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EUROPE —a concept dating back to classical antiquity — is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia . Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. The eastern boundary with Asia is an arbitrary historical and social construct , as there is no clear physical and geographical separation between them. The primarily physiographic term "continent" as applied to Europe also incorporates cultural and political elements whose discontinuities and lines of demarcation are not reflected by the continent's current overland boundaries with Asia. Europe is considered by historical convention as separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains , the Ural River , the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits .

Europe covers about 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth's surface (6.8% of land area). Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 740 million (about 11% of world population ) as of 2015 . The European climate is largely affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast.

Europe, in particular ancient Greece , was the birthplace of Western civilization . The fall of the Western Roman Empire , during the migration period , marked the end of ancient history and the beginning of an era known as the Middle Ages . Renaissance humanism , exploration , art , and science led to the modern era . From the Age of Discovery onwards, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various times the Americas , most of Africa , Oceania , and the majority of Asia.

The Industrial Revolution , which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to radical economic, cultural, and social change in Western Europe , and eventually the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most part in Europe, contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet Union and the United States took prominence. During the Cold War , Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the west and the Warsaw Pact in the east, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall .

In 1955, the Council of Europe was formed following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill , with the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals. It includes all states except for Belarus , Kazakhstan and Vatican City . Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union , a separate political entity that lies between a confederation and a federation . The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro , is the most commonly used among Europeans; and the EU's Schengen Area abolishes border and immigration controls among most of its member states. The European Anthem is "Ode to Joy" and states celebrate peace and unity on Europe Day .

CONTENTS

* 1 Name

* 2 Definition

* 2.1 Contemporary definition

* 2.2 History of the concept

* 2.2.1 Early history * 2.2.2 Modern definitions

* 3 History

* 3.1 Prehistory * 3.2 Classical antiquity * 3.3 Early Middle Ages * 3.4 High and Late Middle Ages * 3.5 Early modern period * 3.6 18th and 19th centuries * 3.7 20th century to the present

* 4 Geography

* 4.1 Climate * 4.2 Geology * 4.3 Flora * 4.4 Fauna

* 5 Politics * 6 List of states and territories

* 7 Economy

* 7.1 Economic history

* 8 Demographics

* 8.1 Ethnic groups * 8.2 Migration * 8.3 Languages

* 9 Culture

* 9.1 Religion

* 10 See also * 11 Notes * 12 References * 13 Sources * 14 External links

NAME

Further information: Europa (mythology) Reconstruction of Herodotus ' world map (450 BC)

In classical Greek mythology , Europa ( Ancient Greek : Εὐρώπη, _Eurṓpē_) is the name of either a Phoenician princess or of a queen of Crete. The name contains the elements εὐρύς (_eurús_), "wide, broad" and ὤψ (_ōps_, gen. ὠπός, _ōpós_) "eye, face, countenance", hence their composite _Eurṓpē_ would mean "wide-gazing" or "broad of aspect". _Broad_ has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it. For the second part compare also the divine attributes of "grey-eyed" Athena (γλαυκῶπις, _glaukōpis_) or ox-eyed Hera (βοὠπις, _boōpis_).

There have been attempts to connect _Eurṓpē_ to a Semitic term for "west", this being either Akkadian _erebu_ meaning "to go down, set" (said of the sun) or Phoenician _'ereb_ "evening, west", which is at the origin of Arabic Maghreb and Hebrew _ma'arav_. Michael A. Barry , professor in Princeton University 's Near Eastern Studies Department, finds the mention of the word _Ereb_ on an Assyrian stele with the meaning of "night, sunset", in opposition to _Asu_ " sunrise", i.e. Asia . The same naming motive according to "cartographic convention" appears in Greek Ἀνατολή (_Anatolḗ_ " rise", "east", hence Anatolia ). Martin Litchfield West stated that "phonologically, the match between Europa's name and any form of the Semitic word is very poor." Next to these hypotheses there is also a Proto-Indo-European root _*h1regʷos_, meaning "darkness", which also produced Greek _ Erebus _.

