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Visigoth
The VISIGOTHS (UK : /ˈvɪzɪˌɡɒθs/ ; US : /ˈvɪzɪˌɡɑːθs/ ; Latin : Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, or Wisi; Italian : Visigoti) were the western branches of the nomadic tribes of Germanic peoples referred to collectively as the Goths . These tribes flourished and spread throughout the late Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in Late Antiquity , or what is known as the Migration Period . The Visigoths emerged from earlier Gothic groups (possibly the Thervingi ) who had invaded the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
beginning in 376 and had defeated the Romans at the Battle of Adrianople in 378. Relations between the Romans and the Visigoths were variable, alternately warring with one another and making treaties when convenient. The Visigoths invaded Italy
Italy
under Alaric I and sacked Rome in 410
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Votive Crown
A VOTIVE CROWN is a votive offering in the form of a crown , normally in precious metals and often adorned with jewels. Especially in the Early Middle Ages
Early Middle Ages
, they are of a special form, designed to be suspended by chains at an altar, shrine or image. Later examples are more often typical crowns in the style of the period, either designed to be placed on the head of a statue, or re-used in this way after donation. There were pagan votive crowns in the ancient world, although these are essentially known only from literary references. Vitruvius records that when Hiero II of Syracuse (died 215 BC) suspected his goldsmith of cheating him over the making of a votive crown for a statue in a temple, for which he had supplied the gold to be used, he asked Archimedes
Archimedes
to devise a test
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Treasure Of Guarrazar
Coordinates : 39°48′41″N 4°8′57″W / 39.81139°N 4.14917°W / 39.81139; -4.14917 The TREASURE OF GUARRAZAR, Guadamur
Guadamur
, Province of Toledo
Province of Toledo
, Castile-La Mancha , Spain
Spain
, is an archeological find composed of twenty-six votive crowns and gold crosses that had originally been offered to the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
by the Kings of the Visigoths in the seventh century in Hispania
Hispania
, as a gesture of the orthodoxy of their faith and their submission to the ecclesiastical hierarchy. The most valuable of all is the votive crown of king Reccesuinth with its blue sapphires from Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and pendilia . Though the treasure is now divided and much has disappeared, it represents the best surviving group of Early Medieval Christian votive offerings
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Walters Art Museum
Coordinates : 39°17′48″N 76°36′58″W / 39.29667°N 76.61611°W / 39.29667; -76.61611 The Walters Art Museum North Charles Street original main entrance FORMER NAME The Walters Art Gallery ESTABLISHED 1934 (1934) LOCATION Mount Vernon-Belvedere , Baltimore , Maryland TYPE Art museum DIRECTOR Julia Marciari-Alexander (2016) PUBLIC TRANSIT ACCESS Light Rail Hunt Valley – BWI Marshall Centre Street Station WEBSITE Official websiteThe WALTERS ART MUSEUM, located in Mount Vernon-Belvedere , Baltimore , Maryland , is a public art museum founded and opened in 1934. It holds collections established during the mid-19th century
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British English
BRITISH ENGLISH is the English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom . Variations exist in formal, written English in the United Kingdom. For example, the adjective _wee_ is almost exclusively used in parts of Scotland and Ireland , and occasionally Yorkshire , whereas _little_ is predominant elsewhere. Nevertheless, there is a meaningful degree of uniformity in written English within the United Kingdom, and this could be described by the term British English. The forms of spoken English, however, vary considerably more than in most other areas of the world where English is spoken, so a uniform concept of British English is more difficult to apply to the spoken language
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American English
AMERICAN ENGLISH (AME, AE, AMENG, USENG, EN-US ), sometimes called UNITED STATES ENGLISH or U.S. ENGLISH, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States . English is the most widely spoken language in the United States and is the common language used by the federal government, considered the _de facto _ language of the country because of its widespread use. English has been given official status by 32 of the 50 state governments. As an example, while both Spanish and English have equivalent status in the local courts of Puerto Rico , under federal law, English is the official language for any matters being referred to the United States district court for the territory. The use of English in the United States is a result of British colonization of the Americas
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Latin Language
LATIN (Latin: _lingua latīna_, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages . The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet . Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium , in the Italian Peninsula . Through the power of the Roman Republic , it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages , such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian . Latin
Latin
and French have contributed many words to the English language . Latin
Latin
and Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
