A yoke is a wooden beam normally used between a pair of oxen or other animals to enable them to pull together on a load when working in pairs, as oxen usually do; some yokes are fitted to individual animals. There are several types of yoke, used in different cultures, and for different types of oxen. A pair of oxen may be called a yoke of oxen, and yoke is also a verb, as in "to yoke a pair of oxen". Other animals that may be yoked include horses, mules, donkeys, and water buffalo.
2 Neck or bow yoke
3 Head yoke
Look up *yugóm in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
The word "yoke" is believed to derive from Proto-Indo-European *yugóm
(yoke), from verb *yeug- (join, unite). This root has descendants in
almost all known
Bow yokes on a bullock team
A bow yoke /ˈboʊ/ is a shaped wooden crosspiece bound to the necks
of a pair of oxen (or occasionally to horses). It is held on the
animals' necks by an oxbow, from which it gets its name. The oxbow is
usually U-shaped and also transmits force from the animals' shoulders.
A swivel between the animals, beneath the centre of the yoke, attaches
to the pole of a vehicle or to chains (traces) used to drag a load.
Bow yokes are traditional in Europe, and in the United States,
A head yoke fits onto the head of the oxen. It usually fits behind the
horns, and has carved-out sections into which the horns fit; it may be
a single beam attached to both oxen, or each ox may have a separate
short beam (see picture). The yoke is then strapped to the horns of
the oxen with yoke straps. Some types fit instead onto the front of
the head, again strapped to the horns, and ox pads are then used for
cushioning the forehead of the ox. A tug pole is held to the bottom of
the yoke using yoke irons and chains. The tug pole can either be a
short pole with a chain attached for hauling, or a long pole with a
hook on the end that has no chain at all. Sometimes the pole is
attached to a wagon and the oxen are simply backed over this pole, the
pole is then raised between them and a backing bolt is dropped into
the chains on the yoke irons in order to haul the wagon.
Head yokes are widely used in southern Europe, much
A withers yoke is a yoke that fits just in front of the withers, or
the shoulder blades, of the oxen. The yoke is held in position by
straps, either alone or with a pair of wooden staves on either side of
the ox's withers; the pull is however from the yoke itself, not from
Comparison Although all three yoke types are effective, each has its advantages and disadvantages. As mentioned above, withers yokes suit zebu cattle, and head yokes can of course only be used for animals with suitable horns. Head yokes need to be re-shaped frequently to fit the animals' horns as they grow; unlike other types, a single-beam head yoke fixes the heads of the oxen apart, helping them to stand quietly without fighting. A single-beam head yoke may offer better braking ability on downhill grades and appears to be preferred in rugged mountainous areas such as Switzerland, Spain and parts of Italy. Bow yokes need to be the correct size for the animal, and new ones are often made as the animal grows, but they need no adjustment in use. Whichever type is used, various lengths of yoke may be required for different agricultural implements or to adjust to different crop-row spacings. Single yoke
A child ploughing the land with a single-yoked water buffalo in Don Det, Si Phan Don, Laos
A yoke may be used with a single animal.
whippletree (mechanism) - a similar pivot device used behind draught animals to even out their pull carrying pole - also known as a milkmaid's yoke oxbow horse collar
^ Roosenberg, Richard (1992). "Britchen, Brakes, Head Yokes for restraining loads behind oxen" (PDF). TechGuides. Tillers International. Retrieved 21 May 2011. ^ "Harnessing draught animals" (PDF). A Guide for Farmers on Good Land Husbandry. Zimbabwe Farmers Union; Department for Agricultural Technical and Extension Services (Agritex). Retrieved 21 May 2011. ^ Conroy, Drew. "Ox Yokes: Culture, Comfort and Animal Welfare" (PDF). World Association for Transport Animal Welfare and Studies. Retrieved 23 May 2011. ^ Roosenberg, Richard (1997). "Yoking and Harnessing Single Cattle" (PDF). TechGuides. Tillers International. Retrieved 21 May 2011. ^ Oxford American Dictionaries (computer application). Apple Computer. 2005. ^ Genesis 27:40 ^ Wendy Parkins. Fashioning the body politic: dress, gender, citizenship. Oxford, England, UK; New York, New York, USA: Berg, 2002. Pp. 178
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Look up yoke in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Information on how a yoke is carved (ISCOWP) Information on how a bow i