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Willow
About 400. See List of Salix species WILLOWS, also called SALLOWS, and OSIERS, form the genus SALIX, around 400 species of deciduous trees and shrubs , found primarily on moist soils in cold and temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere . Most species are known as willow, but some narrow-leaved shrub species are called OSIER, and some broader-leaved species are referred to as SALLOW (from Old English
Old English
sealh, related to the Latin
Latin
word salix, willow). Some willows (particularly arctic and alpine species) are low-growing or creeping shrubs; for example, the dwarf willow (Salix herbacea ) rarely exceeds 6 cm (2.4 in) in height, though it spreads widely across the ground
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Marcescence
MARCESCENCE is the retention of dead plant organs that normally are shed. It is most obvious in deciduous trees that retain leaves through the winter. Several trees normally have marcescent leaves such as oak (Quercus), beech (Fagus) and hornbeam (Carpinus), or marcescent stipules as in some but not all species of willows (Salix ). Marcescent leaves of pin oak (Quercus palustris) complete development of their abscission layer in the spring. The base of the petiole remains alive over the winter. Many other trees may have marcescent leaves in seasons where an early freeze kills the leaves before the abscission layer develops or completes development. Diseases or pests can also kill leaves before they can develop an abscission layer
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Sap
SAP
SAP
may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Science * 2 Technology * 3 Law and government * 4 Politics * 5 Transportation * 6 Other * 7 See also SCIENCE * Serum amyloid P component , the serum form of Amyloid P component * Seminal acid phosphatase , an enzyme produced by the prostate *
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Stolon
In biology , STOLONS (from Latin
Latin
stolō "branch"), also known as runners, are horizontal connections between organisms. They may be part of the organism, or of its skeleton ; typically, animal stolons are external skeletons . CONTENTS* 1 In botany * 1.1 Morphology * 1.2 Plants with stolons * 2 In mycology * 3 In zoology * 4 Palaeontology * 5 See also * 6 References IN BOTANYIn botany , stolons are stems which grow at the soil surface or just below ground that form adventitious roots at the nodes , and new plants from the buds . Stolons are often called RUNNERS. Rhizomes , in contrast, are root-like stems that may either grow horizontally at the soil surface or in other orientations underground. Thus, not all horizontal stems are called stolons. Plants with stolons are called STOLONIFEROUS
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Alpine Climate
ALPINE CLIMATE is the average weather (climate ) for the regions above the tree line . This climate is also referred to as a MOUNTAIN CLIMATE or HIGHLAND CLIMATE. CONTENTS * 1 Definition * 2 Cause * 3 Distribution * 4 Monthly variability * 5 See also * 6 References DEFINITIONThere are multiple definitions of alpine climate. One simple definition is the climate which causes trees to fail to grow due to cold. According to the Holdridge life zone system, alpine climate occurs when the mean biotemperature of a location is between 1.5 and 3 °C (34.7 and 37.4 °F), which prevents tree growth. Biotemperature is defined as the temperature, except all temperatures below 0 °C (32 °F) are treated as 0 °C (32 °F), because plants are dormant below freezing
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Latin
LATIN (Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium
Latium
, in the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
. Through the power of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages
Romance languages
, such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian
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Temperate
In geography , TEMPERATE or TEPID latitudes of Earth
Earth
lie between the tropics and the polar regions . These regions generally have more variety in temperature over the course of the year and more distinct changes between seasons compared with tropical climates , where such variations are often more moderate. CONTENTS* 1 Zones and climates * 1.1 Agriculture * 1.2 Urbanization * 2 See also * 3 References ZONES AND CLIMATESThe NORTH TEMPERATE ZONE extends from the Tropic of Cancer (approximately 23.5° north latitude) to the Arctic Circle (approximately 66.5° north latitude). The SOUTH TEMPERATE ZONE extends from the Tropic of Capricorn (approximately 23.5° south latitude) to the Antarctic Circle (at approximately 66.5° south latitude). In some climate classifications, the temperate zone is often divided into several smaller climate zones, based on latitude
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Northern Hemisphere
Coordinates : 90°0′0″N 0°0′0″E / 90.00000°N 0.00000°E / 90.00000; 0.00000 Northern Hemisphere highlighted in blue. The hemispheres appear to be unequal in this image due to Antarctica
Antarctica
not being shown, but in reality are the same size. Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
from above the North Pole
North Pole
The NORTHERN HEMISPHERE is the half of Earth
Earth
that is north of the equator . For other planets in the Solar System
Solar System