roots are used in theology , biology , and medicine
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Italian Language
ITALIAN (_ italiano_ (help ·info ) or _lingua italiana_ ) is a Romance language . By most measures, Italian, together with Sardinian, is the closest to Latin of the Romance languages. Italian is an official language in Italy , Switzerland , San Marino , Vatican City and western Istria (in Slovenia and Croatia ). It used to have official status in Albania , Malta and Monaco , where it is still widely spoken, as well as in former Italian East Africa and Italian North Africa regions where it plays a significant role in various sectors. Italian is also spoken by large expatriate communities in the Americas and Australia . It has official minority status in Bosnia and Herzegovina , Croatia , Slovenia and Romania
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Germanic Peoples
The GERMANIC PEOPLES (also called Teutonic , Suebian , or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin. They are identified by their use of Germanic languages , which diversified out of Proto-Germanic during the Pre-Roman Iron Age . The term "Germanic" originated in classical times when groups of tribes living in Lower , Upper , and Greater Germania were referred to using this label by Roman scribes. The Roman use of the term "Germanic" was not necessarily based upon language, but rather referred to the tribal groups and alliances that lived in the regions of modern-day Luxembourg , Belgium , Northern France , Alsace , the Netherlands , and Germany , and which were considered to be less civilized and more physically hardened than the Celtic Gauls
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Goths
The GOTHS were an East Germanic people , two of whose branches, the Visigoths
Visigoths
and the Ostrogoths
Ostrogoths
, played an important role in the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and the emergence of Medieval Europe
Medieval Europe
. The Goths
Goths
dominated a vast area, which at its peak under the Germanic king Ermanaric and his sub-king Athanaric possibly extended all the way from the Danube to the Don , and from the Black Sea to the Baltic Sea . The Goths
Goths
spoke the Gothic language, one of the extinct Eastern Germanic languages, last spoken in Crimea
Crimea
in the 18th century by the Crimean Goths; the least-powerful, least-known, and almost paradoxically, the longest-lasting of the Gothic communities
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Roman Empire
Mediolanum (286–402, Western ) Augusta Treverorum Sirmium Ravenna (402–476, Western) Nicomedia (286–330, Eastern ) Constantinople (330–1453, Eastern) Syracu
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Late Antiquity
LATE ANTIQUITY is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages in mainland Europe , the Mediterranean world, and the Near East . The development of the periodization has generally been accredited to historian Peter Brown , after the publication of his seminal work _The World of Late Antiquity _ (1971). Precise boundaries for the period are a continuing matter of debate, but Brown proposes a period between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Generally, it can be thought of as from the end of the Roman Empire 's Crisis of the Third Century (c. 235 – 284) to, in the East, the early Islamic period (7th–9th centuries), following the Muslim conquests in the mid-7th century
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Migration Period
The MIGRATION PERIOD was a time of widespread migrations of peoples , notably the Germanic tribes
Germanic tribes
and the Huns
Huns
, within or into Europe
Europe
in the middle of the first millennium AD . It has also been termed in English by German loanword VöLKERWANDERUNG and—from the Roman and Greek perspective—the BARBARIAN INVASIONS. Many of the migrations were movements of Germanic , Hunnic , Slavic , and other peoples into the territory of the then Roman Empire
Roman Empire
with or without accompanying invasions or war. Scientific consensus established time frames for the Migration Period as beginning with the invasion of Europe
Europe
by the Huns
Huns
in 375, and ending with the conquest of Italy
Italy
by the Lombards
Lombards
in 568
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Thervingi
The THERVINGI, TERVINGI, or TERUINGI (sometimes pluralised "Tervings" or "Thervings") were a Gothic people of the Danubian plains west of the Dniester
Dniester
River in the 3rd and the 4th centuries. They had close contacts with the Greuthungi
Greuthungi
, another Gothic people from east of the Dniester, as well as the late Roman Empire
Roman Empire
or the early Byzantine Empire . CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 History * 2.1 Early history * 2.2 First mention * 2.3 Gothic War (367–369) * 2.4 Gothic War (376–382)
Gothic War (376–382)
* 3 Archaeology * 3.1 Settlement pattern * 3.2 Burial practices * 4 Religion * 5 Language * 6 Relationship with the Visigoths
Visigoths
* 7 Leaders * 7.1 Pagan kings * 7.2 Rebel leaders * 8 See also * 9 References ETYMOLOGYThe name Thervingi
Thervingi
may mean "forest people"
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Battle Of Adrianople
15,000–20,000 or 25,000–30,000 12,000–15,000 or 80,000–100,000 CASUALTIES AND LOSSES10,000–15,000 or 20,000 (roughly two-thirds of the Roman force) Unknown * v * t * e Gothic War (376–382) * Marcianople * Willows * Adrianople (Siege ) * Constantinople * Thessalonica * v * t * e Fall of the Western Roman Empire * Adrianople * Pollentia * Verona * Florence * Faesulae * Moguntiacum * The