Most major world languages use words derived from _Eurṓpē_ or _Europa_ to refer to the continent. Chinese, for example, uses the word _Ōuzhōu_ (歐洲/欧洲); a similar Chinese-derived term _Ōshū_ (欧州) is also sometimes used in Japanese such as in the Japanese name of the European Union, _Ōshū Rengō_ (欧州連合), despite the katakana _Yōroppa_ (ヨーロッパ) being more commonly used. In some Turkic languages the originally Persian name _Frangistan _ ("land of the Franks ") is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as _Avrupa_ or _Evropa_.

DEFINITION

Further information: List of transcontinental countries and Boundaries between continents

CONTEMPORARY DEFINITION

Clickable map of Europe, showing one of the most commonly used continental boundaries KEY: BLUE: states which straddle the border between Europe and Asia ; GREEN: countries not geographically in Europe, but closely associated with the continent Alb. Andorra Austria Azer. Belarus Belg. Bosnia Bulgaria Channel Is.(UK) Croatia Czechia Denmark Estonia Finland France _Gib. (UK)_ Germany Georgia Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy IoM (UK) S. Mar. Kazakhstan _Kos._ Latvia Liech. Lithuania Lux. Mac. Malta Moldova Mon. Mont. Nether. Norway _ Svalbard (Nor)_ Poland Portugal Romania Russia Serbia Slovakia Slo. Spain Sweden Switz- erland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom _Far. (Dk)_ Vat. Armenia Cyprus _ Greenland (Dk)_ _Adr-_ _iatic_ _Sea_ _ Arctic Ocean _ Baltic Sea _Aegean _ _Sea _ _ Barents Sea _

* Military

* Sovereignty

* predecessor states

GEOGRAPHY

* Areas and populations * Largest metropolitan areas * Cities * Extreme points * Geology * Islands * Lakes * Mountains * Rivers

* Sovereign states and dependent territories

* by population

* Villages

POLITICS

* Eurosphere * International organisations * Integration * Law * Politics * Post-Soviet Europe * Transatlantic relations

INTERGOVERNMENTAL

* Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) * Council of Europe (CoE) * Collective Security Treaty Organisation (CSTO) * GUAM Organization * North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO)

* Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE)

* statistics

EUROPEAN UNION

* Economy

* relations * free trade agreements

* Education * European Economic Area (EEA) * European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) * European Union Customs Union (EUCU) * Eurozone * Foreign relations

* Members

* enlargement

* Politics * Schengen Area * Statistics * Visa policy

ECONOMY

* History * Financial (and social) rankings * Free trade areas * Energy * Telecommunications * Transport

INTERGOVERNMENTAL

* Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA) * Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia (CUBKR) * Eurasian Economic Community (EAEC) * European Free Trade Association (EFTA)

SOVEREIGN STATES BY

* Average wage

* Budget revenues

* per capita

* Corruption index

* GDP (nominal)

* per capita

* GDP (PPP)

* per capita

* GNI (nominal) per capita * GNI (PPP) per capita * HDI * Internet users (%) * Minimum wage * Press Freedom Index * Unemployment rate (%) * Health expense per capita * Military spending (%) * Childhood population (%) * Urban population (%) * Life expectancy * Electricity use per capita

SOCIETY

* Etiquette * Social (and financial) rankings

* Languages

* endangered

* Universities

* Bologna Process * Erasmus

CULTURE

* Art

* painting * sculpture

* Architecture * Capital of Culture

* Cinema

* film festivals

* Classical music * Cuisine * Dance * Literature * Philosophy

* Religion

* Christianity * Islam * Judaism

* Sport * Symbols

DEMOGRAPHICS

* Ageing

* Ethnic groups

* genetic history

* Immigration * Life expectancy * Retirement

* Outline * Index

* Category * Portal * Maps

* v * t * e

Sovereign states and dependencies of Europe

SOVEREIGN STATES

* Albania * Andorra * Armenia 2 * Austria * Azerbaijan * Belarus * Belgium * Bosnia and Herzegovina * Bulgaria * Croatia * Cyprus 2 * Czech Republic * Denmark * Estonia * Finland * France * Georgia * Germany * Greece * Hungary * Iceland 1 * Ireland * Italy * Kazakhstan * Latvia * Liechtenstein * Lithuania * Luxembourg * Macedonia * Malta * Moldova * Monaco * Montenegro * Netherlands * Norway * Poland * Portugal * Romania * Russia * San Marino * Serbia * Slovakia * Slovenia * Spain * Sweden * Switzerland * Turkey * Ukraine * United Kingdom * Vatican City

