Real Projective Space
In mathematics, real projective space, denoted or is the topological space of lines passing through the origin 0 in It is a compact, smooth manifold of dimension , and is a special case of a Grassmannian space. Basic properties Construction As with all projective spaces, RP''n'' is formed by taking the quotient of under the equivalence relation for all real numbers . For all ''x'' in one can always find a ''λ'' such that ''λx'' has norm 1. There are precisely two such ''λ'' differing by sign. Thus RP''n'' can also be formed by identifying antipodal points of the unit ''n''sphere, ''S''''n'', in R''n''+1. One can further restrict to the upper hemisphere of ''S''''n'' and merely identify antipodal points on the bounding equator. This shows that RP''n'' is also equivalent to the closed ''n''dimensional disk, ''D''''n'', with antipodal points on the boundary, , identified. Lowdimensional examples * RP1 is called the real projective line, which is topologically equ ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of abstract objects and the use of pure reason to prove them. These objects consist of either abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms, andin case of abstraction from naturesome basic properties that are considered true starting points of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Boy's Surface
In geometry, Boy's surface is an immersion of the real projective plane in 3dimensional space found by Werner Boy in 1901. He discovered it on assignment from David Hilbert to prove that the projective plane ''could not'' be immersed in 3space. Boy's surface was first parametrized explicitly by Bernard Morin in 1978. Another parametrization was discovered by Rob Kusner and Robert Bryant.. Boy's surface is one of the two possible immersions of the real projective plane which have only a single triple point. Unlike the Roman surface and the crosscap, it has no other singularities than selfintersections (that is, it has no pinchpoints). Symmetry of the Boy's surface Boy's surface has 3fold symmetry. This means that it has an axis of discrete rotational symmetry: any 120° turn about this axis will leave the surface looking exactly the same. The Boy's surface can be cut into three mutually congruent pieces. Model at Oberwolfach The Mathematical Research Institute ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Universal Covering Space
A covering of a topological space X is a continuous map \pi : E \rightarrow X with special properties. Definition Let X be a topological space. A covering of X is a continuous map : \pi : E \rightarrow X such that there exists a discrete space D and for every x \in X an Neighbourhood (mathematics), open neighborhood U \subset X, such that \pi^(U)= \displaystyle \bigsqcup_ V_d and \pi, _:V_d \rightarrow U is a homeomorphism for every d \in D . Often, the notion of a covering is used for the covering space E as well as for the map \pi : E \rightarrow X. The open sets V_ are called sheets, which are uniquely determined up to a homeomorphism if U is Connected space, connected. For each x \in X the discrete subset \pi^(x) is called the fiber of x. The degree of a covering is the cardinality of the space D. If E is Path connected, pathconnected, then the covering \pi : E \rightarrow X is denoted as a pathconnected covering. Examples * For every topological space X there exi ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Curve
In mathematics, a curve (also called a curved line in older texts) is an object similar to a line (geometry), line, but that does not have to be Linearity, straight. Intuitively, a curve may be thought of as the trace left by a moving point (geometry), point. This is the definition that appeared more than 2000 years ago in Euclid's Elements, Euclid's ''Elements'': "The [curved] line is […] the first species of quantity, which has only one dimension, namely length, without any width nor depth, and is nothing else than the flow or run of the point which […] will leave from its imaginary moving some vestige in length, exempt of any width." This definition of a curve has been formalized in modern mathematics as: ''A curve is the image (mathematics), image of an interval (mathematics), interval to a topological space by a continuous function''. In some contexts, the function that defines the curve is called a ''parametrization'', and the curve is a parametric curve. In this artic ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Fundamental Group
In the mathematical field of algebraic topology, the fundamental group of a topological space is the group of the equivalence classes under homotopy of the loops contained in the space. It records information about the basic shape, or holes, of the topological space. The fundamental group is the first and simplest homotopy group. The fundamental group is a homotopy invariant—topological spaces that are homotopy equivalent (or the stronger case of homeomorphic) have isomorphic fundamental groups. The fundamental group of a topological space X is denoted by \pi_1(X). Intuition Start with a space (for example, a surface), and some point in it, and all the loops both starting and ending at this point— paths that start at this point, wander around and eventually return to the starting point. Two loops can be combined in an obvious way: travel along the first loop, then along the second. Two loops are considered equivalent if one can be deformed into the other without breakin ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Simply Connected
In topology, a topological space is called simply connected (or 1connected, or 1simply connected) if it is pathconnected and every path between two points can be continuously transformed (intuitively for embedded spaces, staying within the space) into any other such path while preserving the two endpoints in question. The fundamental group of a topological space is an indicator of the failure for the space to be simply connected: a pathconnected topological space is simply connected if and only if its fundamental group is trivial. Definition and equivalent formulations A topological space X is called if it is pathconnected and any loop in X defined by f : S^1 \to X can be contracted to a point: there exists a continuous map F : D^2 \to X such that F restricted to S^1 is f. Here, S^1 and D^2 denotes the unit circle and closed unit disk in the Euclidean plane respectively. An equivalent formulation is this: X is simply connected if and only if it is pathconnected, and whenev ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Double Cover (topology)
