN ADVAITA VEDANTA
Divine Life Society
Divine Life Society
Arsha Vidya Gurukulam
* Daniel H. H. Ingalls
Richard De Smet
Richard De Smet
Part of a series on
Achintya Bheda Abheda
Shaiva : Pratyabhijña
TEACHERS (Acharyas )
* Akṣapāda Gotama
* Adi Shankara
* Raghavendra Swami
ACHINTYA BHEDA ABHEDA
* Kamalakanta Bhattacharya
* Kanada ,
* Bhagavat Gita
* Agama (Hinduism)
SHASTRAS AND SUTRAS
* Other Indian philosophies
ADI SHANKARA (pronounced ) was an early 8th century Indian
philosopher and theologian who consolidated the doctrine of Advaita
Vedanta . He is credited with unifying and establishing the main
currents of thought in
His works in
Sanskrit discuss the unity of the ātman and Nirguna
Brahman "brahman without attributes". He wrote copious commentaries
on the Vedic canon (
Brahma Sutras ,
Principal Upanishads and Bhagavad
Gita ) in support of his thesis. His works elaborate on ideas found
in the Upanishads. Shankara's publications criticised the
Mīmāṃsā school of Hinduism. He also explained
the key difference between
Hinduism and Buddhism, stating that
Hinduism asserts "Atman (Soul, Self) exists", while
that there is "no Soul, no Self".
Shankara travelled across the
Indian subcontinent to propagate his
philosophy through discourses and debates with other thinkers. He
established the importance of monastic life as sanctioned in the
Brahma Sutra, in a time when the
established strict ritualism and ridiculed monasticism. He is reputed
to have founded four mathas ("monasteries"), which helped in the
historical development, revival and spread of
Advaita Vedanta of which
he is known as the greatest revivalist.
Adi Shankara is believed to
be the organiser of the Dashanami monastic order and unified the
Shanmata tradition of worship. He is also known as Adi Shankaracharya,
Shankara Bhagavatpada, sometimes spelled as Sankaracharya, (Ādi)
Śaṅkarācārya, Śaṅkara Bhagavatpāda and Śaṅkara
* 1 Biography
* 1.1 Sources
* 1.2 Birth-dates
* 1.3 Life
* 1.4 Philosophical tour and disciples
* 1.5 Death
* 2 Works
* 2.1 Authentic works
* 2.2 Works of doubtful authenticity or not authentic
* 2.3 Themes
* 3 Philosophy and practice
* 3.1 Knowledge of
* 3.2 Practice
* 4 Shankara\'s
Vedanta and Mahayana
* 4.1 Differences
* 4.1.1 Atman
* 4.1.2 Logic versus revelation
* 4.2 Similarities
* 5 Historical and cultural impact
* 5.1 Historical context
* 5.2 Influence on
* 5.3 Critical assessment
* 5.4 Mathas
* 6 Film
* 7 See also
* 8 Notes
* 9 References
* 10 Sources
* 10.1 Published sources
* 10.2 Web-sources
* 11 Further reading
* 12 External links
There are at least fourteen different known biographies of Adi
Shankara's life. Many of these are called the Śankara Vijaya , while
some are called Guruvijaya, Sankarabhyudaya and Shankaracaryacarita.
Of these, the Brhat-Sankara-Vijaya by Citsukha is the oldest
hagiography but only available in excerpts, while Sankaradigvijaya by
Vidyaranya and Sankaravijaya by Anandagiri are the most cited. Other
significant biographies are the Mādhavīya Śaṅkara Vijayaṃ (of
Mādhava, c. 14th century), the Cidvilāsīya Śaṅkara Vijayaṃ (of
Cidvilāsa, c. between the 15th and 17th centuries), and the
Keraļīya Śaṅkara Vijayaṃ (of the
Kerala region, extant from c.
the 17th century). These, as well as other biographical works on
Shankara, were written many centuries to a thousand years after
Shankara's death, in
Sanskrit and non-
Sanskrit languages, and the
biographies are filled with legends and fiction, often mutually
Scholars note that one of the most cited Shankara hagiography by
Anandagiri includes stories and legends about historically different
people, but all bearing the same name of Sri Shankaracarya or also
referred to as Shankara but likely meaning more ancient scholars with
names such as Vidya-sankara, Sankara-misra and Sankara-nanda. Some
biographies are probably forgeries by those who sought to create a
historical basis for their rituals or theories.
Adi Shankara died in the thirty third year of his life, and reliable
information on his actual life is scanty.
The birthplace of
Adi Shankara at
Sringeri records state that Shankara was born in the 14th year of
the reign of "VikramAditya", but it is unclear as to which king this
name refers. Though some researchers identify the name with
Chandragupta II (4th century CE), modern scholarship accepts the
VikramAditya as being from the
Chalukya dynasty of Badami , most
Vikramaditya II (733–746 CE),
Several different dates have been proposed for Shankara:
BCE : This dating, is based on records of the heads of
the Shankara's cardinal institutions Maṭhas at
Dvaraka Pitha , the
Govardhana matha and Badri and the Kanchi Peetham . This conforms to
the chronology calculated based off the
BCE : the commentator Anandagiri believed he was born at
Chidambaram in 44
BCE and died in 12 BCE.
* 6th century CE: Telang placed him in this century. Sir R. G.
Bhandarkar believed he was born in 680 CE.
* 788–820 CE: This was proposed by early 20th scholars and was
customarily accepted by scholars such as
Max Müller , Macdonnel,
Pathok, Deussen and Radhakrishna, and others. The date 788–820 is
also among those considered acceptable by Swami
Tapasyananda , though
he raises a number of questions.
* sometime between 700-750 CE: late 20th-century scholarship has
questioned the 788-820 CE dates, placing Adi Shankara's life of 32
years in the first half of the 8th century.
* 805–897 CE: Venkiteswara not only places Shankara later than
most, but also had the opinion that it would not have been possible
for him to have achieved all the works apportioned to him, and has him
live ninety two years.
The popularly accepted dating places
Adi Shankara to be a scholar
from the first half of the 8th century CE.
