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Willow
About 400. See List of _Salix_ species WILLOWS, also called SALLOWS, and OSIERS, form the genus _SALIX_, around 400 species of deciduous trees and shrubs , found primarily on moist soils in cold and temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere . Most species are known as willow, but some narrow-leaved shrub species are called OSIER, and some broader-leaved species are referred to as SALLOW (from Old English _sealh_, related to the Latin
Latin
word _salix_, willow). Some willows (particularly arctic and alpine species) are low-growing or creeping shrubs; for example, the dwarf willow (_Salix herbacea _) rarely exceeds 6 cm (2.4 in) in height, though it spreads widely across the ground. CONTENTS* 1 Description * 1.1 Flowers * 2 Cultivation * 3 Hybrids * 4 Ecological issues * 5 Pests and diseases * 6 Uses * 6.1 Medicine * 6.2 Manufacturing * 6.3 Other * 7 Culture * 8 Selected species * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 Bibliography * 12 External links DESCRIPTION At the base of the petiole a pair of stipules form. These may fall in spring, or last for much of the summer or even for more than one year (marcescence ). Willows all have abundant watery bark sap , which is heavily charged with salicylic acid , soft, usually pliant, tough wood , slender branches, and large, fibrous, often stoloniferous roots
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Willow Tree (figurines)
WILLOW TREE is a line of figurine sculptures created by artist Susan Lordi in January 2000. The Willow Tree line specializes in rustic faceless people and angels intended to represent feelings or life events. The figurines are made from hand-painted resin which is cast from Lordi's hand-carved clay sculptures. Creator Susan Lordi partnered with the company Demdaco to produce, market and distribute Willow Tree figurines. The line is available nationwide in independent Gift shops and Hallmark stores and is often a top seller. Creator Susan Lordi filed a lawsuit against CVS for selling figurines that she alleges are knockoffs of her designs. According to the lawsuit, CVS launched a line of faceless angels with wire-loop wings, which is a trademark of Lordi's designs. In her lawsuit, she reported her monthly sales as 4.6 million in the US SEE ALSO * Primitive decorating * Nativity scene * Figurine
Figurine
REFERENCES * ^ "Willow Tree". Retrieved 1 June 2014. * ^ Johnson, Christine (8 April 2014). "Demdaco extends contract with Willow Tree\'s Susan Lordi". Christian Retailing. * ^ A B C Slind-Flor, Victoria (15 February 2011). "Fiat, Kellogg, CVS, Google: Intellectual Property". Bloomberg.com. * ^ Pacheco, Tyra (24 November 2009). "Enchanting characters, homes, villages revive holiday spirit year after year". South Coast Today. * ^ Vockrodt, Steve (15 February 2011)
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Salix (other)
SALIX is a genus of deciduous trees and shrubs. SALIX may also refer to: * Salix, Iowa , United States * Salix, Pennsylvania , United States * Salix
Salix
Pharmaceuticals , makers of gastroenterology products * 8648 Salix
Salix
, a main-belt asteroid * Salix
Salix
OS , a Slackware-based Linux distributionPEOPLE WITH THE GIVEN NAME * Salix
Salix
Säydäş (1900–1954), Tatar composer and conductor This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title SALIX. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Salix_(other) additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Morton Arboretum
THE MORTON ARBORETUM , in Lisle , Illinois
Illinois
, is a public garden and outdoor museum with a library, herbarium, and program in tree research including the Center for Tree Science. Its grounds, covering 1,700 acres (6.9 Square kilometres), include cataloged collections of trees and other living plants, gardens, and restored areas, among which is a restored tallgrass prairie . The living collections include more than 4,100 different plant species, which can be referenced in an online database. In all, there are more than 200,000 cataloged plants. As a place of recreation, the Arboretum
Arboretum
has hiking trails, roadways for driving and bicycling, a 4-acre (16,000 m2) interactive children's garden and a 1-acre (4,000 m2) maze. The Schulenberg Prairie
Prairie
at the arboretum was one of the earliest prairie restoration projects in the Midwest, begun in 1962. It is one of the largest restored prairies in the Chicago
Chicago
suburban area. The arboretum offers an extensive nature-entered education program for children, families, school groups, scouts, and adults, including tree and restoration professionals. The Woodland
Woodland
Stewardship Program offers classroom and online courses in ecological restoration techniques
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις _(taxis )_, meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία _(-nomia)_, meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species. The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms. With the advent of such fields of study as phylogenetics , cladistics , and systematics , the Linnaean system has progressed to a system of modern biological classification based on the evolutionary relationships between organisms, both living and extinct
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Plant
