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Yoke
A yoke is a wooden beam normally used between a pair of oxen or other animals to enable them to pull together on a load when working in pairs, as oxen usually do; some yokes are fitted to individual animals. There are several types of yoke, used in different cultures, and for different types of oxen. A pair of oxen may be called a yoke of oxen, and yoke is also a verb, as in "to yoke a pair of oxen". Other animals that may be yoked include horses, mules, donkeys, and water buffalo.Contents1 Etymology 2 Neck or bow yoke 3 Head yoke 4 Withers
Withers
yoke 5 Comparison 6 Single yoke 7 Symbolism 8 Gallery 9 See also 10 References 11 External linksEtymology[edit]Look up *yugóm in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.The word "yoke" is believed to derive from Proto-Indo-European *yugóm (yoke), from verb *yeug- (join, unite)
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Draught Animal
A working animal is an animal, usually domesticated, that is kept by humans and trained to perform tasks. They may be close members of the family, such as guide dogs or other assistance dogs, or they may be animals trained to provide tractive force, such as draft horses or logging elephants. The latter types of animals are called draft animals (draught animals) or beasts of burden. Most working animals are either service animals or draft animals. They may also be used for milking or herding, jobs that require human training to encourage the animal to cooperate. Some, at the end of their working lives, may also be used for meat or other products such as leather. The history of working animals may predate agriculture, with dogs used by our hunter-gatherer ancestors. Around the world, millions of animals work in relationship with their owners. Domesticated species are often bred for different uses and conditions, especially horses and working dogs
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Si Phan Don
Coordinates: 14°02′49″N 105°49′58″E / 14.047043°N 105.832683°E / 14.047043; 105.832683 The Si Phan Don
Si Phan Don
(Lao: ສີ່ພັນດອນ; meaning 4000 islands) is a riverine archipelago in the Mekong
Mekong
River, Champasak Province in southern Laos. Si Phan Don
Si Phan Don
is part of the Khong District (that includes the islands and a part of the mainland in the east). Si Phan Don is characterised by numerous islands, half of which are submerged when the Mekong
Mekong
River
River
is in flood. The principal islands of Si Phan Don
Si Phan Don
are Don Khong (the largest), Don Som (the second largest), Don Det and Don Khon. Si Phan Don
Si Phan Don
is bordering Cambodia
Cambodia
and historical and cultural ties link the people on both side of the border
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Africa
Africa
Africa
is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (the first being Asia
Asia
in both categories). At about 30.3 million km2 (11.7 million square miles) including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth's total surface area and 20% of its total land area.[3] With 1.2 billion[1] people as of 2016, it accounts for about 16% of the world's human population. The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the north, both the Suez Canal and the Red Sea
Red Sea
along the Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
to the northeast, the Indian Ocean
Ocean
to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west. The continent includes Madagascar
Madagascar
and various archipelagos
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Horn (anatomy)
A horn is a permanent pointed projection on the head of various animals consisting of a covering of keratin and other proteins surrounding a core of live bone. Horns are distinct from antlers, which are not permanent. In mammals, true horns are found mainly among the ruminant artiodactyls[not verified in body], in the families Antilocapridae
Antilocapridae
(pronghorn) and Bovidae
Bovidae
(cattle, goats, antelope etc.). One pair of horns is usual; however, two or more pairs occur in a few wild species and domesticated breeds of sheep. Polycerate (multi-horned) sheep breeds include the Hebridean, Icelandic, Jacob, Manx Loaghtan, and the Navajo-Churro. Horns usually have a curved or spiral shape, often with ridges or fluting. In many species only males have horns. Horns start to grow soon after birth, and continue to grow throughout the life of the animal (except in pronghorns, which shed the outer layer annually, but retain the bony core)
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South America
South America
South America
is a continent located in the western hemisphere, mostly in the southern hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the northern hemisphere. It may also be considered a subcontinent of the Americas,[3][4] which is how it is viewed in the Spanish and Portuguese-speaking regions of the Americas. The reference to South America instead of other regions (like Latin America
Latin America
or the Southern Cone) has increased in the last decades due to changing geopolitical dynamics (in particular, the rise of Brazil).[5] It is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
and on the north and east by the Atlantic
Atlantic
Ocean; North America
North America
and the Caribbean Sea
Caribbean Sea
lie to the northwest
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Canada
Coordinates: 60°N 95°W / 60°N 95°W / 60; -95Canada Flag Coat of arms Motto: A Mari Usque Ad Mare  (Latin)"From Sea to Sea"Anthem: "O Canada"[a] CapitalOttawa45°24′N 75°40′W / 45.400°N 75.667°W / 45.400; -75.667Largest cityTorontoOfficial languagesEnglishFrenchEthnic groups (2016)[2] List of ethnicities 74.3% European 14.5% Asian 5.1% Indigenous 3.4% Caribbean and Latin American 2.9% African 0.2% Oceanian Religion (2011)[3] List of religions 67.2% Christianity