Shankara was most likely born in the southern Indian state of Kerala
, according to the oldest biographies in a village named
sometimes spelled as Kalati or Karati, but some texts suggest the
birthplace to be
Chidambaram in Tamil Nadu. His father died while
Shankara was very young. Shankara's upanayanam , the initiation into
student-life, had to be delayed due to the death of his father, and
was then performed by his mother. Idol of
Adi Shankara at his
Samadhi Mandir, behind
Kedarnath Temple , in
Kedarnath , India
Adi Shankara at the
SAT Temple in Santa Cruz, California
Shankara's hagiography describe him as someone who was attracted to
the life of
Sannyasa (hermit) from early childhood. His mother
disapproved. A story, found in all hagiographies, describe Shankara at
age eight going to a river with his mother, Sivataraka, to bathe, and
where he is caught by a crocodile. Shankara called out to his mother
to give him permission to become a Sannyasin or else the crocodile
will kill him. The mother agrees, Shankara is freed and leaves his
home for education. He reaches a Saivite sanctuary along a river in a
north-central state of India, and becomes the disciple of a teacher
Govinda Bhagavatpada . The stories in various hagiographies
diverge in details about the first meeting between Shankara and his
Guru, where they met, as well as what happened later. Several texts
suggest Shankara schooling with Govindapada happened along the river
Omkareshwar , a few place it along river Ganges in Kashi
Varanasi ) as well as Badari (
Badrinath in the Himalayas).
The biographies vary in their description of where he went, who he
met and debated and many other details of his life. Most mention
Shankara studying the
Govindapada, and Shankara authoring several key works in his youth,
while he was studying with his teacher. It is with his teacher
Govinda, that Shankara studied Gaudapadiya Karika, as Govinda was
himself taught by Gaudapada. Most also mention a meeting with
scholars of the
Mimamsa school of
Hinduism namely Kumarila and
Prabhakara, as well as Mandana and various Buddhists, in Shastrarth
(an Indian tradition of public philosophical debates attended by large
number of people, sometimes with royalty). Thereafter, the
biographies about Shankara vary significantly. Different and widely
inconsistent accounts of his life include diverse journeys,
pilgrimages, public debates, installation of yantras and lingas, as
well as the founding of monastic centers in north, east, west and
PHILOSOPHICAL TOUR AND DISCIPLES
While the details and chronology vary, most biographies mention Adi
Shankara traveling widely within India, Gujarat to Bengal, and
participating in public philosophical debates with different orthodox
Hindu philosophy , as well as heterodox traditions such as
Buddhists, Jains, Arhatas, Saugatas, and
Carvakas . During his tours,
he is credited with starting several
Matha (monasteries), however this
is uncertain. Ten monastic orders in different parts of India are
generally attributed to Shankara's travel-inspired Sannyasin schools,
Advaita notions, of which four have continued in his
tradition: Bharati (Sringeri), Sarasvati (Kanchi), Tirtha and Asramin
(Dvaraka). Other monasteries that record Shankara's visit include
Giri, Puri, Vana, Aranya, Parvata and Sagara – all names traceable
to Ashrama system in
Hinduism and Vedic literature.
Adi Shankara had a number of disciple scholars during his travels,
including Padmapada (also called Sanandana, associated with the text
Atma-bodha), Sureshvara, Tothaka, Citsukha, Prthividhara,
Cidvilasayati, Bodhendra, Brahmendra, Sadananda and others, who
authored their own literature on Shankara and
Adi Sankara is believed to have died aged 32, at
Kedarnath in the
northern Indian state of
Uttarakhand , a
Hindu pilgrimage site in the
Himalayas. Some texts locate his death in alternate locations such
Kanchipuram (Tamil Nadu) and somewhere in the state of Kerala.
For more details on this topic, see
Adi Shankara bibliography .
Adi Shankara's works are the foundation of
Advaita Vedanta school of
Hinduism, and his doctrine, states Sengaku Mayeda, "has been the
source from which the main currents of modern Indian thought are
derived". Over 300 texts are attributed to his name, including
commentaries (Bhāṣya), original philosophical expositions
(Prakaraṇa grantha) and poetry (Stotra). However most of these are
not authentic works of
Adi Shankara and are likely to be works of his
admirers or scholars whose name was also Shankaracharya. Piantelli
has published a complete list of works attributed to Adi Sankara,
along with issues of authenticity for most.
Adi Shankara is most known for his systematic reviews and
commentaries (Bhasyas) on ancient Indian texts. Shankara's masterpiece
of commentary is the Brahmasutrabhasya (literally, commentary on
Sutra ), a fundamental text of the
Vedanta school of Hinduism.
His commentaries on ten Mukhya (principal)
Upanishads are also
considered authentic by scholars, and these are: Bhasya on the
Brihadaranyaka Upanishad , the
Chandogya Upanishad , the Aitareya
Upanishad , the
Taittiriya Upanishad , the
Kena Upanishad , the Isha
Upanishad , the
Katha Upanishad , the
Mundaka Upanishad , the Prashna
Upanishad , and the
Mandukya Upanishad . Of these, the commentary on
Mandukya, is actually a commentary on Madukya-Karikas by
Other authentic works of Shankara include commentaries on the
Bhagavad Gita (part of his
Prasthana Trayi Bhasya). His Vivarana
(tertiary notes) on the commentary by Vedavyasa on Yogasutras as well
as those on Apastamba Dharma-sũtras (Adhyatama-patala-bhasya) are
accepted by scholars as authentic works of Adi Shankara. Among the
Stotra (poetic works), the Daksinamurti Stotra, the Bhajagovinda
Stotra, the Sivanandalahari, the Carpata-panjarika, the Visnu-satpadi,
the Harimide, the Dasa-shloki, and the Krishna-staka are likely to be
Shankara also authored
Upadesasahasri , his most important original
philosophical work. Of other original Prakaranas
(प्रकरण, monographs, treatise), seventy six works are
attributed to Adi Shankara. Modern era Indian scholars such as
Belvalkar as well as Upadhyaya accept five and thirty nine works
respectively as authentic.
Shankara's stotras considered authentic include those dedicated to
Vaishnavism ) and one to
Shaivism ) – often
considered two different sects within Hinduism. Scholars suggest that
these stotra are not sectarian, but essentially Advaitic and reach for
a unified universal view of Vedanta.
Adi Shankara's commentary on the
Brahma Sutras is the oldest
surviving. However, in that commentary, he mentions older commentaries
like those of Dravida, Bhartrprapancha and others which are either
lost or yet to be found.
WORKS OF DOUBTFUL AUTHENTICITY OR NOT AUTHENTIC
Commentaries on Nrisimha-Purvatatapaniya and Shveshvatara Upanishads
are attributed to Adi Shankara, but their authenticity is highly
doubtful. Similarly, commentaries on several early and later
Upanishads attributed to Shankara are rejected by scholars to be his
works, and are likely works of later scholars; these include:
Kaushitaki Upanishad, Maitri Upanishad, Kaivalya Upanishad,
Paramahamsa Upanishad, Sakatayana Upanishad, Mandala Brahmana
Upanishad, Maha Narayana Upanishad, Gopalatapaniya Upanishad. However,
in Brahmasutra-Bhasya, Shankara cites some of these
Upanishads as he
develops his arguments, but the historical notes left by his
companions and disciples, along with major differences in style and
the content of the commentaries on later
Upanishad have led scholars
to conclude that the commentaries on later
Upanishads were not
The authenticity of Shankara being the author of Vivekacūḍāmaṇi
has been questioned, but scholars generally credit it to him.
