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Tupungato
TUPUNGATO, one of the highest mountains in the Americas
Americas
, is a massive Andean stratovolcano dating to Pleistocene
Pleistocene
times. It lies on the border between the Chilean Metropolitan Region (near a major international highway about 80 km (50 mi) east of Santiago ) and the Argentine province of Mendoza , about 100 km (62 mi) south of Aconcagua
Aconcagua
, the highest peak of both the Southern and Western Hemispheres . Immediately to its southwest is the active Tupungatito volcano, which last erupted in 1987. The mountain gives its name to the Tupungato Department , an important Argentine wine
Argentine wine
producing region in the Mendoza province
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Southern Hemisphere
Coordinates : 90°0′0″S 0°0′0″E / 90.00000°S 0.00000°E / -90.00000; 0.00000 A photo of Earth
Earth
from Apollo 17 (Blue Marble ) originally had the south pole at the top; however, it was turned upside-down to fit the traditional perspective The Southern Hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere
highlighted in yellow ( Antarctica
Antarctica
not depicted) The Southern Hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere
from above the South Pole The SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE is the half sphere of Earth
Earth
which is south of the equator
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Western Hemisphere
The WESTERN HEMISPHERE is a geographical term for the half of the earth which lies west of the Prime meridian
Prime meridian
(which crosses Greenwich
Greenwich
, UK ) and east of the antimeridian . The other half is called the Eastern Hemisphere
Eastern Hemisphere
. In this sense, the Western Hemisphere
Western Hemisphere
consists of the Americas
Americas
, the western portions of Eurasia
Eurasia
and Africa
Africa
, the extreme eastern tip of Russia
Russia
, numerous territories in Oceania
Oceania
, and a portion of Antarctica , while excluding some of the Aleutian Islands
Aleutian Islands
to the southwest of the Alaskan mainland
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Avro Lancastrian
The AVRO 691 LANCASTRIAN was a Canadian and British passenger and mail transport aircraft of the 1940s and 1950s developed from the Avro Lancaster heavy bomber . The Lancaster was named after Lancaster, Lancashire ; a Lancastrian is an inhabitant of Lancashire. The Lancastrian was basically a modified Lancaster bomber without armour or armament and with the gun turrets replaced by streamlined metal fairings, including a new nose section. The initial batch was converted directly from Lancasters; later batches were new builds
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Summit
A SUMMIT is a point on a surface that is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it. Mathematically , a summit is a local maximum in elevation. The topographic terms "acme", "apex", "peak" , and "zenith " are synonymous . CONTENTS* 1 Definition * 1.1 Western United States * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links DEFINITIONThe term "top" is generally used only for a mountain peck with some significant amount of topographic prominence (height above the lowest point end route to the nearest higher peak) or topographic isolation (distance from the nearest point of higher elevation); for example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are often considered subsummits (or subpeaks) of the higher peak, and are considered as part of the same mountain
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Americas
Largest metropolitan areas Largest cities List * São Paulo * Lima
Lima
* Mexico City * New York City
New York City
* Bogotá * Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
* Santiago
Santiago
* Los Angeles
Los Angeles
* Caracas * Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
CIA political map of the Americas
Americas
in Lambert azimuthal equal-area projection The AMERICAS (also collectively called AMERICA) encompass the totality of the continents of North and South America
South America
. Together, they make up most of the land in Earth's western hemisphere and comprise the New World
New World

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First Ascent
In mountaineering , a FIRST ASCENT (abbreviated to FA in guidebooks) is the first successful, documented attainment of the top of a mountain, or the first to follow a particular climbing route . First mountain ascents are notable because they entail genuine exploration, with greater risks, challenges, and recognition than climbing a route pioneered by others. The person who performs the FIRST ASCENT is called the FIRST ASCENSIONIST. In free climbing , a first ascent (or first free ascent , abbreviated FFA) of a climbing route is the first successful, documented climb of a route without using equipment such as anchors or ropes for aiding progression or resting. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Related terms * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYThe details of the first ascents of even many prominent mountains are scanty or unknown; sometimes the only evidence of prior summiting is a cairn , artifacts, or inscriptions at the top
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Mountain
