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Bakkwa
This audio file was created from a revision of the "Bakkwa" article dated 2006-01-21, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. (Audio help ) MORE SPOKEN ARTICLES BAKKWA, also known as ROUGAN (肉干), is a Chinese salty-sweet dried meat product similar to jerky . It originated from the Fujian
Fujian
province in China
China
where it is considered a Hokkien
Hokkien
delicacy. Bakkwa
Bakkwa
is made with a meat preservation and preparation technique originating from China
China
. The general method for production have remained virtually unchanged throughout the centuries, but the techniques have been gradually improved. It is traditionally made of pork , beef , or mutton , which is prepared with spices, sugar, salt and soy sauce, while dried on racks at around 50 to 60 °C (122 to 140 °F). Nowadays, products with a softer texture, lighter color and less sugar are preferred. The bakkwa products with the higher water content, thus having softer texture and lower sugar content are generally known as the _shafu_ type of bakkwa. Nevertheless, _shafu_ can have similar shelf life as other types of bakkwa. The meat is most commonly served plain and in square-shaped slices in the form of flat thin sheets. Bakkwa
Bakkwa
is immensely popular in Singapore and Malaysia where it is usually eaten during Chinese New Year
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China
CHINA, officially the PEOPLE\'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA (PRC), is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia and the world\'s most populous country , with a population of over 1.381 billion . Covering approximately 9.6 million square kilometres (3.7 million square miles), it is the world's second-largest state by land area and third- or fourth-largest by total area . Governed by the Communist Party of China , it exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces , five autonomous regions , four direct-controlled municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin , Shanghai , and Chongqing ) and the Special Administrative Regions Hong Kong and Macau , also claiming sovereignty over Taiwan . China is a great power and a major regional power within Asia, and has been characterized as a potential superpower . China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain . For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties , beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty . Since then, China has then expanded, fractured, and re-unified numerous times
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Fujian
FUJIAN (Chinese : 福建; pinyin : _Fújiàn_; pronounced ( listen )), formerly romanised as Foken, Fouken, Fukien, and Hokkien, is a province on the southeast coast of mainland China
China
. Fujian
Fujian
is bordered by Zhejiang
Zhejiang
to the north, Jiangxi
Jiangxi
to the west, and Guangdong
Guangdong
to the south. The name Fujian
Fujian
came from the combination of Fuzhou
Fuzhou
and Jianzhou (a former name for Jian\'ou ) two cities in Fujian, during the Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
. While its population is chiefly of Han origin, it is one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse provinces in China. Most of Fujian
Fujian
is administered by the People\'s Republic of China (PRC). However, the archipelagos of Kinmen
Kinmen
and Matsu are under the control of the Republic of China
Republic of China
(ROC, aka Taiwan
Taiwan
). Thus, there are two provinces (in the sense of government organizations): the Fujian Province administered by the PRC and the Fujian
Fujian
Province of the ROC
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Dried Meat
DRIED MEAT is a feature of many cuisines around the world. Examples include: * Kilishi , a dried, spicy Nigerian meat. Coated with a peanut sauce as well as other spices. * Bakkwa or rougan, Chinese salty-sweet dried meat sheets. * Biltong , a cured meat that originated in South Africa
South Africa
. * Bündnerfleisch , air-dried meat from Kanton Graubünden in Switzerland
Switzerland
. * Bògoǫ, a dried and smoked meat, often caribou, of the Dené people of northern Canada. * Borts , air-dried strips of horse or cow meat used as traveling food or to last the winter in Mongolia
Mongolia
. Often ground into powder and mixed with water to create soup. * Bresaola , air-dried salted beef originally from the Valtellina valley in northern Italy
Italy
. * Brési , made in the canton of Jura and in Jura Bernois in Switzerland
Switzerland
and in the department of Doubs in France. * Carne-de-sol , sun-dried salt beef from Brazil
Brazil
. * Carne seca , air-dried meat from Mexico. * Cecina , lightly smoked, dried, and salted meat from northwestern Spain (Asturias, León, Cantabria), Cuba, and Mexico. * Charqui