Aparoksha Anubuti and Atmabodha are also attributed to Shankara, as
his original philosophical treatises, but this is doubtful. Paul
Hacker has also expressed some reservations that the compendium
Sarva-darsana-siddhanta Sangraha was completely authored by Shankara,
because of difference in style and thematic inconsistencies in parts.
Similarly, Gayatri-bhasya is doubtful to be Shankara's work. Other
commentaries that are highly unlikely to be Shankara's work include
those on Uttaragita, Siva-gita, Brahma-gita, Lalita-shasranama,
Suta-samhita and Sandhya-bhasya. The commentary on the Tantric work
Lalita-trisati-bhasya attributed to
Adi Shankara is also unauthentic.
Adi Shankara is also widely credited with commentaries on other
scriptural works, such as the Vishnu sahasranāma and the
Sānatsujātiya , but both these are considered apocryphal by
scholars who have expressed doubts. Hastamalakiya-bhasya is also
widely believed in India to be Shankara's work and it is included in
Samata-edition of Shankara's works, but some scholars consider it to
be the work of Shankara's student.
Using ideas in ancient Indian texts, Shankara systematized the
Advaita Vedanta in 8th century CE, one of the six
orthodox schools of
Hinduism founded many centuries earlier by
Badarayana . His thematic focus extended beyond metaphysics and
soteriology , and he laid a strong emphasis on
Pramanas , that is
epistemology or "means to gain knowledge, reasoning methods that
empower one to gain reliable knowledge". Rambachan, for example,
summarizes the widely held view on one aspect of Shankara's
epistemology before critiquing it as follows,
According to these studies, Shankara only accorded a provisional
validity to the knowledge gained by inquiry into the words of the
Śruti (Vedas) and did not see the latter as the unique source
(pramana) of Brahmajnana. The affirmations of the Śruti, it is
argued, need to be verified and confirmed by the knowledge gained
through direct experience (anubhava) and the authority of the Śruti,
therefore, is only secondary. —
Sengaku Mayeda concurs, adding Shankara maintained the need for
objectivity in the process of gaining knowledge (vastutantra), and
considered subjective opinions (purushatantra) and injunctions in
Śruti (codanatantra) as secondary. Mayeda cites Shankara's explicit
statements emphasizing epistemology (pramana-janya) in section
Upadesasahasri and section 1.1.4 of Brahmasutra-bhasya.
According to Michael Comans,
Adi Shankara considered perception and
inference as primary most reliable epistemic means, and where these
means to knowledge help one gain "what is beneficial and to avoid what
is harmful", there is no need for or wisdom in referring to the
scriptures. In certain matters related to metaphysics and ethics,
says Shankara, the testimony and wisdom in scriptures such as the
Vedas and the
Upanishads become important.
Adi Shankara cautioned against cherrypicking a phrase or verse out of
context from Vedic literature, and remarks in the opening chapter of
his Brahmasutra-Bhasya that the Anvaya (theme or purport) of any
treatise can only be correctly understood if one attends to the
Samanvayat Tatparya Linga, that is six characteristics of the text
under consideration: (1) the common in Upakrama (introductory
statement) and Upasamhara (conclusions); (2) Abhyasa (message
repeated); (3) Apurvata (unique proposition or novelty); (4) Phala
(fruit or result derived); (5) Arthavada (explained meaning, praised
point) and (6) Yukti (verifiable reasoning). While this methodology
has roots in the theoretical works of
Nyaya school of Hinduism,
Shankara consolidated and applied it with his unique exegetical method
called Anvaya-Vyatireka, which states that for proper understanding
one must "accept only meanings that are compatible with all
characteristics" and "exclude meanings that are incompatible with
Hacker and Phillips note that this insight into rules of reasoning
and hierarchical emphasis on epistemic steps is "doubtlessly the
suggestion" of Shankara in Brahma-sutra, an insight that flowers in
the works of his companion and disciple Padmapada. Merrell-Wolff
states that Shankara accepts
Upanishads as a source of
knowledge as he develops his philosophical theses, yet he never rests
his case on the ancient texts, rather proves each thesis, point by
point using pramanas (epistemology), reason and experience.
Adi Shankara, in his text Upadesasahasri, discourages ritual worship
such as oblations to Deva (God), because that assumes the Self within
is different from the Brahman. The "doctrine of difference" is wrong,
asserts Shankara, because, "he who knows the
Brahman is one and he is
another, does not know Brahman". However, Shankara also asserts that
Self-knowledge is realized when one's mind is purified by an ethical
life that observes
Yamas such as Ahimsa (non-injury, non-violence to
others in body, mind and thoughts) and Niyamas . Rituals and rites
such as yajna (a fire ritual), asserts Shankara, can help draw and
prepare the mind for the journey to Self-knowledge. He emphasizes the
need for ethics such as
stating the lack of ethics as causes that prevent students from
Adi Shankara has been varyingly called as influenced by
Shaktism. However, his works and philosophy suggest greater overlap
with Vaishnavism, influence of
Yoga school of Hinduism, but most
distinctly his Advaitin convictions with a monistic view of
PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE
ATMA SHATKAM (THE SONG OF THE SELF) :
I am Consciousness, I am Bliss , I am Shiva, I am Shiva.
Without hate, without infatuation, without craving, without greed;
Neither arrogance, nor conceit, never jealous I am;
Neither dharma, nor artha, neither kama, nor moksha am I;
I am Consciousness, I am Bliss, I am Shiva, I am Shiva.
Without sins, without merits, without elation, without sorrow;
Neither mantra, nor rituals, neither pilgrimage, nor Vedas;
Neither the experiencer, nor experienced, nor the experience am I,
I am Consciousness, I am Bliss, I am Shiva, I am Shiva.
Without fear, without death, without discrimination, without caste;
Neither father, nor mother, never born I am;
Neither kith, nor kin, neither teacher, nor student am I;
I am Consciousness, I am Bliss, I am Shiva, I am Shiva.
