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Willow
About 400.[2] See List of Salix speciesWillows, also called sallows, and osiers, form the genus Salix, around 400 species[2] of deciduous trees and shrubs, found primarily on moist soils in cold and temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Most species are known as willow, but some narrow-leaved shrub species are called osier, and some broader-leaved species are referred to as sallow (from Old English
Old English
sealh, related to the Latin
Latin
word salix, willow)
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Alexander Pope
Alexander Pope
Alexander Pope
(21 May 1688 – 30 May 1744) was an 18th-century English poet. He is best known for his satirical verse, his translation of Homer
Homer
and for his use of the heroic couplet. He is the second-most frequently quoted writer in The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations after Shakespeare.[1]Contents1 Life1.1 Early life 1.2 Early career2 Poetry2.1 Essay on Criticism 2.2 Rape of the Lock 2.3 Dunciad
Dunciad
and Moral Essays 2.4 Essay on Man 2.5 Later life and works3 Translations and editions3.1 Translation of the Iliad 3.2 Translation of the Odyssey 3.3 Edition of Shakespeare's works4 Reception4.1 Historic 4.2 Feminist reception5 Works5.1 Major works 5.2 Other works 5.3 Editions6 See also 7 References 8 Bibliography 9 External linksLife[edit]Portrait of Alexander Pope. Studio of Godfrey Kneller. Oil on canvas, c
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Evergreen
In botany, an evergreen is a plant that has leaves throughout the year, always green. This is true even if the plant retains its foliage only in warm climates, and contrasts with deciduous plants, which completely lose their foliage during the winter or dry season
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Northern Hemisphere
Coordinates: 90°0′0″N 0°0′0″E / 90.00000°N 0.00000°E / 90.00000; 0.00000 Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
shaded blue. The hemispheres appear to be unequal in this image due to Antarctica
Antarctica
not being shown, but in reality are the same size. Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
from above the North
North
PoleThe Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
is the half of Earth
Earth
that is north of the Equator
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Old English
Old English
Old English
(Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon,[2] is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland
Scotland
in the early Middle Ages. It was brought to Great Britain
Great Britain
by Anglo-Saxon settlers probably in the mid-5th century, and the first Old English
Old English
literary works date from the mid-7th century. After the Norman conquest
Norman conquest
of 1066, English was replaced, for a time, as the language of the upper classes by Anglo-Norman, a relative of French
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Latin
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Alpine Climate
Alpine climate
Alpine climate
is the average weather (climate) for the regions above the tree line. This climate is also referred to as a mountain climate or highland climate.Contents1 Definition 2 Cause 3 Distribution 4 Monthly variability 5 See also 6 ReferencesDefinition[edit] There are multiple definitions of alpine climate. One simple definition is the climate which causes trees to fail to grow due to cold. According to the Holdridge life zone
Holdridge life zone
system, alpine climate occurs when the mean biotemperature of a location is between 1.5 and 3 °C (34.7 and 37.4 °F), which prevents tree growth
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Marcescence
Marcescence
Marcescence
is the retention of dead plant organs that normally are shed.[1] Trees transfer water and sap from the roots to the leaves through their vascular cells, but as the autumn season begins, these veins slowly close until a layer of cells called the abscission layer completely closes off the vein allowing the tree to rid itself of the leaf.[2] Leaf marcescence is most often seen on juvenile plants and may disappear as the tree matures. It also may not affect the entire tree; sometimes leaves persist only on scattered branches.[3] Marcescence
Marcescence
is most obvious in deciduous trees that retain leaves through the winter
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Stolon
In biology, stolons (from Latin
Latin
stolō "branch"), also known as runners, are horizontal connections between organisms. They may be part of the organism, or of its skeleton; typically, animal stolons are external skeletons.Contents1 In botany1.1 Morphology 1.2 Plants with stolons2 In mycology 3 In zoology 4 Palaeontology 5 See also 6 ReferencesIn botany[edit] In botany, stolons are stems which grow at the soil surface or just below ground that form adventitious roots at the nodes, and new plants from the buds.[1][2] Stolons are often called runners. Rhizomes, in contrast, are root-like stems that may either grow horizontally at the soil surface or in other orientations underground.[1] Thus, not all horizontal stems are called stolons
