Correlation Indicators
In statistics, correlation or dependence is any statistical relationship, whether causality, causal or not, between two random variables or bivariate data. Although in the broadest sense, "correlation" may indicate any type of association, in statistics it usually refers to the degree to which a pair of variables are ''line (geometry), linearly'' related. Familiar examples of dependent phenomena include the correlation between the human height, height of parents and their offspring, and the correlation between the price of a good and the quantity the consumers are willing to purchase, as it is depicted in the socalled demand curve. Correlations are useful because they can indicate a predictive relationship that can be exploited in practice. For example, an electrical utility may produce less power on a mild day based on the correlation between electricity demand and weather. In this example, there is a causality, causal relationship, because extreme weather causes people to ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Correlation Examples2
In statistics, correlation or dependence is any statistical relationship, whether causal or not, between two random variables or bivariate data. Although in the broadest sense, "correlation" may indicate any type of association, in statistics it usually refers to the degree to which a pair of variables are ''linearly'' related. Familiar examples of dependent phenomena include the correlation between the height of parents and their offspring, and the correlation between the price of a good and the quantity the consumers are willing to purchase, as it is depicted in the socalled demand curve. Correlations are useful because they can indicate a predictive relationship that can be exploited in practice. For example, an electrical utility may produce less power on a mild day based on the correlation between electricity demand and weather. In this example, there is a causal relationship, because extreme weather causes people to use more electricity for heating or cooling. However ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Pearson Correlation Coefficient And Associated Scatterplots
Pearson may refer to: Organizations Education * Lester B. Pearson College, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada *Pearson College (UK), London, owned by Pearson PLC * Lester B. Pearson High School (other) Companies *Pearson PLC, a UKbased international media conglomerate, best known as a book publisher **Pearson Education, the textbook division of Pearson PLC ***PearsonLongman, an imprint of Pearson Education *Pearson Yachts Places *Pearson, California (other) *Pearson, Georgia, a US city *Pearson, Texas, an unincorporated community in the US *Pearson, Victoria, a ghost town in Australia *Pearson, Wisconsin, an unincorporated community in the US *Toronto Pearson International Airport, in Toronto, Ontario, Canada *Pearson Field, in Vancouver, Washington, US *Pearson Island, an island in South Australia which is part of the Pearson Isles *Pearson Isles, an island group in South Australia Other uses *Pearson (surname) *Pearson correlation coefficient, a statistical m ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Uncorrelated
In probability theory and statistics, two realvalued random variables, X, Y, are said to be uncorrelated if their covariance, \operatorname ,Y= \operatorname Y \operatorname \operatorname /math>, is zero. If two variables are uncorrelated, there is no linear relationship between them. Uncorrelated random variables have a Pearson correlation coefficient, when it exists, of zero, except in the trivial case when either variable has zero variance (is a constant). In this case the correlation is undefined. In general, uncorrelatedness is not the same as orthogonality, except in the special case where at least one of the two random variables has an expected value of 0. In this case, the covariance is the expectation of the product, and X and Y are uncorrelated if and only if \operatorname Y= 0. If X and Y are independent, with finite second moments, then they are uncorrelated. However, not all uncorrelated variables are independent. Definition Definition for two real random varia ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Statistical Independence
Independence is a fundamental notion in probability theory, as in statistics and the theory of stochastic processes. Two events are independent, statistically independent, or stochastically independent if, informally speaking, the occurrence of one does not affect the probability of occurrence of the other or, equivalently, does not affect the odds. Similarly, two random variables are independent if the realization of one does not affect the probability distribution of the other. When dealing with collections of more than two events, two notions of independence need to be distinguished. The events are called pairwise independent if any two events in the collection are independent of each other, while mutual independence (or collective independence) of events means, informally speaking, that each event is independent of any combination of other events in the collection. A similar notion exists for collections of random variables. Mutual independence implies pairwise independence ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Linear Dependence
In the theory of vector spaces, a set of vectors is said to be if there is a nontrivial linear combination of the vectors that equals the zero vector. If no such linear combination exists, then the vectors are said to be . These concepts are central to the definition of dimension. A vector space can be of finite dimension or infinite dimension depending on the maximum number of linearly independent vectors. The definition of linear dependence and the ability to determine whether a subset of vectors in a vector space is linearly dependent are central to determining the dimension of a vector space. Definition A sequence of vectors \mathbf_1, \mathbf_2, \dots, \mathbf_k from a vector space is said to be ''linearly dependent'', if there exist scalars a_1, a_2, \dots, a_k, not all zero, such that :a_1\mathbf_1 + a_2\mathbf_2 + \cdots + a_k\mathbf_k = \mathbf, where \mathbf denotes the zero vector. This implies that at least one of the scalars is nonzero, say a_1\ne 0, an ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Open Interval
