Wellfounded Set
In mathematics, a binary relation ''R'' is called wellfounded (or wellfounded) on a class ''X'' if every nonempty subset ''S'' ⊆ ''X'' has a minimal element with respect to ''R'', that is, an element ''m'' not related by ''s R m'' (for instance, "''s'' is not smaller than ''m''") for any ''s'' ∈ ''S''. In other words, a relation is well founded if :(\forall S \subseteq X)\; \neq \emptyset \implies (\exists m \in S) (\forall s \in S) \lnot(s \mathrel m) Some authors include an extra condition that ''R'' is setlike, i.e., that the elements less than any given element form a set. Equivalently, assuming the axiom of dependent choice, a relation is wellfounded when it contains no infinite descending chains, which can be proved when there is no infinite sequence ''x''0, ''x''1, ''x''2, ... of elements of ''X'' such that ''x''''n''+1 ''R'' ''x''n for every natural number ''n''. In order theory, a partial order is called wellfou ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of abstract objects and the use of pure reason to prove them. These objects consist of either abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms, andin case of abstraction from naturesome basic properties that are considered true starting points of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Transitive Closure (set)
In set theory, a branch of mathematics, a set A is called transitive if either of the following equivalent conditions hold: * whenever x \in A, and y \in x, then y \in A. * whenever x \in A, and x is not an urelement, then x is a subset of A. Similarly, a class M is transitive if every element of M is a subset of M. Examples Using the definition of ordinal numbers suggested by John von Neumann, ordinal numbers are defined as hereditarily transitive sets: an ordinal number is a transitive set whose members are also transitive (and thus ordinals). The class of all ordinals is a transitive class. Any of the stages V_\alpha and L_\alpha leading to the construction of the von Neumann universe V and Gödel's constructible universe L are transitive sets. The universes V and L themselves are transitive classes. This is a complete list of all finite transitive sets with up to 20 brackets: * \, * \, * \, * \, * \, * \, * \, * \, * \, * \, * \, * \, * \, * \, * \, * \, * \, * \, * \, * \, ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Complete Induction
Mathematical induction is a method for proving that a statement ''P''(''n'') is true for every natural number ''n'', that is, that the infinitely many cases ''P''(0), ''P''(1), ''P''(2), ''P''(3), ... all hold. Informal metaphors help to explain this technique, such as falling dominoes or climbing a ladder: A proof by induction consists of two cases. The first, the base case, proves the statement for ''n'' = 0 without assuming any knowledge of other cases. The second case, the induction step, proves that ''if'' the statement holds for any given case ''n'' = ''k'', ''then'' it must also hold for the next case ''n'' = ''k'' + 1. These two steps establish that the statement holds for every natural number ''n''. The base case does not necessarily begin with ''n'' = 0, but often with ''n'' = 1, and possibly with any fixed natural number ''n'' = ''N'', establishing the truth of the statement for all natu ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Primitive Recursive Functions
In computability theory, a primitive recursive function is roughly speaking a function that can be computed by a computer program whose loops are all "for" loops (that is, an upper bound of the number of iterations of every loop can be determined before entering the loop). Primitive recursive functions form a strict subset of those general recursive functions that are also total functions. The importance of primitive recursive functions lies in the fact that most computable functions that are studied in number theory (and more generally in mathematics) are primitive recursive. For example, addition and division, the factorial and exponential function, and the function which returns the ''n''th prime are all primitive recursive. In fact, for showing that a computable function is primitive recursive, it suffices to show that its time complexity is bounded above by a primitive recursive function of the input size. It is hence not that easy to devise a computable function that is ''n ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematical Induction
Mathematical induction is a method for proving that a statement ''P''(''n'') is true for every natural number ''n'', that is, that the infinitely many cases ''P''(0), ''P''(1), ''P''(2), ''P''(3), ... all hold. Informal metaphors help to explain this technique, such as falling dominoes or climbing a ladder: A proof by induction consists of two cases. The first, the base case, proves the statement for ''n'' = 0 without assuming any knowledge of other cases. The second case, the induction step, proves that ''if'' the statement holds for any given case ''n'' = ''k'', ''then'' it must also hold for the next case ''n'' = ''k'' + 1. These two steps establish that the statement holds for every natural number ''n''. The base case does not necessarily begin with ''n'' = 0, but often with ''n'' = 1, and possibly with any fixed natural number ''n'' = ''N'', establishing the truth of the statement for all natu ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Natural Numbers
In mathematics, the natural numbers are those numbers used for counting (as in "there are ''six'' coins on the table") and ordering (as in "this is the ''third'' largest city in the country"). Numbers used for counting are called ''cardinal numbers'', and numbers used for ordering are called ''ordinal numbers''. Natural numbers are sometimes used as labels, known as ''nominal numbers'', having none of the properties of numbers in a mathematical sense (e.g. sports jersey numbers). Some definitions, including the standard ISO 800002, begin the natural numbers with , corresponding to the nonnegative integers , whereas others start with , corresponding to the positive integers Texts that exclude zero from the natural numbers sometimes refer to the natural numbers together with zero as the whole numbers, while in other writings, that term is used instead for the integers (including negative integers). The natural numbers form a set. Many other number sets are built by success ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Initial Segment