Without form, without figure, without resemblance am I;
Vitality of all senses, in everything I am;
Neither attached, nor released am I;
I am Consciousness, I am Bliss, I am Shiva, I am Shiva. —Adi
Nirvana Shatakam, Hymns 3–6
KNOWLEDGE OF BRAHMAN
Adi Shankara systematised the works of preceding philosophers. His
system marks a turn from realism to idealism. His Advaita
("non-dualism") interpretation of the sruti postulates the identity of
the Self (Atman ) and the Whole (
Brahman ). According to Adi
Shankara, the one unchanging entity (Brahman) alone is real, while
changing entities do not have absolute existence. The key source texts
for this interpretation, as for all schools of Vedānta, are the
Prasthanatrayi –the canonical texts consisting of the
Bhagavad Gita and the
Brahma Sutras .
Advaita Vedanta is based on śāstra ("scriptures"), yukti ("reason")
and anubhava ("experiential knowledge"), and aided by karmas
("spiritual practices"). Starting from childhood, when learning has
to start, the philosophy has to be a way of life. Shankara's primary
objective was to understand and explain how moksha is achievable in
this life, what it is means to be liberated, free and a Jivanmukta .
His philosophical thesis was that jivanmukti is self-realization, the
awareness of Oneness of Self and the Universal
Spirit called Brahman.
Shankara considered the purity and steadiness of mind achieved in
Yoga as an aid to gaining moksha knowledge, but such yogic state of
mind cannot in itself give rise to such knowledge. To Shankara, that
Brahman springs only from inquiry into the teachings of
the Upanishads. The method of yoga, encouraged in Shankara's
teachings notes Michael Comans, includes withdrawal of mind from sense
objects as in Patanjali's system, but it is not complete thought
suppression, instead it is a "meditative exercise of withdrawal from
the particular and identification with the universal, leading to
contemplation of oneself as the most universal, namely,
Consciousness". Shankara rejected those yoga system variations that
suggest complete thought suppression leads to liberation, as well the
view that the Shrutis teach liberation as something apart from the
knowledge of the oneness of the Self. Knowledge alone and insights
relating to true nature of things, taught Shankara, is what liberates.
He placed great emphasis on the study of the Upanisads, emphasizing
them as necessary and sufficient means to gain Self-liberating
knowledge. Sankara also emphasized the need for and the role of Guru
(Acharya, teacher) for such knowledge.
SHANKARA\'S VEDANTA AND MAHAYANA BUDDHISM
Vedanta shows similarities with Mahayana Buddhism;
opponents have even accused Shankara of being a "crypto-Buddhist," a
qualification which is rejected by the
Advaita Vedanta tradition,
given the differences between these two schools. According to
Shankara, a major difference between
Advaita and Mahayana
their views on Atman and Brahman. According to both Loy and
Jayatilleke, more differences can be discerned.
According to Shankara,
Hinduism believes in the existence of Atman,
Buddhism denies this. Shankara citing
Katha Upanishad ,
asserted that the
Upanishad starts with stating its objective
... this is the investigation whether after the death of man the soul
exists; some assert the soul exists; the soul does not exist, assert
others." At the end, states Shankara, the same
with the words, "it exists."
Buddhists and Lokāyatas , wrote Shankara, assert that soul does not
There are also differences in the understanding of what "liberation"
Nirvana , a term more often used in Buddhism, is the liberating
realization and acceptance that there is no Self (anatman ).
a term more common in Hinduism, is liberating realization and
acceptance of Self and Universal Soul, the consciousness of one's
Oneness with all existence and understanding the whole universe as the
Logic Versus Revelation
Stcherbatsky in 1927 criticized Shankara for demanding the use of
Madhyamika Buddhists, while himself resorting to revelation
as a source of knowledge. Sircar in 1933 offered a different
perspective and stated, "Sankara recognizes the value of the law of
contrariety and self-alienation from the standpoint of idealistic
logic; and it has consequently been possible for him to integrate
appearance with reality."
Recent scholarship states that Shankara's arguments on revelation are
about apta vacana (Sanskrit: आप्तवचन, sayings of the
wise, relying on word, testimony of past or present reliable experts).
It is part of his and
Advaita Vedanta's epistemological foundation.
Advaita Vedanta school considers such testimony epistemically valid
asserting that a human being needs to know numerous facts, and with
the limited time and energy available, he can learn only a fraction of
those facts and truths directly. Shankara considered the teachings in
Upanishads as apta vacana and a valid source of
knowledge. He suggests the importance of teacher-disciple
relationship on combining logic and revelation to attain moksha in his
text Upadeshasahasri . Rambachan and others state Shankara
methodology did not rely exclusively on Vedic statements, but included
a range of logical methods, reasoning methodology and pramanas .
Despite Adi Shankara's criticism of certain schools of Mahayana
Buddhism, Shankara's philosophy shows strong similarities with the
Buddhist philosophy which he attacks. According to S.N.
Shankara and his followers borrowed much of their dialectic form of
criticism from the Buddhists. His
Brahman was very much like the sunya
Nagarjuna The debts of Shankara to the self-luminosity of the
Buddhism can hardly be overestimated. There seems to be
much truth in the accusations against Shankara by Vijnana Bhiksu and
others that he was a hidden Buddhist himself. I am led to think that
Shankara's philosophy is largely a compound of Vijnanavada and
Buddhism with the Upanisad notion of the permanence of self
According to Mudgal, Shankara's
Advaita and the Buddhist Madhyamaka
view of ultimate reality is compatible because they are both
transcendental, indescribable, non-dual and only arrived at through a
via negativa (neti neti ). Mudgal concludes therefore that
... the difference between Sunyavada (Mahayana) philosophy of
Advaita philosophy of
Hinduism may be a matter of
emphasis, not of kind.
HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL IMPACT
See also: History of
Hinduism Adi Sankara Keerthi Sthampa
History of India
History of India and History of
Shankara lived in the time of the so-called "Late classical
Hinduism", which lasted from 650 till 1100 CE. This era was one of
political instability that followed
Gupta dynasty and King Harsha of
the 7th century CE. It was a time of social and cultural change as
the ideas of Buddhism,
Jainism and various traditions within Hinduism
were competing for members.
Buddhism in particular had emerged as a
powerful influence in India's spiritual traditions in the first 700
years of the 1st millennium CE. Shankara, and his contemporaries,
made a significant contribution in understanding
Buddhism and the
ancient Vedic traditions, then transforming the extant ideas,
particularly reforming the
Vedanta tradition of Hinduism, making it
India's most important tradition for more than a thousand years.
INFLUENCE ON HINDUISM
Shankara has an unparallelled status in the tradition of Advaita
Vedanta . He travelled all over India to help restore the study of the
Vedas. His teachings and tradition form the basis of
Sant Mat lineages.
He introduced the Pañcāyatana form of worship , the simultaneous
worship of five deities – Ganesha, Surya, Vishnu,
Shiva and Devi.