States with limited recognition

* Abkhazia 2 * Kosovo * Nagorno-Karabakh 2 * Northern Cyprus 2 * South Ossetia 2 * Transnistria

DEPENDENCIES

DENMARK

* Faroe Islands 1

* autonomous country of the Kingdom of Denmark

UNITED KINGDOM

* Akrotiri and Dhekelia 2

* Sovereign Base Areas

* Gibraltar

* British Overseas Territory

* Guernsey * Isle of Man

* Jersey

* Crown dependencies

Special areas of internal sovereignty

FINLAND

* Åland Islands

* autonomous region subject to the Åland Convention of 1921

NORWAY

* Svalbard

* unincorporated area subject to the Svalbard Treaty

UNITED KINGDOM

* Northern Ireland

* country of the United Kingdom subject to the British-Irish Agreement

* 1 Oceanic islands within the vicinity of Europe are usually grouped with the continent even though they are not situated on its continental shelf. * 2 Some countries completely outside the conventional geographical boundaries of Europe are commonly associated with the continent due to ethnological links.

* v * t * e

Continents of the world

Africa

Antarctica

Asia

Australia

Europe

North America

South America

Afro- Eurasia

Americas

Eurasia

Oceania

* FORMER SUPERCONTINENTS Gondwana * Laurasia * Pangaea * Pannotia * Rodinia * Columbia * Kenorland * Nena * Sclavia * Ur * Vaalbara

* HISTORICAL CONTINENTS Amazonia * Arctica * Asiamerica * Atlantica * Avalonia * Baltica * Cimmeria * Congo craton * Euramerica * Kalaharia * Kazakhstania * Laurentia * North China * Siberia * South China * East Antarctica * India

* SUBMERGED CONTINENTS Kerguelen Plateau * Zealandia

* POSSIBLE FUTURE SUPERCONTINENTS Pangaea Ultima * Amasia * Novopangaea

* MYTHICAL AND HYPOTHESISED CONTINENTS Atlantis * Kumari Kandam * Lemuria * Meropis * Mu * Hyperborea * Terra Australis

* _See also Regions of the world _ * _ Continental fragment _

* BOOK * CATEGORY

* v * t * e

Regions of the world

* v * t * e

Regions of Africa

NORTH

* Mediterranean * Gibraltar Arc

* Greater Middle East

* MENA * Middle East

* Maghreb

* Barbary Coast * Barbara * Ancient Libya * Atlas Mountains ( Middle Atlas ) * Sahara * Western Sahara * Sahel

* Eastern Mediterranean

* Egypt

* Upper Egypt * Middle Egypt * Lower Egypt * Cataracts of the Nile * Bashmur

* Nubia

* Lower Nubia

* Nile Valley * Nile Delta * Darfur * Gulf of Aqaba * Sub-Saharan

EAST

* Aethiopia * Swahili coast * East African Rift * Great Rift Valley * Afar Triangle * Danakil Desert * Danakil Alps * Albertine Rift Valley * Gregory Rift Valley * Southern Rift Valley

* Rift Valley lakes

* African Great Lakes

* Mittelafrika

* Horn of Africa

* Ethiopian Highlands * Gulf of Aden * Gulf of Tadjoura

* Sudan (region) * Sudanian Savanna * East African montane forests * Sub-Saharan

CENTRAL

* Negroland

* Guinea region

* Gulf of Guinea

* Cape Lopez * Mayombe

* Igboland

* Mbaise

* Maputaland * Pool Malebo * Congo Basin * Chad Basin * Congolese rainforests * Ouaddaï highlands * Ennedi Plateau * Sub-Saharan

WEST

* Pepper Coast * Gold Coast * Slave Coast * Ivory Coast * Cape Palmas * Cape Mesurado * Negroland

* Guinea region

* Gulf of Guinea

* Sudanian Savanna * Niger Basin * Guinean Forests of West Africa * Sudan (region) * Niger Delta * Inner Niger Delta * Sub-Saharan

SOUTH

* Madagascar

* Central Highlands (Madagascar) * Northern Highlands

* Rhodesia

* North * South

* Thembuland * Succulent Karoo * Nama Karoo * Bushveld * Highveld * Fynbos * Cape Floristic Region * Kalahari Desert * Okavango Delta * False Bay * Hydra Bay * Sub-Saharan

