Knockout Punch
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Knockout Punch
In metalworking, a knockout punch, also known as a chassis punch, panel punch, Greenlee punch, or a Q-max, is a hand tool used to punch a hole through sheet metal. It is a very simple tool that consists of a punch, die, and screw. There are three different drive systems: manual, ratchet, and hydraulic. Operation First a pilot hole is drilled slightly larger than the screw of the knockout punch. Then the die is placed on the screw and the screw is inserted into the pilot hole. The screw is then threaded into the punch and the screw tightened until the punch is drawn completely through the sheet metal. The manual system uses a screw that has a standard hex head or square head and is driven using an allen key or wrench. A manual knockout punch can handle holes from . The ratchet system has a custom ratcheting wrench that uses a ball screw to make the process faster and easier. This type of system has a mechanical advantage of approximately 220:1 and can punch holes up to in diame ...
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Chassis Punches Round And Square
A chassis (, ; plural ''chassis'' from French châssis ) is the load-bearing framework of an artificial object, which structurally supports the object in its construction and function. An example of a chassis is a vehicle frame, the underpart of a motor vehicle, on which the body is mounted; if the running gear such as wheels and transmission, and sometimes even the driver's seat, are included, then the assembly is described as a rolling chassis. Examples of use Vehicles In the case of vehicles, the term ''rolling chassis'' means the frame plus the "running gear" like engine, transmission, drive shaft, differential and suspension. An underbody (sometimes referred to as "coachwork"), which is usually not necessary for integrity of the structure, is built on the chassis to complete the vehicle. For commercial vehicles, a rolling chassis consists of an assembly of all the essential parts of a truck without the body to be ready for operation on the road. A car chassis will ...
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Pilot Hole
In construction, a pilot hole is a small hole drilled into a piece of construction material. Its purpose may be: #to guide a larger drill to the appropriate location and ease the job of the larger drill #allow for the insertion of another hole-making tool, such as a knockout punch, that will produce the final-sized hole, or #locate, guide, and provide clearance for a self-threading screw in wood or plastic to prevent damaging the material or breaking the screw. Pilot for large holes A pilot hole may be drilled the full extent of the final hole, or may only be a portion of the final depth. The pilot drill may be a standard twist drill, another type of drill bit appropriate for the material, or, when the primary purpose is precisely locating a hole, may be made with a short, stiff center drill. The pilot hole also reduces the power needed to turn a large drill bit, and reduces the large bit breakage risk. For twist drill bits, the pilot size is usually selected so that the chi ...
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Electrical Conduit
An electrical conduit is a tube used to protect and route electrical wiring in a building or structure. Electrical conduit may be made of metal, plastic, fiber, or fired clay. Most conduit is rigid, but flexible conduit is used for some purposes. Conduit is generally installed by electricians at the site of installation of electrical equipment. Its use, form, and installation details are often specified by wiring regulations, such as the US National Electrical Code (NEC) and other building codes. History Some early electric lighting installations made use of existing gas pipe serving gas light fixtures which had been converted to electric lamps. Since this technique provided very good mechanical protection for interior wiring, it was extended to all types of interior wiring and by the early 20th century purpose-built couplings and fittings were manufactured for electrical use. However, most electrical codes now prohibit the routing of electrical conductors through gas piping ...
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Popular Mechanics
''Popular Mechanics'' (sometimes PM or PopMech) is a magazine of popular science and technology, featuring automotive, home, outdoor, electronics, science, do-it-yourself, and technology topics. Military topics, aviation and transportation of all types, space, tools and gadgets are commonly featured. It was founded in 1902 by Henry Haven Windsor, who was the editor and—as owner of the Popular Mechanics Company—the publisher. For decades, the tagline of the monthly magazine was "Written so you can understand it." In 1958, PM was purchased by the Hearst Corporation, now Hearst Communications. In 2013, the US edition changed from twelve to ten issues per year, and in 2014 the tagline was changed to "How your world works." The magazine added a podcast in recent years, including regular features ''Most Useful Podcast Ever'' and ''How Your World Works''. History ''Popular Mechanics'' was founded in Chicago by Henry Haven Windsor, with the first issue dated January 11, 1902. ...