In mathematics, a (real) interval is a set of real numbers that contains all real numbers lying between any two numbers of the set. For example, the set of numbers satisfying is an interval which contains , , and all numbers in between. Other examples of intervals are the set of numbers such that , the set of all real numbers \R, the set of nonnegative real numbers, the set of positive real numbers, the empty set, and any singleton (set of one element). Real intervals play an important role in the theory of integration, because they are the simplest sets whose "length" (or "measure" or "size") is easy to define. The concept of measure can then be extended to more complicated sets of real numbers, leading to the Borel measure and eventually to the Lebesgue measure. Intervals are central to interval arithmetic, a general numerical computing technique that automatically provides guaranteed enclosures for arbitrary formulas, even in the presence of uncertainties, mathematical ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Absolute Value
In mathematics, the absolute value or modulus of a real number x, is the nonnegative value without regard to its sign. Namely, , x, =x if is a positive number, and , x, =x if x is negative (in which case negating x makes x positive), and For example, the absolute value of 3 and the absolute value of −3 is The absolute value of a number may be thought of as its distance from zero. Generalisations of the absolute value for real numbers occur in a wide variety of mathematical settings. For example, an absolute value is also defined for the complex numbers, the quaternions, ordered rings, fields and vector spaces. The absolute value is closely related to the notions of magnitude, distance, and norm in various mathematical and physical contexts. Terminology and notation In 1806, JeanRobert Argand introduced the term ''module'', meaning ''unit of measure'' in French, specifically for the ''complex'' absolute value,Oxford English Dictionary, Draft Revision, June 2008 an ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Cauchy–Schwarz Inequality
The Cauchy–Schwarz inequality (also called Cauchy–Bunyakovsky–Schwarz inequality) is considered one of the most important and widely used inequalities in mathematics. The inequality for sums was published by . The corresponding inequality for integrals was published by and . Schwarz gave the modern proof of the integral version. Statement of the inequality The Cauchy–Schwarz inequality states that for all vectors \mathbf and \mathbf of an inner product space it is true that where \langle \cdot, \cdot \rangle is the inner product. Examples of inner products include the real and complex dot product; see the examples in inner product. Every inner product gives rise to a norm, called the or , where the norm of a vector \mathbf is denoted and defined by: \, \mathbf\, := \sqrt so that this norm and the inner product are related by the defining condition \, \mathbf\, ^2 = \langle \mathbf, \mathbf \rangle, where \langle \mathbf, \mathbf \rangle is always a nonnegative ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Moment (mathematics)
In mathematics, the moments of a function are certain quantitative measures related to the shape of the function's graph. If the function represents mass density, then the zeroth moment is the total mass, the first moment (normalized by total mass) is the center of mass, and the second moment is the moment of inertia. If the function is a probability distribution, then the first moment is the expected value, the second central moment is the variance, the third standardized moment is the skewness, and the fourth standardized moment is the kurtosis. The mathematical concept is closely related to the concept of moment in physics. For a distribution of mass or probability on a bounded interval, the collection of all the moments (of all orders, from to ) uniquely determines the distribution (Hausdorff moment problem). The same is not true on unbounded intervals (Hamburger moment problem). In the midnineteenth century, Pafnuty Chebyshev became the first person to think systematic ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Expected Value
In probability theory, the expected value (also called expectation, expectancy, mathematical expectation, mean, average, or first moment) is a generalization of the weighted average. Informally, the expected value is the arithmetic mean of a large number of independently selected outcomes of a random variable. The expected value of a random variable with a finite number of outcomes is a weighted average of all possible outcomes. In the case of a continuum of possible outcomes, the expectation is defined by integration. In the axiomatic foundation for probability provided by measure theory, the expectation is given by Lebesgue integration. The expected value of a random variable is often denoted by , , or , with also often stylized as or \mathbb. History The idea of the expected value originated in the middle of the 17th century from the study of the socalled problem of points, which seeks to divide the stakes ''in a fair way'' between two players, who have to end th ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Random Variables
A random variable (also called random quantity, aleatory variable, or stochastic variable) is a mathematical formalization of a quantity or object which depends on random events. It is a mapping or a function from possible outcomes (e.g., the possible upper sides of a flipped coin such as heads H and tails T) in a sample space (e.g., the set \) to a measurable space, often the real numbers (e.g., \ in which 1 corresponding to H and 1 corresponding to T). Informally, randomness typically represents some fundamental element of chance, such as in the roll of a dice; it may also represent uncertainty, such as measurement error. However, the interpretation of probability is philosophically complicated, and even in specific cases is not always straightforward. The purely mathematical analysis of random variables is independent of such interpretational difficulties, and can be based upon a rigorous axiomatic setup. In the formal mathematical language of measure theory, a random vari ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Francis Galton
Sir Francis Galton, FRS FRAI (; 16 February 1822 – 17 January 1911), was an English Victorian era polymath: a statistician, sociologist, psychologist, anthropologist, tropical explorer, geographer, inventor, meteorologist, protogeneticist, psychometrician and a proponent of social Darwinism, eugenics, and scientific racism. He was knighted in 1909. Galton produced over 340 papers and books. He also created the statistical concept of correlation and widely promoted regression toward the mean. He was the first to apply statistical methods to the study of human differences and inheritance of intelligence, and introduced the use of questionnaires and surveys for collecting data on human communities, which he needed for genealogical and biographical works and for his anthropometric studies. He was a pioneer of eugenics, coining the term itself in 1883, and also coined the phrase " nature versus nurture". His book ''Hereditary Genius'' (1869) was the first social sc ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 