* Anglophone Africa * Francophone Africa * Lusophone Africa * Arabophone Africa * Sub-Saharan Africa * Tropical Africa * Islands

* v * t * e

Regions of North America

CANADA

* Eastern Canada * Western Canada * Canadian Prairies * Northern Canada * Atlantic Canada * French Canada * English Canada

* Acadia

* Acadian Peninsula

* Quebec City–Windsor Corridor * Peace River Country * Cypress Hills * Palliser\'s Triangle * Canadian Shield * Interior Alaska-Yukon lowland taiga * Newfoundland (island) * Vancouver island * Gulf Islands * Strait of Georgia * Canadian Arctic Archipelago * Labrador Peninsula * Gaspé Peninsula

* Avalon Peninsula

* Bay de Verde Peninsula

* Brodeur Peninsula * Melville Peninsula * Bruce Peninsula * Banks Peninsula (Nunavut) * Cook Peninsula * Gulf of Boothia * Georgian Bay * Hudson Bay * James Bay * Greenland

UNITED STATES

* Eastern

* Appalachia * East Coast * Great Lakes

* Northeastern

* Mid-Atlantic * New England

* Western

* Alaska Peninsula * Mountain States * Northwestern * Pacific * Pacific Northwest * Rocky Mountains * West Coast

* Central

* Great Plains * Midwestern

* Southern

* Deep South * Gulf * Southeastern * South Central * Southwestern * Upland South

* Belt regions

* Bible Belt * Black Belt * Corn Belt * Cotton Belt * Frost Belt * Rice Belt * Rust Belt * Sun Belt * Snow Belt

MEXICO

* Northern Mexico * Baja California Peninsula

* Gulf of California

* Colorado River Delta

* Gulf of Mexico * Soconusco * Tierra Caliente * La Mixteca * La Huasteca * Bajío * Valley of Mexico * Mezquital Valley * Sierra Madre de Oaxaca * Yucatán Peninsula * Basin and Range Province

CENTRAL

* Western Caribbean Zone * Isthmus of Panama

* Gulf of Panama

* Pearl Islands

* Azuero Peninsula * Mosquito Coast

CARIBBEAN

* West Indies

* Antilles

* Greater Antilles

* Lesser Antilles

* Leeward * Leeward Antilles * Windward

* Lucayan Archipelago * Southern Caribbean

* Aridoamerica * Mesoamerica * Oasisamerica * Northern * Middle * Anglo

* Latin

* French * Hispanic

* American Cordillera * Ring of Fire * LAC

* v * t * e

Regions of South America

NORTH

* Caribbean South America * West Indies * Los Llanos * The Guianas * Gulf of Paria * Paria Peninsula * Paraguaná Peninsula * Orinoco Delta

SOUTH

* Tierra del Fuego * Patagonia * Pampas * Pantanal * Gran Chaco * Chiquitano dry forests * Valdes Peninsula

WEST

* Andes * Altiplano * Atacama Desert

EAST

* Amazon basin * Caatinga * Cerrado

* Latin * Hispanic * American Cordillera * Ring of Fire * LAC

* v * t * e

Regions of Asia

CENTRAL

* Greater Middle East

* Aral Sea

* Aralkum Desert * Caspian Sea * Dead Sea * Sea of Galilee

* Transoxiana

* Turan

* Greater Khorasan * Ariana * Khwarezm * Sistan * Kazakhstania

* Eurasian Steppe

* Asian Steppe * Kazakh Steppe * Pontic–Caspian steppe

* Mongolian-Manchurian grassland

* Wild Fields

* Yedisan * Muravsky Trail

* Ural

* Ural Mountains

* Volga region * Idel-Ural * Kolyma * Transbaikal * Pryazovia * Bjarmaland * Kuban * Zalesye * Ingria * Novorossiya * Gornaya Shoriya * Tulgas * Iranian plateau * Altai Mountains * Pamir Mountains * Tian Shan * Badakhshan * Wakhan Corridor * Wakhjir Pass * Mount Imeon * Mongolian Plateau * Western Regions