Shankara explained that all deities were but different forms of the
Brahman , the invisible Supreme Being.
Benedict Ashley credits
Adi Shankara for unifying two seemingly
disparate philosophical doctrines in Hinduism, namely Atman and
Brahman . Isaeva states Shankara's influence included reforming
Hinduism, founding monasteries, edifying disciples, disputing
opponents and engaging in philosophic activity that, in the eyes of
Indian tradition, help revive "the orthodox idea of the unity of all
Prior to Shankara, views similar to his already existed, but did not
occupy a dominant position within the Vedanta. Nakamura states that
Vedanta scholars were from the upper classes of society,
well-educated in traditional culture. They formed a social elite,
"sharply distinguished from the general practitioners and theologians
of Hinduism." Their teachings were "transmitted among a small number
of selected intellectuals". Works of the early
Vedanta schools do not
contain references to Vishnu or Shiva. It was only after Shankara
that "the theologians of the various sects of
Vedanta philosophy to a greater or lesser degree to form the basis of
their doctrines," while the
Nath -tradition established by him, led
"its theoretical influence upon the whole of Indian society became
final and definitive."
Some scholars doubt Shankara's early influence in India. The
Richard E. King states,
Although it is common to find Western scholars and Hindus arguing
that Sankaracarya was the most influential and important figure in the
Hindu intellectual thought, this does not seem to be
justified by the historical evidence.
According to King and Roodurmun, until the 10th century Shankara was
overshadowed by his older contemporary Mandana-Misra , the latter
considered to be the major representative of Advaita. Other scholars
state that the historical records for this period are unclear, and
little reliable information is known about the various contemporaries
and disciples of Shankara. For example,
Advaita tradition holds that
Mandana-Misra is the same person as Suresvara, a name he adopted after
he became a disciple of Shankara after a public debate which Shankara
Some scholars state that Maṇḍana-Miśra and
Sureśvara must have
been two different scholars, because their scholarship is quite
different. Other scholars, on the other hand, state that
Mandana-Miśra and Shankara do share views, because both emphasize
that Brahman-Atman can not be directly perceived, rather it is
discovered and defined through elimination of division (duality) of
any kind. The Self-realization (Soul-knowledge), suggest both
Mandana Misra and Shankara, can be described cataphatically (positive
liberation, freedom through knowledge, jivanmukti moksha) as well as
apophatically (removal of ignorance, negation of duality, negation of
division between people or souls or spirit-matter). While both share
core premises, states Isaeva, they differ in several ways, with
Mandana Misra holding Vedic knowledge as an absolute and end in
itself, while Shankara holds Vedic knowledge and all religious rites
as subsidiary and means to the human longing for "liberation, freedom
Several scholars suggest that the historical fame and cultural
influence of Shankara grew centuries later, particularly during the
era of Muslim invasions and consequent devastation of India. Many of
Shankara's biographies were created and published in and after 14th
century, such as the widely cited Vidyaranya's Śankara-vijaya.
Vidyaranya , also known as Madhava, who was the 12th
Jagadguru of the
Śringeri Śarada Pītham from 1380 to 1386, inspired the re-creation
Vijayanagara Empire of South India in response to the
devastation caused by the Islamic
Delhi Sultanate . He and his
brothers, suggest Paul Hacker and other scholars, wrote about
Śankara as well as extensive Advaitic commentaries on
Vidyaranya was a minister in
Vijayanagara Empire and enjoyed
royal support, and his sponsorship and methodical efforts helped
establish Shankara as a rallying symbol of values, and helped spread
historical and cultural influence of Shankara's
Vidyaranya also helped establish monasteries (mathas) to expand the
cultural influence of Shankara. It may be these circumstances,
suggest scholars, that grew and credited
Adi Shankara for various
Hindu festive traditions such as the
Kumbh Mela – one of the world's
largest periodic religious pilgrimages.
Dashanami Sampradaya (Vidyashankara temple) at
Sringeri Sharada Peetham
Sringeri Sharada Peetham ,
Shankara is regarded as the founder of the Daśanāmi Sampradāya of
Hindu monasticism and Ṣaṇmata of Smarta tradition . He unified the
theistic sects into a common framework of
Shanmata system. Advaita
Vedanta is, at least in the west, primarily known as a philosophical
system. But it is also a tradition of renunciation . Philosophy and
renunciation are closely related:
Most of the notable authors in the advaita tradition were members of
the sannyasa tradition, and both sides of the tradition share the same
values, attitudes and metaphysics.
Shankara, himself considered to be an incarnation of
established the Dashanami Sampradaya, organizing a section of the
Ekadandi monks under an umbrella grouping of ten names. Several other
Hindu monastic and Ekadandi traditions remained outside the
organisation of the Dasanāmis.
Adi Sankara organised the
Hindu monks of these ten sects or names
under four Maṭhas (Sanskrit: मठ) (monasteries), with the
Dvārakā in the West,
Jagannatha Puri in the East,
Sringeri in the South and
Badrikashrama in the North. Each math was
headed by one of his four main disciples, who each continues the
Yet, according to Pandey, these Mathas were not established by
Shankara himself, but were originally ashrams established by
Vibhāņdaka and his son Ŗșyaśŗnga . Shankara inherited the
Dvārakā and Sringeri, and shifted the ashram at
Śŗngaverapura to Badarikāśrama, and the ashram at Angadeśa to
Monks of these ten orders differ in part in their beliefs and
practices, and a section of them is not considered to be restricted to
specific changes made by Shankara. While the dasanāmis associated
with the Sankara maths follow the procedures enumerated by Adi
Śankara, some of these orders remained partly or fully independent in
their belief and practices; and outside the official control of the
The advaita sampradaya is not a
Saiva sect, despite the historical
links with Shaivism:
Advaitins are non-sectarian, and they advocate worship of Siva and
Visnu equally with that of the other deities of Hinduism, like Sakti,
Ganapati and others.
Nevertheless, contemporary Sankaracaryas have more influence among
Saiva communities than among Vaisnava communities. The greatest
influence of the gurus of the advaita tradition has been among
followers of the
Smartha Tradition , who integrate the domestic Vedic
ritual with devotional aspects of Hinduism.
According to Nakamura, these mathas contributed to the influence of
Shankara, which was "due to institutional factors". The mathas which
he built exist until today, and preserve the teachings and influence
of Shankara, "while the writings of other scholars before him came to
be forgotten with the passage of time".
The table below gives an overview of the four Amnaya Mathas founded
by Adi Shankara, and their details.
