Localglobal Principle
In mathematics, Helmut Hasse's local–global principle, also known as the Hasse principle, is the idea that one can find an integer solution to an equation by using the Chinese remainder theorem to piece together solutions modulo powers of each different prime number. This is handled by examining the equation in the completions of the rational numbers: the real numbers and the ''p''adic numbers. A more formal version of the Hasse principle states that certain types of equations have a rational solution if and only if they have a solution in the real numbers ''and'' in the ''p''adic numbers for each prime ''p''. Intuition Given a polynomial equation with rational coefficients, if it has a rational solution, then this also yields a real solution and a ''p''adic solution, as the rationals embed in the reals and ''p''adics: a global solution yields local solutions at each prime. The Hasse principle asks when the reverse can be done, or rather, asks what the obstruction is: when ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of abstract objects and the use of pure reason to prove them. These objects consist of either abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms, andin case of abstraction from naturesome basic properties that are considered true starting points of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Local Field
In mathematics, a field ''K'' is called a (nonArchimedean) local field if it is complete with respect to a topology induced by a discrete valuation ''v'' and if its residue field ''k'' is finite. Equivalently, a local field is a locally compact topological field with respect to a nondiscrete topology. Sometimes, real numbers R, and the complex numbers C (with their standard topologies) are also defined to be local fields; this is the convention we will adopt below. Given a local field, the valuation defined on it can be of either of two types, each one corresponds to one of the two basic types of local fields: those in which the valuation is Archimedean and those in which it is not. In the first case, one calls the local field an Archimedean local field, in the second case, one calls it a nonArchimedean local field. Local fields arise naturally in number theory as completions of global fields. While Archimedean local fields have been quite well known in mathematics for at l ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Masaki Sudo , Tanzania
{{disambiguation, geo ...
Masaki may refer to: Name * Masaki (given name), a unisex Japanese given name * Masaki (surname), a Japanese surname Places * Masaki, Ehime, a town located in Iyo District, Japan * Masaki Art Museum, a museum in Tadaoka, Osaka Prefecture, Japan that opened in 1968 * Masaki Station (other) * Masaki, a suburb in Dar es Salaam Dar es Salaam (; from ar, دَار السَّلَام, Dâr esSelâm, lit=Abode of Peace) or commonly known as Dar, is the largest city and financial hub of Tanzania. It is also the capital of Dar es Salaam Region. With a population of over s ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Masahiko Fujiwara
Masahiko Fujiwara (Japanese: 藤原 正彦 ''Fujiwara Masahiko''; born July 9, 1943, in Shinkyo, Manchukuo) is a Japanese mathematician and writer who is known for his book '' The Dignity of the Nation''. He is a professor emeritus at Ochanomizu University. Biography Masahiko Fujiwara is the son of Jirō Nitta and Tei Fujiwara, who were both popular authors. He graduated from the University of Tokyo in 1966. He began writing after a twoyear position as associate professor at the University of Colorado, with a book ''Wakaki sugakusha no Amerika'' designed to explain American campus life to Japanese people. He also wrote about the University of Cambridge, after a year's visit (''Harukanaru Kenburijji: Ichi sugakusha no Igirisu''). In a popular book on mathematics, he categorized theorems as beautiful theorems or ugly theorems. He is also known in Japan for speaking out against government reforms in secondary education. He wrote '' The Dignity of the Nation'', which according t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Alexei Skorobogatov
Alexei Nikolaievich Skorobogatov (russian: Алексе́й Никола́евич Скоробога́тов) is a BritishRussian mathematician and Professor in Pure Mathematics at Imperial College London specialising in algebraic geometry. His work has focused on rational points, the Hasse principle, the Manin obstruction, exponential sums, and errorcorrecting codes. Education He completed his dissertation under the supervision of Yuri Manin, for which he was awarded a Ph.D. degree. Awards In 2001 he was awarded a Whitehead Prize by the London Mathematical Society. He was elected as a Fellow of the American Mathematical Society The American Mathematical Society (AMS) is an association of professional mathematicians dedicated to the interests of mathematical research and scholarship, and serves the national and international community through its publications, meetings ... in the 2020 Class, for "contributions to the Diophantine geometry of surfaces and higher dimens ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Brauer–Manin Obstruction
In mathematics, in the field of arithmetic algebraic geometry, the Manin obstruction (named after Yuri Manin) is attached to a variety ''X'' over a global field, which measures the failure of the Hasse principle for ''X''. If the value of the obstruction is nontrivial, then ''X'' may have points over all local fields but not over the global field. The Manin obstruction is sometimes called the Brauer–Manin obstruction, as Manin used the Brauer group of X to define it. For abelian varieties the Manin obstruction is just the Tate–Shafarevich group and fully accounts for the failure of the localtoglobal principle (under the assumption that the Tate–Shafarevich group is finite). There are however examples, due to Alexei Skorobogatov Alexei Nikolaievich Skorobogatov (russian: Алексе́й Никола́евич Скоробога́тов) is a BritishRussian mathematician and Professor in Pure Mathematics at Imperial College London specialising in algebraic geometry. His ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Brauer Group