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Coriaceous
This glossary of botanical terms is incomplete; you can help by expanding it: you can also help by adding illustrations that assist an understanding of the terms.Part of a series onScienceFormalFormal logic MathematicsMathematical statistics Theoretical computer scienceGame theory Decision theoryInformation theory Systems theory Control theoryPhysicalPhysicsClassical Modern AppliedTheoretical Experimental ComputationalMechanics(classical analytical continuum fluid solid)Electromagnetism ThermodynamicsMolecular Atomic Nuclear ParticleCondensed matter PlasmaQuantum mechanics (introduction) Quantum field theory Special
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Soil
Soil
Soil
is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life. The Earth's body of soil is the pedosphere, which has four important functions: it is a medium for plant growth; it is a means of water storage, supply and purification; it is a modifier of Earth's atmosphere; it is a habitat for organisms; all of which, in turn, modify the soil. Soil
Soil
interfaces with the lithosphere, the hydrosphere, the atmosphere, and the biosphere.[1] The term pedolith, used commonly to refer to the soil, literally translates ground stone
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Mediterranean
The Mediterranean Sea
Sea
is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin
Mediterranean Basin
and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe
Southern Europe
and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa
North Africa
and on the east by the Levant. Although the sea is sometimes considered a part of the Atlantic Ocean, it is usually identified as a separate body of water
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Bud
In botany, a bud is an undeveloped or embryonic shoot and normally occurs in the axil of a leaf or at the tip of a stem. Once formed, a bud may remain for some time in a dormant condition, or it may form a shoot immediately. Buds may be specialized to develop flowers or short shoots, or may have the potential for general shoot development. The term bud is also used in zoology, where it refers to an outgrowth from the body which can develop into a new individual.Contents1 Overview 2 Types of buds2.1 Image gallery3 Within zoology 4 ReferencesOverview[edit] Inflorescence
Inflorescence
bud scales in Halesia carolinaThe buds of many woody plants, especially in temperate or cold climates, are protected by a covering of modified leaves called scales which tightly enclose the more delicate parts of the bud. Many bud scales are covered by a gummy substance which serves as added protection
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Petiole (botany)
In botany, the petiole (/ˈpiːtɪoʊl/) is the stalk that attaches the leaf blade to the stem.[1]:87 The petiole is the transition between the stem and the leaf blade.[2]:171 Outgrowths appearing on each side of the petiole in some species are called stipules. Leaves lacking a petiole are called sessile or epetiolate.Contents1 Description 2 Etymology 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksDescription[edit]This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (June 2015)Harvested rhubarb petioles with leaves attachedThe petiole is a stalk that attaches a leaf to the plant stem. In petiolate leaves, the leaf stalk (petiole) may be long, as in the leaves of celery and rhubarb, short or completely absent, in which case the blade attaches directly to the stem and is said to be sessile
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Stipule
In botany, stipule ( Latin
Latin
stipula: straw, stalk) is a term coined by Linnaeus[1] which refers to outgrowths borne on either side (sometimes just one side) of the base of a leafstalk (the petiole). A pair of stipules is considered part of the anatomy of the leaf of a typical flowering plant, although in many species the stipules are inconspicuous or entirely absent (and the leaf is then termed exstipulate)
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Flower
A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms). The biological function of a flower is to effect reproduction, usually by providing a mechanism for the union of sperm with eggs. Flowers may facilitate outcrossing (fusion of sperm and eggs from different individuals in a population) or allow selfing (fusion of sperm and egg from the same flower). Some flowers produce diaspores without fertilization (parthenocarpy). Flowers contain sporangia and are the site where gametophytes develop. Many flowers have evolved to be attractive to animals, so as to cause them to be vectors for the transfer of pollen
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