Prajñānam brahma (Consciousness is Brahman)
Sringeri Śārada Pīṭhaṃ
Aham brahmāsmi (I am Brahman)
Tattvamasi (That thou art)
Ayamātmā brahma (This Atman is Brahman)
According to the tradition in Kerala, after Sankara's samadhi at
Vadakkunnathan Temple, his disciples founded four mathas in Thrissur
Edayil Madhom ,
Naduvil Madhom ,
Thekke Madhom and
Vadakke Madhom .
Traditionally, Shankara is regarded as the greatest teacher and
reformer of the Smarta.
Alf Hiltebeitel , Shankara established the nondualist
interpretation of the
Upanishads as the touchstone of a revived smarta
Practically, Shankara fostered a rapprochement between
smarta orthodoxy, which by his time had not only continued to defend
the varnasramadharma theory as defining the path of karman, but had
developed the practice of pancayatanapuja ("five-shrine worship") as a
solution to varied and conflicting devotional practices. Thus one
could worship any one of five deities (Vishnu, Siva, Durga, Surya,
Ganesa) as one's istadevata ("deity of choice").
* In 1977
Jagadguru Aadisankaran , a Malayalam film directed by P.
Bhaskaran was released in which Murali Mohan plays the role of Adult
Aadi Sankaran and
Master Raghu plays childhood.
* In 1983 a film directed by
G. V. Iyer named Adi Shankaracharya was
premiered, the first film ever made entirely in
Sanskrit language in
which all of Adi Shankaracharya's works were compiled. The movie
received the Indian National Film Awards for Best Film , Best
Screenplay , Best Cinematography and Best Audiography .
* In 2013, a film Sri
Jagadguru Aadi Sankara directed by J. K.
Bharavi in Telugu Language was completed and released.
* Indian religions portal
* India portal
* Adi Shri Gauḍapādāchārya
Shri Gaudapadacharya Mutt
* Shri Govinda Bhagavatpadacharya
Sringeri Sharada Peetham
Sringeri Sharada Peetham ,
* ^ Modern scholarship places Shankara in the earlier part of the
8th century CE (c. 700–750). Earlier generations of scholars
proposed 788–820 CE. Other proposals are 686–718 CE, 44 BCE, or
as early as 509–477 BCE.
Swami Vivekananda translates Shivoham, Shivoham as "I am he, I
Brahman is not to be confused with the personalised godhead
* ^ Shankara (?): "(...) Lokayatikas and Bauddhas who assert that
the soul does not exist. There are four sects among the followers of
Buddha: 1. Madhyamicas who maintain all is void; 2. Yogacharas, who
assert except sensation and intelligence all else is void; 3.
Sautranticas, who affirm actual existence of external objects no less
than of internal sensations; 4. Vaibhashikas, who agree with later
(Sautranticas) except that they contend for immediate apprehension of
exterior objects through images or forms represented to the
* ^ Shcherbatsky: "Shankara accuses them of disregarding all logic
and refuses to enter in a controversy with them. The position of
Shankara is interesting because, at heart, he is in full agreement
with the Madhyamikas, at least in the main lines, since both maintain
the reality of the One-without-a-second, and the mirage of the
manifold. But Shankara, as an ardent hater of Budhism, could never
confess that. He therefore treats the
Madhyamika with great contempt
on the charge that the
Madhyamika denies the possibility of cognizing
the Absolute by logical methods (pramana).
Vachaspati Mishra in the
Bhamati rightly interprets this point as referring to the opinion of
the Madhyamikas that logic is incapable to solve the question about
what existence or non-existence really are. This opinion Shankara
himself, as is well known, shares. He does not accept the authority of
logic as a means of cognizing the Absolute, but he deems it a
privilege of the Vedantin to fare without logic, since he has
Revelation to fall back upon. From all his opponents, he requires
strict logical methods."
* ^ A B C Sharma 1962 , p. vi.
* ^ Sengaku Mayeda, Shankara, Encyclopedia Britannica
* ^ A B C D Comans 2000 , p. 163.
* ^ A B C D E Y. Keshava Menon, The Mind of Adi Shankaracharya 1976
* ^ A B "(53) Chronological chart of the history of Bharatvarsh
since its origination". Encyclopedia of Authentic Hinduism. This site
claims to integrate characters from the epics into a continuous
chronology. They present the list of Dwarka and Kanchi Acharyas, along
with their putative dates.
* ^ Johannes de Kruijf and Ajaya Sahoo (2014), Indian
Transnationalism Online: New Perspectives on Diaspora, ISBN
978-1-4724-1913-2 , page 105, QUOTE: "IN OTHER WORDS, ACCORDING TO ADI
SHANKARA\'S ARGUMENT, THE PHILOSOPHY OF ADVAITA VEDANTA STOOD OVER AND
ABOVE ALL OTHER FORMS OF HINDUISM AND ENCAPSULATED THEM. THIS THEN
UNITED HINDUISM; (...) ANOTHER OF ADI SHANKARA\'S IMPORTANT
UNDERTAKINGS WHICH CONTRIBUTED TO THE UNIFICATION OF HINDUISM WAS HIS
FOUNDING OF A NUMBER OF MONASTIC CENTERS."
* ^ Shankara, Student's Encyclopedia Britannia - India (2000),
Volume 4, Encyclopaedia Britannica (UK) Publishing, ISBN
978-0-85229-760-5 , page 379, QUOTE: "SHANKARACHARYA, PHILOSOPHER AND
THEOLOGIAN, MOST RENOWNED EXPONENT OF THE ADVAITA VEDANTA SCHOOL OF
PHILOSOPHY, FROM WHOSE DOCTRINES THE MAIN CURRENTS OF MODERN INDIAN
THOUGHT ARE DERIVED.";
David Crystal (2004), The Penguin Encyclopedia, Penguin Books, page
1353, QUOTE: " IS THE MOST FAMOUS EXPONENT OF ADVAITA VEDANTA SCHOOL
OF HINDU PHILOSOPHY AND THE SOURCE OF THE MAIN CURRENTS OF MODERN
HINDU THOUGHT." * ^ Christophe Jaffrelot (1998), The Hindu
Nationalist Movement in India, Columbia University Press, ISBN
978-0-231-10335-0 , page 2, QUOTE: "THE MAIN CURRENT OF HINDUISM - IF
NOT THE ONLY ONE - WHICH BECAME FORMALIZED IN A WAY THAT APPROXIMATES
TO AN ECCLESIASTICAL STRUCTURE WAS THAT OF SHANKARA".
* ^ Sri Adi Shankaracharya,
Sringeri Sharada Peetham, India
* ^ "How Adi Shankaracharya united a fragmented land with
philosophy, poetry and pilgrimage".