Charqui
, made from llama or alpaca , in South America
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Traditional Chinese Characters
TRADITIONAL CHINESE CHARACTERS (traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字; simplified Chinese : 正体字/繁体字; Pinyin : Zhèngtǐzì/Fántĭzì) are Chinese characters
Chinese characters
in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most commonly the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan
Taiwan
, of Hong Kong and Macau
Macau
or in the Kangxi Dictionary
Kangxi Dictionary
. The modern shapes of traditional Chinese characters
Chinese characters
first appeared with the emergence of the clerical script during the Han Dynasty
Han Dynasty
, and have been more or less stable since the 5th century (during the Southern and Northern Dynasties .) The retronym "traditional Chinese" is used to contrast traditional characters with Simplified Chinese characters
Chinese characters
, a standardized character set introduced by the government of the People\'s Republic of China
China
on Mainland China
Mainland China
in the 1950s
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Simplified Chinese Characters
SIMPLIFIED CHINESE CHARACTERS (简化字; _jiǎnhuàzì_) are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the _Table of General Standard Chinese Characters _ for use in mainland China . Along with traditional Chinese characters , it is one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language . The government of the People\'s Republic of China in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s in an attempt to increase literacy. They are officially used in the People's Republic of China and Singapore . Traditional Chinese characters are currently used in Hong Kong , Macau , and the Republic of China ( Taiwan ). While traditional characters can still be read and understood by many mainland Chinese and the Chinese community in Malaysia and Singapore, these groups generally retain their use of Simplified characters. Overseas Chinese communities generally tend to use traditional characters. Simplified Chinese characters may be referred to by their official name above or colloquially (简体字; _ jiǎntǐzì _). The latter refers to simplifications of character "structure" or "body", character forms that have existed for thousands of years alongside regular, more complicated forms
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Hokkien
HOKKIEN /hɒˈkiɛn/ (from Chinese : 福建話; Pe̍h-ōe-jī : _Hok-kiàn-oē_) is a Southern Min dialect group spoken throughout Southeastern China , Taiwan and Southeast Asia , and by other overseas Chinese . Hokkien originated in southern Fujian , the Min-speaking province. It is closely related to Teochew , though there is limited mutual intelligibility , and is somewhat more distantly related to Hainanese and Leizhou dialect . Besides Hokkien, there are also other Min and Hakka dialects in Fujian province, most of which are not mutually intelligible with Hokkien. Hokkien historically served as the lingua franca amongst overseas Chinese communities of all dialects and subgroups in Southeast Asia, and remains today as the most spoken variety of Chinese in the region, including in Singapore , Malaysia , Indonesia , Philippines and some parts of Indochina (particularly Thailand, Laos and Cambodia)
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Pe̍h-ōe-jī
Southern Min Amoy Taiwanese CREATOR Walter Henry Medhurst Elihu Doty John Van Nest Talmage TIME PERIOD 1830s–present CHILD SYSTEMS TLPA Taiwanese Romanization System
Taiwanese Romanization System
THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters.PE̍H-ōE-Jī (pronounced ( listen ), abbreviated POJ, literally vernacular writing, also known as CHURCH ROMANIZATION) is an orthography used to write variants of Southern Min Chinese, particularly Taiwanese Southern Min and Amoy Hokkien
Hokkien
. Developed by Western missionaries working among the Chinese diaspora in Southeast Asia in the 19th century and refined by missionaries working in Xiamen and Tainan
Tainan
, it uses a modified Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
and some diacritics to represent the spoken language. After initial success in Fujian , POJ became most widespread in Taiwan
Taiwan
and, in the mid-20th century, there were over 100,000 people literate in POJ. A large amount of printed material, religious and secular, has been produced in the script, including Taiwan
Taiwan
's first newspaper, the Taiwan
Taiwan
Church News
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Standard Chinese
STANDARD CHINESE, also known as MODERN STANDARD MANDARIN, STANDARD MANDARIN, or simply MANDARIN, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China
China
and Taiwan
Taiwan