In mathematics, an upper set (also called an upward closed set, an upset, or an isotone set in ''X'') of a partially ordered set (X, \leq) is a subset S \subseteq X with the following property: if ''s'' is in ''S'' and if ''x'' in ''X'' is larger than ''s'' (that is, if s \leq x), then ''x'' is in ''S''. In words, this means that any ''x'' element of ''X'' that is \,\geq\, to some element of ''S'' is necessarily also an element of ''S''. The term lower set (also called a downward closed set, down set, decreasing set, initial segment, or semiideal) is defined similarly as being a subset ''S'' of ''X'' with the property that any element ''x'' of ''X'' that is \,\leq\, to some element of ''S'' is necessarily also an element of ''S''. Definition Let (X, \leq) be a preordered set. An in X (also called an , an , or an set) is a subset U \subseteq X that is "closed under going up", in the sense that :for all u \in U and all x \in X, if u \leq x then x \in U. The dual notion is a ( ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Transfinite Recursion
Transfinite induction is an extension of mathematical induction to wellordered sets, for example to sets of ordinal numbers or cardinal numbers. Its correctness is a theorem of ZFC. Induction by cases Let P(\alpha) be a property defined for all ordinals \alpha. Suppose that whenever P(\beta) is true for all \beta < \alpha, then $P(\backslash alpha)$ is also true. Then transfinite induction tells us that $P$ is true for all ordinals. Usually the proof is broken down into three cases: * Zero case: Prove that $P(0)$ is true. * Successor case: Prove that for any $\backslash alpha+1$, $P(\backslash alpha+1)$ follows from $P(\backslash alpha)$ (and, if necessary, $P(\backslash beta)$ for all $\backslash beta\; <\; \backslash alpha$). * Limit case: Prove that for any 

Emmy Noether
Amalie Emmy NoetherEmmy is the ''Rufname'', the second of two official given names, intended for daily use. Cf. for example the résumé submitted by Noether to Erlangen University in 1907 (Erlangen University archive, ''Promotionsakt Emmy Noether'' (1907/08, NR. 2988); reproduced in: ''Emmy Noether, Gesammelte Abhandlungen – Collected Papers,'' ed. N. Jacobson 1983; online facsimile aphysikerinnen.de/noetherlebenslauf.html). Sometimes ''Emmy'' is mistakenly reported as a short form for ''Amalie'', or misreported as "Emily". e.g. (, ; ; 23 March 1882 – 14 April 1935) was a German mathematician who made many important contributions to abstract algebra. She discovered Noether's First and Second Theorem, which are fundamental in mathematical physics. She was described by Pavel Alexandrov, Albert Einstein, Jean Dieudonné, Hermann Weyl and Norbert Wiener as the most important woman in the history of mathematics. As one of the leading mathematicians of her time, she developed some ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Transfinite Induction
Transfinite induction is an extension of mathematical induction to wellordered sets, for example to sets of ordinal numbers or cardinal numbers. Its correctness is a theorem of ZFC. Induction by cases Let P(\alpha) be a property defined for all ordinals \alpha. Suppose that whenever P(\beta) is true for all \beta < \alpha, then $P(\backslash alpha)$ is also true. Then transfinite induction tells us that $P$ is true for all ordinals. Usually the proof is broken down into three cases: * Zero case: Prove that $P(0)$ is true. * Successor case: Prove that for any $\backslash alpha+1$, $P(\backslash alpha+1)$ follows from $P(\backslash alpha)$ (and, if necessary, $P(\backslash beta)$ for all $\backslash beta\; <\; \backslash alpha$). * Limit case: Prove that for any 

Rewriting
In mathematics, computer science, and logic, rewriting covers a wide range of methods of replacing subterms of a wellformed formula, formula with other terms. Such methods may be achieved by rewriting systems (also known as rewrite systems, rewrite engines, or reduction systems). In their most basic form, they consist of a set of objects, plus relations on how to transform those objects. Rewriting can be nondeterministic algorithm, nondeterministic. One rule to rewrite a term could be applied in many different ways to that term, or more than one rule could be applicable. Rewriting systems then do not provide an algorithm for changing one term to another, but a set of possible rule applications. When combined with an appropriate algorithm, however, rewrite systems can be viewed as computer programs, and several automated theorem proving, theorem provers and declarative programming languages are based on term rewriting. Example cases Logic In logic, the procedure for obtaini ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Ascending Chain Condition
In mathematics, the ascending chain condition (ACC) and descending chain condition (DCC) are finiteness properties satisfied by some algebraic structures, most importantly ideals in certain commutative rings.Jacobson (2009), p. 142 and 147 These conditions played an important role in the development of the structure theory of commutative rings in the works of David Hilbert, Emmy Noether, and Emil Artin. The conditions themselves can be stated in an abstract form, so that they make sense for any partially ordered set. This point of view is useful in abstract algebraic dimension theory due to Gabriel and Rentschler. Definition A partially ordered set (poset) ''P'' is said to satisfy the ascending chain condition (ACC) if no infinite strictly ascending sequence :a_1 < a_2 < a_3 < \cdots of elements of ''P'' exists. Equivalently,Proof: first, a strictly increasing sequence cannot stabilize, obviously. Conversely, suppose there is a ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 