PLANTS are mainly multicellular , predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom PLANTAE. The term is today generally limited to the GREEN PLANTS, which form an unranked clade VIRIDIPLANTAE (Latin for "green plants"). This includes the flowering plants , conifers and other gymnosperms , ferns , clubmosses , hornworts , liverworts , mosses and the green algae , and excludes the red and brown algae . Historically, plants formed one of two kingdoms covering all living things that were not animals , and both algae and fungi were treated as plants; however all current definitions of "plant" exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria ). Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts , derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria . Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color. Some plants are parasitic and have lost the ability to produce normal amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize. Plants are characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations , although asexual reproduction is also common. There are about 300–315 thousand species of plants, of which the great majority, some 260–290 thousand, are seed plants (see the table below ). Green plants provide most of the world's molecular oxygen and are the basis of most of Earth's ecologies, especially on land
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Angiosperms
sweet bay SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION Kingdom: Plantae Subkingdom: Embryophyta (unranked): Spermatophyta (unranked): ANGIOSPERMS GROUPS (APG IV) Basal angiosperms * Amborellales * Nymphaeales
Nymphaeales
* Austrobaileyales Core angiosperms * magnoliids * Chloranthales * monocots * Ceratophyllales * eudicots SYNONYMS * Anthophyta Cronquist * Angiospermae Lindl. * Magnoliophyta Cronquist , Takht. they are distinguished from gymnosperms by characteristics including flowers , endosperm within the seeds, and the production of fruits that contain the seeds. Etymologically, angiosperm means a plant that produces seeds within an enclosure, in other words, a fruiting plant. The term "angiosperm" comes from the Greek composite word (_angeion_, "case" or "casing", and _sperma_, "seed") meaning "enclosed seeds", after the enclosed condition of the seeds. The ancestors of flowering plants diverged from gymnosperms in the Triassic Period , during the range 245 to 202 million years ago (mya), and the first flowering plants are known from 160 mya. They diversified extensively during the Lower Cretaceous
Cretaceous
, became widespread by 120 mya, and replaced conifers as the dominant trees from 100 to 60 mya
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Eudicots
The EUDICOTS, EUDICOTIDAE or EUDICOTYLEDONS are a monophyletic clade of flowering plants that had been called TRICOLPATES or NON-MAGNOLIID DICOTS by previous authors. The botanical terms were introduced in 1991 by evolutionary botanist James A. Doyle and paleobotanist Carol L. Hotton to emphasize the later evolutionary divergence of tricolpate dicots from earlier, less specialized, dicots. The close relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains was initially seen in morphological studies of shared derived characters . These plants have a distinct trait in their pollen grains of exhibiting three colpi or grooves paralleling the polar axis. Later molecular evidence confirmed the genetic basis for the evolutionary relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains and dicotyledonous traits. The term means "true dicotyledons", as it contains the majority of plants that have been considered dicots and have characteristics of the dicots. The term "eudicots" has subsequently been widely adopted in botany to refer to one of the two largest clades of angiosperms (constituting over 70% of the angiosperm species), monocots being the other. The remaining angiosperms are sometimes referred to as basal angiosperms or paleodicots, but these terms have not been widely or consistently adopted, as they do not refer to a monophyletic group. The other name for the eudicots is TRICOLPATES, a name which refers to the grooved structure of the pollen
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Rosids
The ROSIDS are members of a large clade (monophyletic group) of flowering plants , containing about 70,000 species , more than a quarter of all angiosperms. The clade is divided into 16 to 20 orders , depending upon circumscription and classification . These orders, in turn, together comprise about 140 families . Fossil rosids are known from the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
period. Molecular clock estimates indicate that the rosids originated in the Aptian or Albian stages of the Cretaceous, between 125 and 99.6 million years ago. CONTENTS * 1 Name * 2 Relationships * 3 Classification * 3.1 Orders * 4 Phylogeny
Phylogeny
* 5 References * 6 External links NAMEThe name is based upon the name " Rosidae ", which had usually been understood to be a subclass. In 1967, Armen Takhtajan
Armen Takhtajan
showed that the correct basis for the name "Rosidae" is a description of a group of plants published in 1830 by Friedrich Gottlieb Bartling
Friedrich Gottlieb Bartling
. The clade was later renamed "Rosidae" and has been variously delimited by different authors. The name "rosids" is informal and not assumed to have any particular taxonomic rank like the names authorized by the ICBN . The rosids are monophyletic based upon evidence found by molecular phylogenetic analysis. Three different definitions of the rosids were used
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Malpighiales