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Burma
Myanmar
Myanmar
(Burmese: [mjəmà]),[nb 1][8] officially the Republic
Republic
of the Union of Myanmar
Myanmar
and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia. Myanmar
Myanmar
is bordered by India
India
and Bangladesh
Bangladesh
to its west, Thailand
Thailand
and Laos
Laos
to its east and China
China
to its north and northeast. To its south, about one third of Myanmar's total perimeter of 5,876 km (3,651 mi) forms an uninterrupted coastline of 1,930 km (1,200 mi) along the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
and the Andaman Sea. The country's 2014 census counted the population to be 51 million people.[9] As of 2017, the population is about 54 million.[5] Myanmar is 676,578 square kilometres (261,228 square miles) in size
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Withers
The withers is the ridge between the shoulder blades of an animal, typically a quadruped. In many species, it is the tallest point of the body. In horses and dogs, it is the standard place to measure the animal's height. In contrast, cattle are normally measured to the top of the hips.Contents1 Horses1.1 Conformational issues2 Dogs 3 Zebras 4 References 5 External linksHorses[edit] The withers in horses are formed by the dorsal spinal processes of roughly the 3rd through 11th thoracic vertebrae, which are unusually long in this area. Most horses have 18 thoracic vertebrae. The processes at the withers can be more than 12 inches (30 cm) long. Since they do not move relative to the ground as the horse's head does, the withers are used as the measuring point for the height of a horse. Horses are commonly measured in hands – one hand is 4 inches (10 cm)
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Zebu
A zebu (/ˈziːˌbjuː/, /ˈziːbuː/ or /ˈzeɪbuː/; Bos
Bos
primigenius indicus or Bos
Bos
indicus or Bos
Bos
taurus indicus), sometimes known as indicine cattle or humped cattle, is a species or subspecies of domestic cattle originating in the Indian Subcontinent. Zebu
Zebu
are characterised by a fatty hump on their shoulders, a large dewlap, and sometimes drooping ears. They are well adapted to withstanding high temperatures, and are farmed throughout the tropical countries, both as pure zebu and as hybrids with taurine cattle, the other main type of domestic cattle. Zebu
Zebu
are used as draught oxen, dairy cattle, and beef cattle, as well as for byproducts such as hides and dung for fuel and manure
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India
India
India
(official name: the Republic
Republic
of India;[19] Hindi: Bhārat Gaṇarājya) is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan
Pakistan
to the west;[d] China, Nepal, and Bhutan
Bhutan
to the north; and Bangladesh and Myanmar
Myanmar
to the east
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Laos
Coordinates: 18°N 105°E / 18°N 105°E / 18; 105 Socialist state
Socialist state
in southeast Asia Lao People's Democratic Republicສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ  (Lao)Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao (Lao romanisation)République démocratique populaire lao  (French) Flag Emblem Motto: "ສັນຕິພາບ ເອກະລາດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ເອກະພາບ ວັດທະນະຖາ
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Europe
Europe
Europe
(Europa) is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean
Arctic Ocean
to the north, the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west, Asia
Asia
to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Europe
Europe
is most commonly considered to be separated from Asia
Asia
by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits.[7] Although the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several times since its first conception in classical antiquity
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Feudalism
Feudalism
Feudalism
was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries
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Imperialism
Imperialism
Imperialism
is a policy or ideology of extending a country's rule over foreign nations, often by military force or by gaining political and economic control of other areas.[2] Imperialism
Imperialism
was both normal and common worldwide throughout recorded history, the earliest examples dating from the mid-third millennium BC. In recent times, it has been considered morally reprehensible and prohibited by international law. Therefore, the term is used in international propaganda to denounce an opponent's foreign policy.[3] The term can be applied to the colonization of the Americas between the 17th and 19th centuries, as opposed to New Imperialism, which describes the expansion of Western Powers and Japan during the late 19th and early 20th centuries
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Corvée
Corvée
Corvée
(French: [kɔʁve] ( listen)) is a form of unpaid, unfree labour, which is intermittent in nature and which lasts limited periods of time: typically only a certain number of days' work each year. Statute labour is a corvée imposed by a state for the purposes of public works.[1] As such it represents a form of levy (taxation). Unlike other forms of levy, such as a tithe, a corvée does not require the population to have land, crops or cash. It was thus favored in historical economies in which barter was more common than cash transactions or circulating money was in short supply. The obligation for tenant farmers to perform corvée work for landlords on private landed estates has been widespread throughout history, before the Industrial Revolution. The term is most typically used in reference to medieval and early modern Europe, where work was often expected by a feudal landowner (of their vassals), or by a monarch of their subjects
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