A covering of a topological space X is a continuous map \pi : E \rightarrow X with special properties. Definition Let X be a topological space. A covering of X is a continuous map : \pi : E \rightarrow X such that there exists a discrete space D and for every x \in X an open neighborhood U \subset X, such that \pi^(U)= \displaystyle \bigsqcup_ V_d and \pi, _:V_d \rightarrow U is a homeomorphism for every d \in D . Often, the notion of a covering is used for the covering space E as well as for the map \pi : E \rightarrow X. The open sets V_ are called sheets, which are uniquely determined up to a homeomorphism if U is connected. For each x \in X the discrete subset \pi^(x) is called the fiber of x. The degree of a covering is the cardinality of the space D. If E is pathconnected, then the covering \pi : E \rightarrow X is denoted as a pathconnected covering. Examples * For every topological space X there exists the covering \pi:X \rightarrow X with \pi(x)=x, which i ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Covering Space
A covering of a topological space X is a continuous map \pi : E \rightarrow X with special properties. Definition Let X be a topological space. A covering of X is a continuous map : \pi : E \rightarrow X such that there exists a discrete space D and for every x \in X an open neighborhood U \subset X, such that \pi^(U)= \displaystyle \bigsqcup_ V_d and \pi, _:V_d \rightarrow U is a homeomorphism for every d \in D . Often, the notion of a covering is used for the covering space E as well as for the map \pi : E \rightarrow X. The open sets V_ are called sheets, which are uniquely determined up to a homeomorphism if U is connected. For each x \in X the discrete subset \pi^(x) is called the fiber of x. The degree of a covering is the cardinality of the space D. If E is pathconnected, then the covering \pi : E \rightarrow X is denoted as a pathconnected covering. Examples * For every topological space X there exists the covering \pi:X \rightarrow X with \pi(x)=x, which is ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Group Action (mathematics)
In mathematics, a group action on a space is a group homomorphism of a given group into the group of transformations of the space. Similarly, a group action on a mathematical structure is a group homomorphism of a group into the automorphism group of the structure. It is said that the group ''acts'' on the space or structure. If a group acts on a structure, it will usually also act on objects built from that structure. For example, the group of Euclidean isometries acts on Euclidean space and also on the figures drawn in it. For example, it acts on the set of all triangles. Similarly, the group of symmetries of a polyhedron acts on the vertices, the edges, and the faces of the polyhedron. A group action on a vector space is called a representation of the group. In the case of a finitedimensional vector space, it allows one to identify many groups with subgroups of , the group of the invertible matrices of dimension over a field . The symmetric group acts on any set wit ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Cyclic Group
In group theory, a branch of abstract algebra in pure mathematics, a cyclic group or monogenous group is a group, denoted C''n'', that is generated by a single element. That is, it is a set of invertible elements with a single associative binary operation, and it contains an element ''g'' such that every other element of the group may be obtained by repeatedly applying the group operation to ''g'' or its inverse. Each element can be written as an integer power of ''g'' in multiplicative notation, or as an integer multiple of ''g'' in additive notation. This element ''g'' is called a ''generator'' of the group. Every infinite cyclic group is isomorphic to the additive group of Z, the integers. Every finite cyclic group of order ''n'' is isomorphic to the additive group of Z/''n''Z, the integers modulo ''n''. Every cyclic group is an abelian group (meaning that its group operation is commutative), and every finitely generated abelian group ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Universal Cover
A covering of a topological space X is a continuous map \pi : E \rightarrow X with special properties. Definition Let X be a topological space. A covering of X is a continuous map : \pi : E \rightarrow X such that there exists a discrete space D and for every x \in X an open neighborhood U \subset X, such that \pi^(U)= \displaystyle \bigsqcup_ V_d and \pi, _:V_d \rightarrow U is a homeomorphism for every d \in D . Often, the notion of a covering is used for the covering space E as well as for the map \pi : E \rightarrow X. The open sets V_ are called sheets, which are uniquely determined up to a homeomorphism if U is connected. For each x \in X the discrete subset \pi^(x) is called the fiber of x. The degree of a covering is the cardinality of the space D. If E is pathconnected, then the covering \pi : E \rightarrow X is denoted as a pathconnected covering. Examples * For every topological space X there exists the covering \pi:X \rightarrow X with \pi(x)=x, which is ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Lie Group
In mathematics, a Lie group (pronounced ) is a group that is also a differentiable manifold. A manifold is a space that locally resembles Euclidean space, whereas groups define the abstract concept of a binary operation along with the additional properties it must have to be thought of as a "transformation" in the abstract sense, for instance multiplication and the taking of inverses (division), or equivalently, the concept of addition and the taking of inverses (subtraction). Combining these two ideas, one obtains a continuous group where multiplying points and their inverses are continuous. If the multiplication and taking of inverses are smooth (differentiable) as well, one obtains a Lie group. Lie groups provide a natural model for the concept of continuous symmetry, a celebrated example of which is the rotational symmetry in three dimensions (given by the special orthogonal group \text(3)). Lie groups are widely used in many parts of modern mathematics and physics. Lie ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 