, and also one of the four official languages of Singapore
Singapore
. Its pronunciation is based on the Beijing dialect , its vocabulary on the Mandarin dialects , and its grammar is based on written vernacular Chinese . Like other varieties of Chinese, Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
is a tonal language with topic-prominent organization and subject–verb–object word order. It has more initial consonants but fewer vowels, final consonants and tones than southern varieties. Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
is an analytic language , though with many compound words . There exist two standardised forms of the language, namely PUTONGHUA in Mainland China
China
and GUOYU in Taiwan. Aside from a number of differences in pronunciation and vocabulary, Putonghua is written using simplified Chinese characters
Chinese characters
(plus Hanyu Pinyin romanization for teaching), while Guoyu is written using traditional Chinese characters (plus Bopomofo for teaching). There are many characters that are identical between the two systems
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Hanyu Pinyin
PINYIN, or HàNYǔ PīNYīN, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China , Malaysia , Singapore , and Taiwan . It is often used to teach Standard Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters . The system includes four diacritics denoting tones . Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet , and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters. The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang , based on earlier forms of romanization of Chinese . It was published by the Chinese government in 1958 and revised several times. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) adopted pinyin as an international standard in 1982, followed by the United Nations in 1986. The system was adopted as the official standard in Taiwan in 2009, where it is used for romanization alone (in part to make areas more English-friendly) rather than for educational and computer-input purposes. The word _Hànyǔ_ (simplified Chinese : 汉语; traditional Chinese : 漢語) means the spoken language of the Han people . _Pīnyīn_ (拼音) literally means "spelled sounds"
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Cantonese
CANTONESE, or STANDARD CANTONESE, is a variety of the Chinese language spoken within the city of Canton (Guangzhou) and its vicinity in southeastern China. It is the traditional prestige variety of Yue , one of the major subdivisions of Chinese. In mainland China , it is the main _lingua franca _ of the province of Guangdong and some neighbouring areas such as Guangxi , being the majority language of the Pearl River Delta . It is the dominant and official language of Hong Kong and Macau . Cantonese is also widely spoken amongst overseas Chinese in Southeast Asia (most notably in Vietnam and Malaysia , as well as in Singapore and Cambodia to a lesser extent) and throughout the Western world . While the term _Cantonese_ refers narrowly to the prestige variety , it is often used in a broader sense for the entire Yue subdivision of Chinese, including related but largely mutually unintelligible languages such as Taishanese . When Cantonese and the closely-related Yuehai dialects are classified together, there are about 80 million total speakers. Cantonese is viewed as vital part of the cultural identity for its native speakers across large swathes of southeastern China , Hong Kong and Macau
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Jyutping
JYUTPING (Chinese : 粵拼; Jyutping: _Jyut6ping3_; Cantonese pronunciation: ) is a romanisation system for Cantonese
Cantonese
developed by the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong (LSHK), an academic group, in 1993. Its formal name is _THE LINGUISTIC SOCIETY OF HONG KONG CANTONESE ROMANISATION SCHEME_. The LSHK promotes the use of this romanisation system. The name _Jyutping_ (itself the Jyutping
Jyutping
romanisation of its Chinese name, 粵拼) is a contraction consisting of the first Chinese characters of the terms _Jyut6jyu5_ (粵語, meaning "Cantonese speech") and _ping3jam1_ (拼音 "phonetic alphabet")
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Southern Min
SOUTHERN MIN, or MINNAN (simplified Chinese : 闽南语; traditional Chinese : 閩南語), is a branch of Min Chinese
Min Chinese
spoken in certain parts of China
China
including southern Fujian
Fujian
(the Minnan region
Minnan region
), eastern Guangdong
Guangdong
, Hainan
Hainan
, and southern Zhejiang
Zhejiang
, and in Taiwan
Taiwan
. The Minnan dialects are also spoken by descendants of emigrants from these areas in diaspora , most notably the Philippines
Philippines
, Indonesia
Indonesia
, Malaysia
Malaysia
and Singapore
Singapore
. In common parlance, Southern Min