Rhizophorales _ Aspidopterys cordata _ ( Malpighiaceae ) The MALPIGHIALES comprise one of the largest orders of flowering plants , containing about 16,000 species , about 7.8% of the eudicots . The order is very diverse, containing plants as different as the willow, violet, _ Poinsettia _, and coca plant, and are hard to recognize except with molecular phylogenetic evidence. It is not part of any of the classification systems based only on plant morphology . Molecular clock calculations estimate the origin of stem group Malpighiales at around 100 million years ago (Mya ) and the origin of crown group Malpighiales at about 90 Mya. The Malpighiales are divided into 32 to 42 families , depending upon which clades in the order are given the taxonomic rank of family. In the APG III system , 35 families are recognized. Medusagynaceae, Quiinaceae, Peraceae, Malesherbiaceae, Turneraceae, Samydaceae, and Scyphostegiaceae are consolidated into other families. The largest family, by far, is the Euphorbiaceae , with about 6300 species in about 245 genera
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Salicaceae
Abatieae Bembicieae Flacourtieae Homalieae Prockieae Saliceae Samydeae Scolopieae SYNONYMS Bembiciaceae Caseariaceae Flacourtiaceae Homaliaceae Poliothyrsidaceae Prockiaceae Samydaceae Scyphostegiaceae and see text The SALICACEAE are a family, the WILLOW FAMILY, of flowering plants . The traditional family ( Salicaceae
Salicaceae
sensu stricto) included the willows, poplar, aspen, and cottonwoods. Recent genetic studies summarized by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group have greatly expanded the circumscription of the family to contain 56 genera and about 1220 species. In the Cronquist system , the Salicaceae
Salicaceae
were assigned to their own order, Salicales, and contained three genera (Salix , Populus
Populus
, and Chosenia ). The family is placed by the APG in the order Malpighiales
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Carl Linnaeus
CARL LINNAEUS (/lɪˈniːəs, lɪˈneɪəs/ ; 23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as CARL VON LINNé (Swedish pronunciation: ( listen )), was a Swedish botanist , physician , and zoologist , who formalised the modern system of naming organisms called binomial nomenclature . He is known by the epithet "father of modern taxonomy". Many of his writings were in Latin , and his name is rendered in Latin as CAROLUS LINNæUS (after 1761 CAROLUS A LINNé). Linnaeus was born in the countryside of Småland , in southern Sweden . He received most of his higher education at Uppsala University , and began giving lectures in botany there in 1730. He lived abroad between 1735 and 1738, where he studied and also published a first edition of his _ Systema Naturae _ in the Netherlands. He then returned to Sweden, where he became professor of medicine and botany at Uppsala . In the 1740s, he was sent on several journeys through Sweden to find and classify plants and animals. In the 1750s and 1760s, he continued to collect and classify animals, plants, and minerals, and published several volumes. At the time of his death, he was one of the most acclaimed scientists in Europe
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Type Species
In zoological nomenclature , a TYPE SPECIES (_species typica_) is the species name with which the name of a genus or subgenus is considered to be permanently taxonomically associated, i.e., the species that contains the biological type specimen(s). A similar concept is used for suprageneric groups called a type genus . In botanical nomenclature , these terms have no formal standing under the code of nomenclature , but are sometimes borrowed from zoological nomenclature. In botany, the type of a genus name is a specimen (or, rarely, an illustration) which is also the type of a species name. The species name that has that type can also be referred to as the type of the genus name. Names of genus and family ranks, the various subdivisions of those ranks, and some higher-rank names based on genus names, have such types. In bacteriology , a type species is assigned for each genus. Every named genus or subgenus in zoology, whether or not currently recognized as valid , is theoretically associated with a type species. In practice, however, there is a backlog of untypified names defined in older publications when it was not required to specify a type. CONTENTS * 1 Use in zoology * 2 Citing * 3 See also * 4 References USE IN ZOOLOGY See also: Types in zoology A type species is both a concept and a practical system that is used in the classification and nomenclature (naming) of animals
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Salix Alba
SALIX ALBA (WHITE WILLOW) is a species of willow native to Europe
Europe
and western and central Asia
Asia
. The name derives from the white tone to the undersides of the leaves. It is a medium-sized to large deciduous tree growing up to 10–30 m tall, with a trunk up to 1 m diameter and an irregular, often-leaning crown. The bark is grey-brown, and deeply fissured in older trees. The shoots in the typical species are grey-brown to green-brown. The leaves are paler than most other willows, due to a covering of very fine, silky white hairs, in particular on the underside; they are 5–10 cm long and 0.5–1.5 cm wide. The flowers are produced in catkins in early spring, and pollinated by insects . It is dioecious , with male and female catkins on separate trees; the male catkins are 4–5 cm long, the female catkins 3–4 cm long at pollination, lengthening as the fruit matures. When mature in midsummer, the female catkins comprise numerous small (4 mm) capsules , each containing numerous minute seeds embedded in white down, which aids wind dispersal
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L.
CARL LINNAEUS (/lɪˈniːəs, lɪˈneɪəs/ ; 23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as CARL VON LINNé (Swedish pronunciation: ( listen )), was a Swedish botanist , physician , and zoologist , who formalised the modern system of naming organisms called binomial nomenclature . He is known by the epithet "father of modern taxonomy". Many of his writings were in Latin , and his name is rendered in