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Bakkwa
This audio file was created from a revision of the "Bakkwa" article dated 2006-01-21, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. (Audio help ) MORE SPOKEN ARTICLES BAKKWA, also known as ROUGAN (肉干), is a Chinese salty-sweet dried meat product similar to jerky . It originated from the Fujian
Fujian
province in China
China
where it is considered a Hokkien
Hokkien
delicacy. Bakkwa
Bakkwa
is made with a meat preservation and preparation technique originating from China
China
. The general method for production have remained virtually unchanged throughout the centuries, but the techniques have been gradually improved. It is traditionally made of pork , beef , or mutton , which is prepared with spices, sugar, salt and soy sauce, while dried on racks at around 50 to 60 °C (122 to 140 °F)
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Meat Preservation
CURING is any of various food preservation and flavoring processes of foods such as meat , fish and vegetables , by the addition of combinations of salt , nitrates , nitrites , or sugar , with the aim of drawing moisture out of the food by the process of osmosis . Many curing processes also involve smoking , spicing, or cooking . Dehydration was the earliest form of food curing. Because curing increases the solute concentration in the food and hence decreases its water potential , the food becomes inhospitable for the microbe growth that causes food spoilage. Curing can be traced back to antiquity, and was the primary way of preserving meat and fish until the late 19th century. Nitrates and nitrites, in conjunction with salt, are one of the most common agents in curing meat because they further inhibit the growth of Clostridium botulinum
Clostridium botulinum
. They also contribute to the characteristic pink color. Slices of beef in a can
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Chinese Cuisine
CHINESE CUISINE is an important part of Chinese culture , which includes cuisine originating from the diverse regions of China , as well as from Chinese people in other parts of the world. Because of the Chinese diaspora and historical power of the country, Chinese cuisine has influenced many other cuisines in Asia , with modifications made to cater to local palates. The preference for seasoning and cooking techniques of Chinese provinces depend on differences in historical background and ethnic groups . Geographic features including mountains, rivers, forests and deserts also have a strong effect on the local available ingredients, considering climate of China varies from tropical in the south to subarctic in the northeast. Imperial, royal and noble preference also plays a role in the change of Chinese cuisines
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Southern Min
SOUTHERN MIN, or MINNAN (simplified Chinese : 闽南语; traditional Chinese : 閩南語), is a branch of Min Chinese spoken in certain parts of China
China
including Fujian
Fujian
(especially the Minnan region ), eastern Guangdong
Guangdong
, Taiwan
Taiwan
, Hainan
Hainan
, and southern Zhejiang
Zhejiang
. The Minnan dialects are also spoken by descendants of emigrants from these areas in diaspora , most notably the Philippines
Philippines
, Indonesia
Indonesia
, Malaysia
Malaysia
, and Singapore
Singapore

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Beef
BEEF is the culinary name for meat from cattle , particularly skeletal muscle . Humans have been eating beef since prehistoric times. Beef
Beef
is a source of high-quality protein and essential nutrients. Beef
Beef
skeletal muscle meat can be cut into roasts , short ribs or steak (filet mignon , sirloin steak , rump steak , rib steak , rib eye steak , hanger steak , etc.). Some cuts are processed (corned beef or beef jerky ), and trimmings, usually mixed with meat from older, leaner cattle, are ground , minced or used in sausages . The blood is used in some varieties of blood sausage
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Mutton
LAMB, HOGGET, and MUTTON are the meat of domestic sheep (species Ovis aries) at different ages. A sheep in its first year is called a lamb, and its meat is also called lamb. The meat of a juvenile sheep older than one year is hogget; outside the USA this is also a term for the living animal. The meat of an adult sheep is mutton, a term only used for the meat, not the living animals. The term mutton is almost always used to refer to goat meat in the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
. Lamb is the most expensive of the three types, and in recent decades sheep meat is increasingly only retailed as "lamb", sometimes stretching the accepted distinctions given above. The stronger-tasting mutton is now hard to find in many areas, despite the efforts of the Mutton Renaissance Campaign in the UK. In Australia, the term PRIME LAMB is often used to refer to lambs raised for meat
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Ethnic Group
An ETHNIC GROUP or ETHNICITY is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestral , language , social , cultural or national experiences . Ethnicity is often an inherited status based on the society in which one lives. In some cases, it can be adopted if a person moves into another society. Membership of an ethnic group tends to be defined by a shared cultural heritage , ancestry , origin myth , history , homeland , language or dialect , symbolic systems such as religion , mythology and ritual , cuisine , dressing style, art , and physical appearance . Ethnic groups, derived from the same historical founder population , often continue to speak related languages and share a similar gene pool
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China
CHINA, officially the PEOPLE\'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA (PRC), is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia
East Asia
and the world\'s most populous country , with a population of around 1.404 billion . Covering approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area, depending on the source consulted. China
China
also has the most neighbor countries in the world. Governed by the Communist Party of China
Communist Party of China
, it exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces , five autonomous regions , four direct-controlled municipalities ( Beijing
Beijing
, Tianjin
Tianjin
, Shanghai
Shanghai
, and Chongqing
Chongqing
), and the special administrative regions of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and Macau
Macau