* ^ Shyama Kumar Chattopadhyaya (2000) The Philosophy of Sankar\'s
Advaita Vedanta, Sarup
Steven Collins (1994),
Religion and Practical Reason (Editors: Frank
Reynolds, David Tracy), State Univ of New York Press, ISBN
978-0-7914-2217-5 , page 64; Quote: "Central to Buddhist soteriology
is the doctrine of not-self (Pali: anattā, Sanskrit: anātman, the
opposed doctrine of ātman is central to Brahmanical thought). Put
very briefly, this is the doctrine that human beings have no soul, no
self, no unchanging essence.";
Edward Roer (Translator), Shankara\'s Introduction, p. 2, at Google
Books , pages 2–4
Katie Javanaud (2013), Is The Buddhist \'No-Self\' Doctrine
Compatible With Pursuing Nirvana?, Philosophy Now;
John C. Plott et al. (2000), Global History of Philosophy: The Axial
Age, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0158-5 , page 63,
Quote: "The Buddhist schools reject any Ātman concept. As we have
already observed, this is the basic and ineradicable distinction
Hinduism and Buddhism". * ^ The Seven Spiritual Laws Of
Yoga, Deepak Chopra, John Wiley & Sons, 2006, ISBN 81-265-0696-2 ,
* ^ A B C D E F G H Mayeda 2006 , pp. 3–5.
* ^ A B C D E F Isaeva 1993 , pp. 69–82.
* ^ Vidyasankar, S. "The Sankaravijaya literature". Retrieved
* ^ Tapasyananda, Swami (2002). Sankara-Dig-Vijaya. viii.
* ^ A B Pande 2011 , p. 35.
* ^ The hagiographies of Shankara mirror the pattern of
synthesizing facts, fiction and legends as with other ancient and
medieval era Indian scholars. Some biographic poems depict Shankara as
a reincarnation of deity
Shiva , much like other Indian scholars are
revered as reincarnation of other deities; for example, Mandana-misra
is depicted as an embodiment of deity
Brahma , Citsukha of deity
Varuna , Anandagiri of
Agni , among others. See Isaeva (1993 , pp.
* ^ A B Isaeva 1993 , pp. 83–87.
* ^ A B K. A. Nilakantha Sastry, A History of South India, 4th ed.,
Oxford University Press, Madras, 1976.
* ^ The dating of 788–820 is accepted in Keay, p. 194.
* ^ Madhava-Vidyaranya. Sankara Digvijaya - The traditional life of
Sri Sankaracharya, Sri
Ramakrishna Math. ISBN 81-7823-342-8 . Source:
(accessed: Wed Sep 14, 2016), p.20
* ^ Tapasyananda, Swami (2002). Shankara-Dig-Vijaya. pp. xv–xxiv.
* ^ Adi Shankara, Encyclopedia Britannica (2015)
* ^ N. V. Isaeva (1993). Shankara and Indian Philosophy. State
University of New York Press. pp. 84–87 with footnotes. ISBN
* ^ Students\' Britannica India. Popular Prakashan. 2000. pp.
379–. ISBN 978-0-85229-760-5 .
* ^ Narasingha Prosad Sil (1997). Swami Vivekananda: A
Reassessment. Susquehanna University Press. p. 192. ISBN
* ^ this may be the present day
Kalady in central Kerala
* ^ Pande 2011 , pp. 75–76.
* ^ Y Keshava Menon 1976, The Mind of
Adi Shankara pp 109
* ^ A B C Isaeva 1993 , pp. 74–75.
* ^ A B C D E Pande 2011 , pp. 31–32, also 6–7, 67–68.
* ^ Isaeva 1993 , pp. 76–77.
* ^ A B C Pande 2011 , pp. 5–36.
* ^ A B C Isaeva 1993 , pp. 82–91.
* ^ Isaeva 1993 , pp. 71–82, 93–94.
* ^ A B C D E Mayeda 2006 , pp. 6–7.
* ^ Isaeva 1993 , pp. 2–3.
* ^ A B C Paul Hacker, Philology and Confrontation: Paul Hacker on
Traditional and Modern
Vedanta (Editor: Wilhelm Halbfass), State
University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-2582-4 , pages 30–31
* ^ W Halbfass (1983), Studies in Kumarila and Sankara, Studien zur
Indologie und Iranistik, Monographic 9, Reinbeck
* ^ M Piantelly, Sankara e la Renascita del Brahmanesimo, Indian
Philosophical Quarterly, Vol. 4, No. 3 (Apr. 1977), pages 429–435
Kena Upanishad has two commentaries that are attributed to
Shankara – Kenopnishad Vakyabhasya and Kenopnishad Padabhasya;
scholars contest whether both are authentic, several suggesting that
the Vakyabhasya is unlikely to be authentic; see Pande (2011 , pp.
* ^ A B C Isaeva 1993 , pp. 93–97.
* ^ A B C D E F G H Pande 2011 , pp. 105–113.
* ^ A B A Rambachan (1991), Accomplishing the Accomplished: Vedas
as a Source of Valid Knowledge in Sankara, University of Hawaii Press,
ISBN 978-0-8248-1358-1 , pages xii–xiii
* ^ A B Wilhelm Halbfass (1990), Tradition and Reflection:
Explorations in Indian Thought, State University of New York Press,
ISBN 978-0-7914-0362-4 , pages 205–208
* ^ A B Pande 2011 , pp. 351–352.
* ^ A B C D E John Koller (2007), in Chad Meister and Paul Copan
(Editors): The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Religion,
Routledge, ISBN 978-1-134-18001-1 , pages 98–106
* ^ Pande 2011 , pp. 113–115.
* ^ Mishra, Godavarisha. "A Journey through Vedantic History
Advaita in the Pre-Sankara, Sankara and Post- Sankara Periods" (PDF).
Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 June 2006. Retrieved
* ^ Vidyasankar, S. "Sankaracarya". Archived from the original on
16 June 2006. Retrieved 2006-07-24.
* ^ A B Paul Hacker, Sankaracarya and Sankarabhagavatpada:
Preliminary Remarks Concerning the Authorship Problem', in Philology
and Confrontation: Paul Hacker on Traditional and Modern Vedanta
(Editor: Wilhelm Halbfass), State University of New York Press, ISBN
978-0-7914-2582-4 , pp. 41–56
* ^ Adi Shankaracharya, Vivekacūḍāmaṇi S Madhavananda
Advaita Ashrama (1921)
* ^ John Grimes (2004), The Vivekacudamani of Sankaracarya
Bhagavatpada: An Introduction and Translation, Ashgate, ISBN
978-0-7546-3395-2 , see Introduction;
Klaus Klostermaier (1985), Mokṣa and Critical Theory, Philosophy
East and West, Vol. 35, No. 1 (Jan., 1985), pp. 61–71;
Dhiman, S. (2011), Self-Discovery and the Power of Self-Knowledge,
Business Renaissance Quarterly, 6(4) * ^ Johannes Buitenen (1978).