, north is defined as being in the same celestial hemisphere relative to the invariable plane of the solar system as Earth's North
North
pole
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Old English
OLD ENGLISH (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc) or ANGLO-SAXON is the earliest historical form of the English language
English language
, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland
Scotland
in the early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
. It was brought to Great Britain
Great Britain
by Anglo-Saxon settlers probably in the mid 5th century, and the first Old English
Old English
literary works date from the mid-7th century. After the Norman Conquest of 1066, English was replaced, for a time, as the language of the upper classes by Anglo-Norman , a relative of French . This is regarded as marking the end of the Old English
Old English
era, as during this period the English language was heavily influenced by Anglo-Norman, developing into a phase known now as Middle English
Middle English

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Evergreen
In botany , an EVERGREEN is a plant that has leaves throughout the year, always green. This contrasts with deciduous plants, which completely lose their foliage during the winter or dry season
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Coriaceous
This glossary of botanical terms is incomplete; you can help by expanding it: you can also help by adding illustrations that assist an understanding of the terms
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Corolla (flower)
PETALS are modified leaves that surround the reproductive parts of flowers . They are often brightly colored or unusually shaped to attract pollinators . Together, all of the petals of a flower are called a COROLLA. Petals are usually accompanied by another set of special leaves called sepals , that collectively form the calyx and lie just beneath the corolla. The calyx and the corolla together make up the perianth . When the petals and sepals of a flower are difficult to distinguish, they are collectively called tepals . Examples of plants in which the term tepal is appropriate include genera such as Aloe
Aloe
and Tulipa
Tulipa
. Conversely, genera such as Rosa and Phaseolus have well-distinguished sepals and petals. When the undifferentiated tepals resemble petals, they are referred to as "petaloid", as in petaloid monocots , orders of monocots with brightly coloured tepals
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Alexander Pope
ALEXANDER POPE (21 May 1688 – 30 May 1744) was an 18th-century English poet. He is best known for his satirical verse and for his translation of Homer
Homer
, and he is also famous for his use of the heroic couplet . He is the second-most frequently quoted writer in The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations after Shakespeare
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Henrietta Howard, Countess Of Suffolk
HENRIETTA HOWARD (1689 – 26 July 1767) was a mistress of King George II of Great Britain . BIOGRAPHYHenrietta was one of three daughters of Sir Henry Hobart, 4th Baronet , a Norfolk landowner, by his wife Elizabeth (née Maynard). Her father died in a duel when Henrietta was aged eight, and her mother died four years later in 1701, leaving her an orphan at twelve. She then became the ward of Henry Howard, 5th Earl of Suffolk . She made the best of the opportunity afforded by this circumstance by marrying his youngest son, Charles Howard , later 9th Earl of Suffolk. The wedding was held at the church of St Benet, Paul\'s Wharf in London on 2 March 1706
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Calyx (botany)
A SEPAL (/ˈsɛpəl/ or /ˈsiːpəl/ ) is a part of the flower of angiosperms (flowering plants). Usually green, sepals typically function as protection for the flower in bud, and often as support for the petals when in bloom. The term sepalum was coined by Noël Martin Joseph de Necker in 1790, and derived from the Greek σκεπη (skepi), a covering. Collectively the sepals are called the CALYX (plural calyces), the outermost whorl of parts that form a flower. The word calyx was adopted from the Latin calyx, not to be confused with calix, a cup or goblet. Calyx derived from the Greek κάλυξ (kalyx), a bud, a calyx, a husk or wrapping, (cf Sanskrit kalika, a bud) while calix derived from the Greek κυλιξ (kylix), a cup or goblet, and the words have been used interchangeably in botanical Latin. After flowering, most plants have no more use for the calyx which withers or becomes vestigial
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Flower
A FLOWER, sometimes known as a BLOOM or BLOSSOM , is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta , also called angiosperms). The biological function of a flower is to effect reproduction, usually by providing a mechanism for the union of sperm with eggs. Flowers may facilitate outcrossing (fusion of sperm and eggs from different individuals in a population) or allow selfing (fusion of sperm and egg from the same flower). Some flowers produce diaspores without fertilization (parthenocarpy ). Flowers contain sporangia and are the site where gametophytes develop. Many flowers have evolved to be attractive to animals, so as to cause them to be vectors for the transfer of pollen . After fertilization, the ovary of the flower develops into fruit containing seeds
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