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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Jyutping
JYUTPING (Chinese : 粵拼; Jyutping: Jyut6ping3; Cantonese pronunciation: ) is a romanisation system for Cantonese
Cantonese
developed by the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong (LSHK), an academic group, in 1993. Its formal name is THE LINGUISTIC SOCIETY OF HONG KONG CANTONESE ROMANISATION SCHEME. The LSHK promotes the use of this romanisation system. The name Jyutping
Jyutping
(itself the Jyutping
Jyutping
romanisation of its Chinese name, 粵拼) is a contraction consisting of the first Chinese characters of the terms Jyut6jyu5 (粵語, meaning " Cantonese
Cantonese
speech") and ping3jam1 (拼音 "phonetic alphabet")
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Cantonese
CANTONESE, or STANDARD CANTONESE, is a variety of the Chinese language spoken within Guangzhou
Guangzhou
(historically known as Canton) and its vicinity in southeastern China. It is the traditional prestige variety of Yue , one of the major subdivisions of Chinese. In mainland China
China
, it is the lingua franca of the province of Guangdong
Guangdong
, being the majority language of the Pearl River Delta
Pearl River Delta
, and neighbouring areas such as Guangxi . It is the dominant and official language of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and Macau
Macau

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Traditional Chinese Characters
TRADITIONAL CHINESE CHARACTERS (traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字; simplified Chinese : 正体字/繁体字; Pinyin : Zhèngtǐzì/Fántĭzì) are Chinese characters
Chinese characters
in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most commonly the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan
Taiwan
, of Hong Kong and Macau
Macau
or in the Kangxi Dictionary
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Fujian
FUJIAN (Chinese : 福建; pinyin : Fújiàn; pronounced ( listen )), formerly romanised as Foken, Fouken, Fukien, and Hokkien, is a province on the southeast coast of mainland China
China
. Fujian
Fujian
is bordered by Zhejiang to the north, Jiangxi
Jiangxi
to the west, and Guangdong
Guangdong
to the south. The name Fujian
Fujian
came from the combination of Fuzhou
Fuzhou
and Jianzhou (a former name for Jian\'ou ) two cities in Fujian, during the Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
. While its population is chiefly of Han origin, it is one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse provinces in China. Most of Fujian
Fujian
is administered by the People\'s Republic of China (PRC)
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Hokkien
HOKKIEN-TAIWANESE (/ˈhɒkiɛn, hɒˈkiɛn/ ; from Chinese : 福建話; pinyin : Fújiànhuà; Pe̍h-ōe-jī
Pe̍h-ōe-jī
: Hok-kiàn-oē) or MINNAN PROPER (閩南語/閩南話), is a Southern Min
Southern Min
dialect group spoken in the Fujian
Fujian
Province in Southeastern China
China
, Taiwan
Taiwan
, Malaysia
Malaysia
, Singapore
Singapore
, Indonesia
Indonesia
and other parts of Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
, and by other overseas Chinese . Hokkien
Hokkien
originated in southern Fujian , the Min-speaking province. It is the mainstream form of Southern Min
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Simplified Chinese Characters
SIMPLIFIED CHINESE CHARACTERS (简化字; jiǎnhuàzì) are standardized Chinese characters
Chinese characters
prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
Characters for use in mainland China . Along with traditional Chinese characters
Chinese characters
, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language . The government of the People\'s Republic of China
Republic of China
in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy. They are officially used in the People\'s Republic of China
Republic of China
and Singapore
Singapore

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