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Vernacular
A vernacular or vernacular language is the native language or native dialect (usually colloquial or informal) of a specific population, especially as distinguished from a literary, national or standard variety of the language, or a lingua franca (also called a vehicular language) used in the region or state inhabited by that population. Some linguists use "vernacular" and "nonstandard dialect" as synonyms.[1]The oldest known vernacular manuscript in Scanian (Danish, c
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Divine Comedy
The Divine Comedy
Divine Comedy
(Italian: Divina Commedia [diˈviːna komˈmɛːdja]) is a long narrative poem by Dante Alighieri, begun c. 1308 and completed in 1320, a year before his death in 1321. It is widely considered to be the preeminent work in Italian literature[1] and one of the greatest works of world literature.[2] The poem's imaginative vision of the afterlife is representative of the medieval world-view as it had developed in the Western Church by the 14th century
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Marcus Terentius Varro
Marcus Terentius Varro
Marcus Terentius Varro
(116 BC – 27 BC) was an ancient Roman scholar and writer. He is sometimes called Varro Reatinus to distinguish him from his younger contemporary Varro Atacinus.Contents1 Biography 2 Calendars 3 Works3.1 Extant works 3.2 Known lost works4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksBiography[edit]Statue of Marcus Terentius Varro
Marcus Terentius Varro
in RietiVarro was born in or near Reate (now Rieti)[1] to a family thought to be of equestrian rank, and always remained close to his roots in the area, owning a large farm in the Reatine plain, reported as near Lago di Ripa Sottile,[2] until his old age
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May Fourth Movement
The May Fourth Movement
May Fourth Movement
(Chinese: 五四运动; pinyin: Wǔsì Yùndòng) was an anti-imperialist, cultural, and political movement growing out of student participants in Beijing on 4 May 1919, protesting against the Chinese government's weak response to the Treaty of Versailles, especially allowing Japan to receive territories in Shandong
Shandong
which had been surrendered by Germany after the Siege of Tsingtao. These demonstrations sparked national protests and marked the upsurge of Chinese nationalism, a shift towards political mobilization and away from cultural activities, and a move towards a populist base rather than intellectual elites
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Language
Language
Language
is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system. The scientific study of language is called linguistics. Questions concerning the philosophy of language, such as whether words can represent experience, have been debated at least since Gorgias
Gorgias
and Plato
Plato
in ancient Greece. Thinkers such as Rousseau
Rousseau
have argued that language originated from emotions while others like Kant have held that it originated from rational and logical thought. 20th-century philosophers such as Wittgenstein argued that philosophy is really the study of language. Major figures in linguistics include Ferdinand de Saussure and Noam Chomsky. Estimates of the number of human languages in the world vary between 5,000 and 7,000
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The Song Of Roland
The Song of Roland
Roland
(French: La Chanson de Roland) is an epic poem (Chanson de geste) based on the Battle of Roncevaux Pass
Battle of Roncevaux Pass
in 778, during the reign of Charlemagne. It is the oldest surviving major work of French literature
French literature
and exists in various manuscript versions, which testify to its enormous and enduring popularity in the 12th to 14th centuries. The date of composition is put in the period between 1040 and 1115: an early version beginning around 1040 with additions and alterations made up until about 1115. The final text has about 4,000 lines of poetry
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Cantar De Mio Cid
El Cantar de mio Cid, literally "The Song of my Cid" (or El Poema de mio Cid), also known in English as The Poem of the Cid, is the oldest preserved Castilian epic poem (epopeya).[1] Based on a true story, it tells of the Castilian hero El Cid, and takes place during the Reconquista, or reconquest of Spain from the Moors. The Spanish medievalist Ramón Menéndez Pidal
Ramón Menéndez Pidal
included the Cantar de Mio Cid in the popular tradition he termed the mester de juglaría. Mester de juglaría refers to the medieval tradition according to which popular poems were passed down from generation to generation, being changed in the process
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Galileo
Galileo Galilei
Galileo Galilei
(Italian: [ɡaliˈlɛːo ɡaliˈlɛi]; 15 February 1564[3] – 8 January 1642) was an Italian polymath. Galileo is a central figure in the transition from natural philosophy to modern science and in the transformation of the scientific Renaissance into a scientific revolution. Galileo's championing of heliocentrism and Copernicanism was controversial during his lifetime, when most subscribed to either geocentrism or the Tychonic system.[4] He met with opposition from astronomers,