NORTH

* Inner Asia * Northeast

* Far East

* Russian Far East * Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga

* Extreme North

* Siberia

* Baikalia ( Lake Baikal ) * Transbaikal * Khatanga Gulf * Baraba Steppe

* Kamchatka Peninsula * Amur Basin * Yenisei Gulf * Yenisei Basin * Beringia

EAST

* Japanese archipelago

* Northeastern Japan Arc * Sakhalin Island Arc

* Korean Peninsula * Gobi Desert * Taklamakan Desert * Greater Khingan * Mongolian Plateau * Inner Asia * Inner Mongolia * Outer Mongolia * China proper

* Manchuria

* Outer Manchuria * Inner Manchuria * Northeast China Plain * Mongolian-Manchurian grassland

* North China Plain * Liaodong Peninsula * Himalayas

* Tibetan Plateau

* Tibet

* Tarim Basin * Northern Silk Road * Hexi Corridor * Nanzhong * Lingnan * Liangguang * Jiangnan * Jianghuai * Guanzhong * Huizhou * Wu * Jiaozhou * Zhongyuan * Shaannan

* Ordos Loop

* Loess Plateau * Shaanbei

* Leizhou Peninsula * Gulf of Tonkin * Yangtze River Delta * Pearl River Delta * Yenisei Basin * Altai Mountains * Wakhan Corridor * Wakhjir Pass

WEST

* Greater Middle East

* MENA * Middle East

* Red Sea * Caspian Sea * Mediterranean Sea * Zagros Mountains

* Persian Gulf

* Pirate Coast * Strait of Hormuz * Greater and Lesser Tunbs

* Al-Faw Peninsula * Gulf of Oman * Gulf of Aqaba * Gulf of Aden * Balochistan

* Arabian Peninsula

* Najd * Hejaz * Tihamah * Eastern Arabia

* South Arabia

* Hadhramaut * Arabian Peninsula coastal fog desert

* Tigris–Euphrates

* Mesopotamia

* Upper Mesopotamia * Lower Mesopotamia * Sawad * Nineveh plains * Akkad (region)

* Canaan * Aram * Eber-Nari * Eastern Mediterranean * Mashriq

* Levant

* Southern Levant * Transjordan * Jordan Rift Valley

* Levantine Sea * Golan Heights * Hula Valley * Gaza Strip * West Bank * Galilee * Gilead * Judea * Samaria * Arabah * Anti-Lebanon Mountains * Sinai Peninsula * Arabian Desert * Syrian Desert * Fertile Crescent * Azerbaijan * Syria * Palestine * Iranian plateau * Armenian Highlands

* Caucasus

* Caucasus mountains

* Greater Caucasus * Lesser Caucasus

* North Caucasus

* South Caucasus

* Kur-Araz Lowland * Lankaran Lowland * Alborz * Absheron Peninsula

* Anatolia * Cilicia * Cappadocia * Alpide belt

SOUTH

* Greater India * Indian subcontinent * Himalayas * Hindu Kush * Western Ghats * Eastern Ghats * Ganges Basin * Ganges Delta * Pashtunistan * Punjab * Balochistan * Thar Desert * Indus Valley * Indus River Delta * Indus Valley Desert * Indo-Gangetic Plain * Eastern coastal plains * Western Coastal Plains * Meghalaya subtropical forests * Lower Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests * Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows * Doab * Bagar region * Great Rann of Kutch * Little Rann of Kutch * Deccan Plateau * Coromandel Coast * Konkan * False Divi Point * Hindi Belt * Lakshadweep * Bay of Bengal * Gulf of Khambhat * Gulf of Kutch * Gulf of Mannar * Trans-Karakoram Tract * Wakhan Corridor * Wakhjir Pass * Andaman and Nicobar Islands * Maldive Islands * Alpide belt

SOUTHEAST

* Mainland

* Indochina * Malay Peninsula

* Maritime

* Peninsular Malaysia * Sunda Islands * Greater Sunda Islands * Lesser Sunda Islands

* Indonesian Archipelago * Timor

* New Guinea

* Bonis Peninsula * Papuan Peninsula * Huon Peninsula * Huon Gulf * Bird\'s Head Peninsula * Gazelle Peninsula

* Philippine Archipelago

* Luzon * Visayas * Mindanao

* Leyte Gulf * Gulf of Thailand * East Indies * Nanyang * Alpide belt

* Asia-Pacific * Tropical Asia * Ring of Fire

* v * t * e

Regions of Europe

NORTH

* Nordic * Northwestern * Scandinavia * Scandinavian Peninsula * Fennoscandia * Baltoscandia * Sápmi * West Nordic * Baltic * Gulf of Bothnia * Iceland * Faroe Islands