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Mild Steel
Carbon steel is a steel with carbon content from about 0.05 up to 2.1 percent by weight. The definition of carbon steel from the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) states: * no minimum content is specified or required for chromium, cobalt, molybdenum, nickel, niobium, titanium, tungsten, vanadium, zirconium, or any other element to be added to obtain a desired alloying effect; * the specified minimum for copper does not exceed 0.40%; * or the maximum content specified for any of the following elements does not exceed the percentages noted: manganese 1.65%; silicon 0.60%; copper 0.60%. The term ''carbon steel'' may also be used in reference to steel which is not stainless steel; in this use carbon steel may include alloy steels. High carbon steel has many different uses such as milling machines, cutting tools (such as chisels) and high strength wires. These applications require a much finer microstructure, which improves the toughness. Carbon steel is a popular metal choic ...
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Mechanical Advantage
Mechanical advantage is a measure of the force amplification achieved by using a tool, mechanical device or machine system. The device trades off input forces against movement to obtain a desired amplification in the output force. The model for this is the ''law of the lever.'' Machine components designed to manage forces and movement in this way are called mechanisms. An ideal mechanism transmits power without adding to or subtracting from it. This means the ideal machine does not include a power source, is frictionless, and is constructed from rigid bodies that do not deflect or wear. The performance of a real system relative to this ideal is expressed in terms of efficiency factors that take into account departures from the ideal. Lever The lever is a movable bar that pivots on a fulcrum attached to or positioned on or across a fixed point. The lever operates by applying forces at different distances from the fulcrum, or pivot. The location of the fulcrum determines ...
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Ball Screw
A ball screw (or ballscrew) is a mechanical linear actuator that translates rotational motion to linear motion with little friction. A threaded shaft provides a helical raceway for ball bearings which act as a precision screw. As well as being able to apply or withstand high thrust loads, they can do so with minimum internal friction. They are made to close tolerances and are therefore suitable for use in situations in which high precision is necessary. The ball assembly acts as the nut while the threaded shaft is the screw. In contrast to conventional leadscrews, ballscrews tend to be rather bulky, due to the need to have a mechanism to recirculate the balls. Another form of linear actuator based on a rotating rod is the threadless ballscrew, a.k.a. "rolling ring drive". In this design, three (or more) rolling-ring bearings are arranged symmetrically in a housing surrounding a smooth (threadless) actuator rod or shaft. The bearings are set at an angle to the rod, and this ...
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Wrench
A wrench or spanner is a tool used to provide grip and mechanical advantage in applying torque to turn objects—usually rotary fasteners, such as nuts and bolts—or keep them from turning. In the UK, Ireland, Australia, and New Zealand ''spanner'' is the standard term. The most common shapes are called ''open-ended spanner'' and ''ring spanner''. The term ''wrench'' is generally used for tools that turn non-fastening devices (e.g. tap wrench and pipe wrench), or may be used for a monkey wrench—an adjustable pipe wrench. In North American English, ''wrench'' is the standard term. The most common shapes are called ''open-end wrench'' and ''box-end wrench''. In American English, ''spanner'' refers to a specialized wrench with a series of pins or tabs around the circumference. (These pins or tabs fit into the holes or notches cut into the object to be turned.) In American commerce, such a wrench may be called a ''spanner wrench'' to distinguish it from the British sense ...
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Hex Head
At a minimum, a screw drive is a set of shaped cavities and protrusions on the screw head that allows torque to be applied to it. Usually, it also involves a mating tool, such as a screwdriver, that is used to turn it. The following heads are categorized based on frequency, with some of the less-common drives being classified as "tamper-resistant." Most heads come in a range of sizes, typically distinguished by a number, such as "Phillips #00". These sizes do not necessarily describe a particular dimension of the drive shape, but rather are arbitrary designations. Slotted drives Slot Slot screw drives have a single horizontal indentation (the ''slot'') in the fastener head and is driven by a "common blade" or flat-bladed screwdriver. This form was the first type of screw drive to be developed, and for centuries, it was the simplest and cheapest to make. Additionally, it is unique compared to other common drives, due to it being straightforward to manufacture the slot h ...
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