The Mahābhārata (vol. 3). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN
* ^ Note: some manuscripts list this verse as 2.18.133, while Mayeda
lists it as 1.18.133, because of interchanged chapter numbering; see
Upadesa Sahasri: A Thousand Teachings, S Jagadananda (Translator,
1949), ISBN 978-81-7120-059-7 , Verse 2.8.133, page 258;
Karl H Potter (2014), The Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies, Volume
3, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0-691-61486-1 , page 249 * ^
Mayeda 2006 , pp. 46–47.
* ^ Brahmasutra-bhasya 1.1.4, S Vireswarananda (Translator), page
* ^ Michael Comans 2000 , p. 168.
* ^ Michael Comans 2000 , pp. 167-169.
* ^ George Thibaut (Translator),
Brahma Sutras: With Commentary of
Shankara, Reprinted as ISBN 978-1-60506-634-9 , pages 31–33 verse
* ^ Mayeda 2006 , pp. 46–53.
* ^ Mayeda & Tanizawa (1991), Studies on Indian Philosophy in
Japan, 1963–1987, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 41, No. 4, pages
* ^ Michael Comans (1996), Śankara and the Prasankhyanavada,
Journal of Indian Philosophy, Vol. 24, No. 1, pages 49–71
* ^ Stephen Phillips (2000) in Roy W. Perrett (Editor),
Epistemology: Indian Philosophy, Volume 1, Routledge, ISBN
978-0-8153-3609-9 , pages 224–228 with notes 8, 13 and 63
* ^ Franklin Merrell-Wolff (1995), Transformations in
Metaphysics and Epistemology, State University of
New York Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-2675-3 , pages 242–260
* ^ Will Durant (1976), Our Oriental Heritage: The Story of
Civilization, Simon see Karl Potter (2008), Encyclopedia of Indian
Philosophies Vol. III, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0310-7 ,
For an example of Shankara's reasoning "why rites and ritual actions
should be given up", see Karl Potter on page 220;
Elsewhere, Shankara's Bhasya on various
Upanishads repeat "give up
rituals and rites", see for example Shankara\'s Bhasya on
Brihadaranyaka Upanishad pages 348–350, 754–757
* ^ Sanskrit:Upadesha sahasri
English Translation: S Jagadananda (Translator, 1949),
Vedanta Press, ISBN 978-81-7120-059-7 , page 16–17;
OCLC 218363449 * ^ Karl Potter (2008), Encyclopedia of Indian
Philosophies Vol. III, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0310-7 ,
* ^ A B Mayeda 2006 , pp. 92–93.
* ^ Karl Potter (2008), Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies Vol.
III, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0310-7 , pages 218–219
* ^ Isaeva 1993 , pp. 3, 29–30.
Swami Vivekananda (2015). The Complete Works of Swami
Vivekananda. Manonmani Publishers (Reprint). p. 1786.
* Original Sanskrit: NIRVANASHTAKAM
Sringeri Vidya Bharati
* English Translation 1: K Parappaḷḷi and CNN Nair (2002),
Saankarasaagaram, Bhartiya Vidya Bhavan, ISBN 978-81-7276-268-1 ,
* English Translation 2: Igor Kononenko (2010), Teachers of Wisdom,
ISBN 978-1-4349-9898-9 , page 148;
* English Translation 3:
Nirvana Shatakam Isha Foundation (2011);
Includes translation, transliteration and audio.
* ^ A B Nakamura 2004 , p. 680.
* ^ Sharma 2000 , p. 64.
* ^ Scheepers 2000 , p. 123.
* ^ "Study the
Vedas daily. Perform diligently the duties
("karmas") ordained by them", Sadhana Panchakam of Adi Shankara
* ^ Anantanand Rambachan, The limits of scripture: Vivekananda's
reinterpretation of the Vedas. University of Hawaii Press, 1994, pages
124, 125: .
* ^ Isaeva 1993 , pp. 57–58. Quote: "Shankara directly identifies
this awakened atman with
Brahman and the higher knowledge. And
Brahman, reminds the Advaitist, is known only from the Upanishadic
* ^ A B Michael Comans (1993), The question of the importance of
Samādhi in modern and classical
Advaita Vedānta, Philosophy East &
West. Vol. 43, Issue 1, pages 19–38
* ^ Isaeva 1993 , pp. 60, 145–154.
* ^ A B David Loy (1982), Enlightenment in
Buddhism and Advaita
Moksha the Same?, International Philosophical
Quarterly, 23(1), pp 65–74
* ^ KN Jayatilleke (2010), Early Buddhist Theory of Knowledge, ISBN
978-81-208-0619-1 , pages 246–249, from note 385 onwards
* ^ Gerald McDermott and
Harold A. Netland (2014), A Trinitarian
Theology of Religions: An Evangelical Proposal, Oxford University
Press, ISBN 978-0-19-975182-2 , page 131
* ^ Sankara Charya, The Twelve Principal Upanishads, p. 49, at
Google Books , RJ Tatya, Bombay Theosophical Publication, pages
* ^ Thomas McFaul (2006), The Future of Peace and Justice in the
Global Village: The Role of the World Religions in the Twenty-first
Century, Praeger, ISBN 978-0-275-99313-9 , page 39
* ^ A B C Fyodor Shcherbatsky (1927). The Conception of Buddhist
Nirvana. pp. 44–45.
* ^ Mahendranath Sircar (1933), Reality in Indian Thought, The
Philosophical Review, Vol. 42, No. 3, pages 249–271
* ^ A B C
Arvind Sharma (2008), The Philosophy of
Advaita Vedanta, Penn State Press, ISBN 978-0-271-02832-3 , pages
* ^ Aptavacana Sanskrit-English Dictionary, Cologne University,
* ^ M. Hiriyanna (2000), The Essentials of Indian Philosophy,
Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-1330-4 , pages 42–44
* ^ Isaeva 1993 , pp. 219–223 with footnote 34.
* ^ Isaeva 1993 , pp. 210–221.
Anantanand Rambachan (1991), Accomplishing the Accomplished:
Vedas as a Source of Valid Knowledge in Sankara, University of
Hawaii Press, ISBN 978-0-8248-1358-1 , Chapters 2–4
* ^ S.N. Dasgupta (1997). History of Indian Philosophy, Volume 1.
* ^ Mudgal, S.G. (1975),
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