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Isaac Newton
Sir Isaac Newton
Isaac Newton
PRS (/ˈnjuːtən/;[6] 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27[1]) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution. His book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica ("Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy"), first published in 1687, laid the foundations of classical mechanics. Newton also made pathbreaking contributions to optics, and he shares credit with Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
for developing the infinitesimal calculus. Newton's Principia formulated the laws of motion and universal gravitation that dominated scientists' view of the physical universe for the next three centuries
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Liturgical Language
A sacred language, "holy language" (in religious context) or liturgical language is any language that is cultivated and used primarily in religious service or for other religious reasons by people who speak another language in their daily life.Contents1 Concept 2 Hinduism 3 Buddhism 4 Christianity 5 Islam 6 Judaism6.1 Donmeh7 List of sacred languages 8 ReferencesConcept[edit]This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)A sacred language is often the language which was spoken and written in the society in which a religion's sacred texts were first set down; however, these texts thereafter become fixed and holy, remaining frozen and immune to later linguistic developments
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Western Europe
Western Europe
Europe
is the region comprising the western part of Europe. Though the term Western Europe
Europe
is commonly used, there is no commonly agreed-upon definition of the countries that it encompasses
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Linguistics
Linguistics
Linguistics
is the scientific study of language.[1] It involves analysing language form, language meaning, and language in context.[2] The earliest activities in the documentation and description of language have been attributed to the 6th-century-BC Indian grammarian Pāṇini[3][4] who wrote a formal description of the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
language in his Aṣṭādhyāyī.[5] Linguists traditionally analyse human language by observing an interplay between sound and meaning.[6] Phonetics is the study of speech and non-speech sounds, and delves into their acoustic and articulatory properties
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Luca Signorelli
Luca Signorelli
Luca Signorelli
(c. 1450—16 October 1523) was an Italian Renaissance painter who was noted in particular for his ability as a draftsman and his use of foreshortening. His massive frescoes of the Last Judgment
Last Judgment
(1499–1503) in Orvieto Cathedral
Orvieto Cathedral
are considered his masterpiece.Contents1 Biography 2 Work in Orvieto 3 Work in Siena, Cortona, Rome, and Arezzo 4 Major works 5 See also 6 Sources 7 References 8 External linksBiography[edit]Testament and Death of Moses, detailEducation of Pan, 1490s.He was born Luca d'Egidio di Ventura in Cortona, Tuscany (some sources call him Luca da Cortona). The precise date of his birth is uncertain, but birth dates between 1441 and 1445 have been proposed. He died in 1523 in his native Cortona, where he is buried. He was likely between seventy-eight and eighty-two years old
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Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica
Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica
Principia Mathematica
(English pronunciation /fɪləˈsɒfi.aɪ nætʃəˈrɑːlɪs prɪnˈkɪpiə mæθəˈmætɪkə/, Latin
Latin
for Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy
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Classical Latin
Classical Latin
Latin
is the modern term used to describe the form of the Latin
Latin
language recognized as standard by writers of the late Roman Republic and the Roman Empire. In some later periods, it was regarded as "good" Latin, with later versions being viewed as debased or corrupt. The word Latin
Latin
is now taken by default as meaning "Classical Latin", so that, for example, modern Latin
Latin
textbooks describe Classical Latin. Marcus Tullius Cicero
Cicero
and his contemporaries of the late republic, while using lingua latina and sermo latinus to mean the Latin
Latin
language as opposed to Greek or other languages, and sermo vulgaris or sermo vulgi to refer to the vernacular, referred to the speech they valued most and in which they wrote as latinitas,[1] "Latinity", with the implication of good
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King James Bible
The King James Version
King James Version
(KJV), also known as the King James Bible
Bible
(KJB) or simply the Authorized Version (AV), is an English translation of the Christian Bible
Bible
for the Church of England, begun in 1604 and completed in 1611.[a] The books of the King James Version
King James Version
include the 39 books of the Old Testament, an intertestamental section containing 14 books of the Apocrypha and the 27 books of the New Testament. It was first printed by the King's Printer Robert Barker and was the third translation into English approved by the English Church authorities
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