EAST

* Danubian countries * Prussia * Galicia

* Sambia Peninsula

* Amber Coast

* Curonian Spit * Izyum Trail * Lithuania Minor * Nemunas Delta * Baltic

* Southeastern

* Balkans * Aegean Islands * Gulf of Chania * North Caucasus * Greater Caucasus * Kabardia

* European Russia

* Southern Russia

CENTRAL

* Alpine states * Alpide belt * Mitteleuropa * Visegrád Group

WEST

* Benelux * Low Countries * Northwest * British Isles * English Channel * Channel Islands * Cotentin Peninsula * Normandy * Brittany * Gulf of Lion

* Iberia

* Al-Andalus * Baetic System

* Pyrenees * Alpide belt

SOUTH

* Italian Peninsula * Insular Italy * Tuscan Archipelago * Aegadian Islands

* Iberia

* Al-Andalus * Baetic System

* Gibraltar Arc * Southeastern * Mediterranean * Crimea * Donbass * Sloboda Ukraine * Alpide belt

* Germanic * Romance * Celtic * Slavic countries * European Plain * Eurasian Steppe * Pontic–Caspian steppe * Wild Fields

* Pannonian Basin

* Great Hungarian Plain * Little Hungarian Plain * Eastern Slovak Lowland

* Volhynia * Karelia * East Karelia

* v * t * e

Regions of Oceania

AUSTRALASIA

* Gulf of Carpentaria

* New Guinea

* Bonis Peninsula * Papuan Peninsula * Huon Peninsula * Huon Gulf * Bird\'s Head Peninsula * Gazelle Peninsula

* New Zealand

* South Island

* North Island

* Coromandel Peninsula

* Zealandia * New Caledonia * Solomon Islands (archipelago)

* Vanuatu

* Kula Gulf

* Australia * Capital Country * Eastern Australia * Lake Eyre basin * Murray–Darling basin * Northern Australia * Nullarbor Plain * Outback

* Southern Australia

* Maralinga

* Sunraysia * Great Victoria Desert * Gulf of Carpentaria * Gulf St Vincent * Lefevre Peninsula * Fleurieu Peninsula * Yorke Peninsula * Eyre Peninsula * Mornington Peninsula * Bellarine Peninsula * Mount Henry Peninsula

MELANESIA

* Islands Region

* Bismarck Archipelago * Solomon Islands Archipelago

* Fiji * New Caledonia * Papua New Guinea * Vanuatu

MICRONESIA

* Caroline Islands

* Federated States of Micronesia * Palau

* Guam * Kiribati * Marshall Islands * Nauru * Northern Mariana Islands * Wake Island

POLYNESIA

* Easter Island * Hawaiian Islands * Cook Islands

* French Polynesia

* Austral Islands * Gambier Islands * Marquesas Islands * Society Islands * Tuamotu

* Kermadec Islands * Mangareva Islands * Samoa * Tokelau * Tonga * Tuvalu

* Ring of Fire

* v * t * e

Polar regions

ANTARCTIC

* Antarctic Peninsula * East Antarctica * West Antarctica * Eklund Islands * Ecozone * Extreme points * Islands

ARCTIC

* Arctic Alaska * British Arctic Territories * Canadian Arctic Archipelago * Finnmark * Greenland * Northern Canada * Northwest Territories * Nunavik * Nunavut * Russian Arctic * Sakha * Sápmi * Yukon * North American Arctic

* v * t * e

Earth 's oceans and seas

ARCTIC OCEAN

* Amundsen Gulf * Barents Sea * Beaufort Sea * Chukchi Sea * East Siberian Sea * Greenland Sea * Gulf of Boothia * Kara Sea * Laptev Sea * Lincoln Sea * Prince Gustav Adolf Sea * Pechora Sea * Queen Victoria Sea * Wandel Sea * White Sea