Brauer or Bräuer is a surname of German origin, meaning "brewer". Notable people with the name include: * Alfred Brauer (1894–1985), GermanAmerican mathematician, brother of Richard * Andreas Brauer (born 1973), German film producer * Arik Brauer (1929–2021), Austrian painter, poet, and actor, father of Timna Brauer * August Brauer (18631917), German zoologist * Friedrich Moritz Brauer (1832–1904), Austrian entomologist and museum director * Georg Brauer (1908–2001), German chemist * Ingrid ArndtBrauer (born 1961), German politician; member of the Bundestag * Jono Brauer (born 1981), Australian Olympic skier * Max Brauer (1887–1973), German politician; First Mayor of Hamburg * Michael Brauer (contemporary), American audio engineer * Rich Brauer (born 1954), American politician from Illinois; state legislator since 2003 * Richard Brauer (1901–1977), GermanAmerican mathematician * Richard H. W. Brauer (contemporary), American art museum director; eponym of t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Yuri Ivanovitch Manin
Yuri Ivanovich Manin (russian: Ю́рий Ива́нович Ма́нин; born 16 February 1937) is a Russian mathematician, known for work in algebraic geometry and diophantine geometry, and many expository works ranging from mathematical logic to theoretical physics. Moreover, Manin was one of the first to propose the idea of a quantum computer in 1980 with his book ''Computable and Uncomputable''. Life and career Manin gained a doctorate in 1960 at the Steklov Mathematics Institute as a student of Igor Shafarevich. He is now a Professor at the MaxPlanckInstitut für Mathematik in Bonn, and a professor emeritus at Northwestern University. Manin's early work included papers on the arithmetic and formal groups of abelian varieties, the Mordell conjecture in the function field case, and algebraic differential equations. The Gauss–Manin connection is a basic ingredient of the study of cohomology in families of algebraic varieties. He wrote a book on cubic surfaces and ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Hardy–Littlewood Circle Method
In mathematics, the Hardy–Littlewood circle method is a technique of analytic number theory. It is named for G. H. Hardy and J. E. Littlewood, who developed it in a series of papers on Waring's problem. History The initial idea is usually attributed to the work of Hardy with Srinivasa Ramanujan a few years earlier, in 1916 and 1917, on the asymptotics of the partition function. It was taken up by many other researchers, including Harold Davenport and I. M. Vinogradov, who modified the formulation slightly (moving from complex analysis to exponential sums), without changing the broad lines. Hundreds of papers followed, and the method still yields results. The method is the subject of a monograph by R. C. Vaughan. Outline The goal is to prove asymptotic behavior of a series: to show that for some function. This is done by taking the generating function of the series, then computing the residues about zero (essentially the Fourier coefficients). Technically, the generatin ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Christopher Hooley
Christopher Hooley (7 August 1928 – 13 December 2018) was a British mathematician, professor of mathematics at Cardiff University. He did his PhD under the supervision of Albert Ingham. He won the Adams Prize of Cambridge University in 1973. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society Fellowship of the Royal Society (FRS, ForMemRS and HonFRS) is an award granted by the judges of the Royal Society of London to individuals who have made a "substantial contribution to the improvement of natural knowledge, including mathematic ... in 1983. He was also a Founding Fellow of the Learned Society of Wales. He showed that the Hasse principle holds for nonsingular cubic forms in at least nine variables.C. Hooley, ''On nonary cubic forms'', Journal für die reine und angewandte Mathematik, 386, pages 3298, (1988) References External links * 1928 births 2018 deaths 20thcentury British mathematicians 21stcentury British mathematicians Academics of Cardif ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Proceedings Of The Royal Society A
''Proceedings of the Royal Society'' is the main research journal of the Royal Society. The journal began in 1831 and was split into two series in 1905: * Series A: for papers in physical sciences and mathematics. * Series B: for papers in life sciences. Many landmark scientific discoveries are published in the Proceedings, making it one of the most historically significant science journals. The journal contains several articles written by the most celebrated names in science, such as Paul Dirac, Werner Heisenberg, Ernest Rutherford, Erwin Schrödinger, William Lawrence Bragg, Lord Kelvin, J.J. Thomson, James Clerk Maxwell, Dorothy Hodgkin and Stephen Hawking. In 2004, the Royal Society began '' The Journal of the Royal Society Interface'' for papers at the interface of physical sciences and life sciences. History The journal began in 1831 as a compilation of abstracts of papers in the ''Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society'', the older Royal Society publicati ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Harold Davenport
Harold Davenport FRS (30 October 1907 – 9 June 1969) was an English mathematician, known for his extensive work in number theory. Early life Born on 30 October 1907 in Huncoat, Lancashire, Davenport was educated at Accrington Grammar School, the University of Manchester (graduating in 1927), and Trinity College, Cambridge. He became a research student of John Edensor Littlewood, working on the question of the distribution of quadratic residues. First steps in research The attack on the distribution question leads quickly to problems that are now seen to be special cases of those on local zetafunctions, for the particular case of some special hyperelliptic curves such as Y^2 = X(X1)(X2)\ldots (Xk). Bounds for the zeroes of the local zetafunction immediately imply bounds for sums \sum \chi(X(X1)(X2)\ldots (Xk)), where χ is the Legendre symbol '' modulo'' a prime number ''p'', and the sum is taken over a complete set of residues mod ''p''. In the light of this con ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 