Southern Min
usually refers to Hokkien
Hokkien
, including Amoy and Taiwanese Hokkien
Hokkien
; both are combinations of Quanzhou
Quanzhou
and Zhangzhou speeches. The Southern Min
Southern Min
dialect group also includes Teochew , though Teochew has limited mutual intelligibility with Hokkien
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Chinese Cuisine
CHINESE CUISINE is an important part of Chinese culture , which includes cuisine originating from the diverse regions of China , as well as from Chinese people in other parts of the world. Because of the Chinese diaspora and historical power of the country, Chinese cuisine has influenced many other cuisines in Asia , with modifications made to cater to local palates. The preference for seasoning and cooking techniques of Chinese provinces depend on differences in historical background and ethnic groups . Geographic features including mountains, rivers, forests and deserts also have a strong effect on the local available ingredients, considering climate of China varies from tropical in the south to subarctic in the northeast. Imperial, royal and noble preference also plays a role in the change of Chinese cuisines. Because of imperial expansion and trading, ingredients and cooking techniques from other cultures are integrated into Chinese cuisines over time. The most praised "Four Major Cuisines" are Chuan , Lu , Yue and Huaiyang , representing West, North, South and East China cuisine correspondingly. Modern "Eight Cuisines" of China are Anhui , Cantonese , Fujian , Hunan , Jiangsu , Shandong , Sichuan , and Zhejiang cuisines. Color, smell and taste are the three traditional aspects used to describe Chinese food, as well as the meaning, shape and nutrition of the food
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Jerky
JERKY is lean meat that has been trimmed of fat, cut into strips, and then dried to prevent spoilage . Normally, this drying includes the addition of salt, to prevent bacteria from developing on the meat before sufficient moisture has been removed. The word "jerky" is derived from the Quechua word ch\'arki which means "dried, salted meat". All that is needed to produce basic "jerky" is a low-temperature drying method, and salt to inhibit bacterial growth. Modern manufactured jerky is normally marinated in a seasoned spice rub or liquid, and dried, dehydrated or smoked with low heat (usually under 70 °C/160 °F). Some product manufacturers finely grind meat, mix in seasonings, and press the meat-paste into flat shapes prior to drying. The resulting jerky from the above methods would be a salty and/or savory snack. However, often a sweet or semi-sweet recipe is used, with sugar being a major ingredient (in contrast to biltong which is a dried meat product that utilizes the acid in vinegar rather than salt to inhibit bacterial growth when drying the meat). Jerky
Jerky
is ready-to-eat and needs no additional preparation. It can be stored for months without refrigeration . When the protein to moisture content ratio is correct, the resulting meat is cured , or preserved. There are many products in the marketplace which are sold as jerky which consist of highly processed, chopped and formed meat, rather than traditional sliced, whole-muscle meat
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Meat Preservation
CURING is any of various food preservation and flavoring processes of foods such as meat , fish and vegetables , by the addition of combinations of salt , nitrates , nitrites , or sugar , with the aim of drawing moisture out of the food by the process of osmosis . Many curing processes also involve smoking , spicing, or cooking . Dehydration was the earliest form of food curing. Because curing increases the solute concentration in the food and hence decreases its water potential , the food becomes inhospitable for the microbe growth that causes food spoilage. Curing can be traced back to antiquity, and was the primary way of preserving meat and fish until the late 19th century. Nitrates and nitrites, in conjunction with salt, are one of the most common agents in curing meat because they further inhibit the growth of Clostridium botulinum
Clostridium botulinum
. They also contribute to the characteristic pink color. Slices of beef in a can. MEAT PRESERVATION in general (of meat from livestock , game , and poultry ) is the set of all treatment processes for preserving the properties, taste, texture, and color of raw, partially cooked, or cooked meats while keeping them edible and safe to consume. Curing has been the dominant method of meat preservation for thousands of years, although modern developments like refrigeration and synthetic preservatives are now beginning to complement and supplant it
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