ATLANTIC OCEAN

* Adriatic Sea * Aegean Sea * Alboran Sea * Archipelago Sea * Argentine Sea * Baffin Bay * Balearic Sea * Baltic Sea * Bay of Biscay * Bay of Bothnia * Bay of Campeche * Bay of Fundy * Black Sea * Bothnian Sea * Caribbean Sea * Celtic Sea * English Channel * Foxe Basin * Greenland Sea * Gulf of Bothnia * Gulf of Finland * Gulf of Lion * Gulf of Guinea * Gulf of Maine * Gulf of Mexico * Gulf of Saint Lawrence * Gulf of Sidra * Gulf of Venezuela * Hudson Bay * Ionian Sea * Irish Sea * Irminger Sea * James Bay * Labrador Sea * Levantine Sea * Libyan Sea * Ligurian Sea * Marmara Sea * Mediterranean Sea * Myrtoan Sea * North Sea * Norwegian Sea * Sargasso Sea * Sea of Åland * Sea of Azov * Sea of Crete * Sea of the Hebrides * Thracian Sea * Tyrrhenian Sea * Wadden Sea

INDIAN OCEAN

* Andaman Sea * Arabian Sea * Bali Sea * Bay of Bengal * Flores Sea * Great Australian Bight * Gulf of Aden * Gulf of Aqaba * Gulf of Khambhat * Gulf of Kutch * Gulf of Oman * Gulf of Suez * Java Sea * Laccadive Sea * Mozambique Channel * Persian Gulf * Red Sea * Timor Sea

PACIFIC OCEAN

* Arafura Sea * Banda Sea * Bering Sea * Bismarck Sea * Bohai Sea * Bohol Sea * Camotes Sea * Celebes Sea * Ceram Sea * Chilean Sea * Coral Sea * East China Sea * Gulf of Alaska * Gulf of Anadyr * Gulf of California * Gulf of Carpentaria * Gulf of Fonseca * Gulf of Panama * Gulf of Thailand * Gulf of Tonkin * Halmahera Sea * Koro Sea * Mar de Grau * Molucca Sea * Moro Gulf * Philippine Sea * Salish Sea * Savu Sea * Sea of Japan * Sea of Okhotsk * Seto Inland Sea * Shantar Sea * Sibuyan Sea * Solomon Sea * South China Sea * Sulu Sea * Tasman Sea * Visayan Sea * Yellow Sea

SOUTHERN OCEAN

* Amundsen Sea * Bellingshausen Sea * Cooperation Sea * Cosmonauts Sea * Davis Sea * D\'Urville Sea * King Haakon VII Sea * Lazarev Sea * Mawson Sea * Riiser-Larsen Sea * Ross Sea * Scotia Sea * Somov Sea * Weddell Sea

ENDORHEIC BASINS

* Aral Sea * Caspian Sea * Dead Sea * Sea of Galilee * Salton Sea

* BOOK * CATEGORY

* v * t * e

European diasporas

CENTRAL EUROPE

* Czechs * Germans * Hungarians

* Poles

* Kashubians

* Slovaks * Slovenes * Swiss

EASTERN EUROPE

* Armenians 5 * Azerbaijanis 3 * Belarusians * Georgians 3 * Kazakhs 4 * Russians 1

* Ukrainians

* Crimean Tatars

NORTHERN EUROPE

* British

* English * Scottish * Welsh * Cornish

* Danes * Estonians * Finns * Icelanders * Irish * Latvian * Lithuanians * Norwegians * Swedes

SOUTHEAST EUROPE

* Albanians

* Kosovar

* Bosnians * Bulgarians * Croats

* Cypriots

* Greek Cypriots 5 * Turkish Cypriots 5

* Greeks * Macedonians

* Romanians

* Moldovans

* Serbian * Turkish 2

SOUTHERN EUROPE

* Italians

* Calabrians

* Maltese * Portuguese

* Spaniards

* Basques * Isleños

WESTERN EUROPE

* Belgians

* Flanders

* Dutch

* French

* Basques

1 Russia is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. The vast majority of its population (80%) lives in European Russia , therefore Russia as a whole is included as a European country here.

2 Turkey is a transcontinental country in the Middle East and Southeast Europe. It has a small part of its territory (3%) in Southeast Europe called Turkish Thrace .

3 Azerbaijan and Georgia are transcontinental countries. Both have a small part of their territories in the European part of the Caucasus .

4 Kazakhstan is a transcontinental country. It has a small part of its territories located west of the Urals in Eastern Europe.

5 Armenia and