A MOUNTAIN is a large landform that stretches above the surrounding land in a limited area, usually in the form of a peak. A mountain is generally steeper than a hill . Mountains are formed through tectonic forces or volcanism . These forces can locally raise the surface of the earth. Mountains erode slowly through the action of rivers , weather conditions , and glaciers . A few mountains are isolated summits , but most occur in huge mountain ranges . High elevations on mountains produce colder climates than at sea level . These colder climates strongly affect the ecosystems of mountains: different elevations have different plants and animals . Because of the less hospitable terrain and climate, mountains tend to be used less for agriculture and more for resource extraction and recreation, such as mountain climbing
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Glacier
A GLACIER (US : /ˈɡleɪʃər/ or UK : /ˈɡlæsiə/ ) is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation ) over many years, often centuries . Glaciers slowly deform and flow due to stresses induced by their weight, creating crevasses , seracs , and other distinguishing features. They also abrade rock and debris from their substrate to create landforms such as cirques and moraines . Glaciers form only on land and are distinct from the much thinner sea ice and lake ice that form on the surface of bodies of water. On Earth
Earth
, 99% of glacial ice is contained within vast ice sheets in the polar regions , but glaciers may be found in mountain ranges on every continent including Oceania's high-latitude oceanic islands such as New Zealand
New Zealand
and Papua New Guinea
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Avalanche
An AVALANCHE (also called a SNOWSLIDE) is a rapid flow of snow down a sloping surface. Avalanches are typically triggered in a starting zone from a mechanical failure in the snowpack (slab avalanche) when the forces on the snow exceed its strength but sometimes only with gradually widening (loose snow avalanche). After initiation, avalanches usually accelerate rapidly and grow in mass and volume as they entrain more snow. If the avalanche moves fast enough some of the snow may mix with the air forming a powder snow avalanche, which is a type of gravity current . Slides of rocks or debris, behaving in a similar way to snow, are also referred to as avalanches (see rockslide ). The remainder of this article refers to snow avalanches. The load on the snowpack may be only due to gravity, in which case failure may result either from weakening in the snowpack or increased load due to precipitation. Avalanches initiated by this process are known as spontaneous avalanches
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Global Volcanism Program
The Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution
's GLOBAL VOLCANISM PROGRAM (GVP) documents Earth's volcanoes and their eruptive history over the past 10,000 years. The GVP reports on current eruptions from around the world as well as maintaining a database repository on active volcanoes and their eruptions. In this way, a global context for the planet's active volcanism is presented. Smithsonian reporting on current volcanic activity dates back to 1968, with the Center for Short-Lived Phenomena (CSLP). The GVP is housed in the Department of Mineral Sciences, part of the National Museum of Natural History
National Museum of Natural History
, on the National Mall
National Mall
in Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
During the early stages of an eruption, the GVP acts as a clearinghouse of reports, data, and imagery which are accumulated from a global network of contributors
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Smithsonian Institution
The SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION (/smɪθˈsoʊniən/ smith-SOE-nee-ən ), established on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge", is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States . Originally organized as the "United States National Museum", that name ceased to exist as an administrative entity in 1967. Termed "the nation's attic" for its eclectic holdings of 154 million items, the Institution's nineteen museums, nine research centers, and zoo include historical and architectural landmarks, mostly located in the District of Columbia
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SRTM
The SHUTTLE RADAR TOPOGRAPHY MISSION (SRTM) is an international research effort that obtained digital elevation models on a near-global scale from 56° S to 60° N, to generate the most complete high-resolution digital topographic database of Earth prior to the release of the ASTER GDEM in 2009. SRTM consisted of a specially modified radar system that flew on board the Space Shuttle Endeavour during the 11-day STS-99 mission in February 2000, based on the older Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR), previously used on the Shuttle in 1994. To acquire topographic data, the SRTM payload was outfitted with two radar antennas. One antenna was located in the Shuttle's payload bay, the other – a critical change from the SIR-C/X-SAR, allowing single-pass interferometry – on the end of a 60-meter (200-foot) mast that extended from the payload bay once the Shuttle was in space
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Army Of Argentina
The ARGENTINE ARMY (Ejército Argentino, EA) is the land armed force branch of the Armed Forces of the Argentine Republic and the senior military service of the country. Under the Argentine Constitution , the President of Argentina is the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, exercising his or her command authority through the Minister of Defense . The Army's official foundation date is May 29, 1810 (celebrated in Argentina as the Army Day), four days after the Spanish colonial administration in Buenos Aires was overthrown . The new national army was formed out of several pre-existent colonial militia units and locally manned regiments; most notably the Infantry Regiment "Patricios" , which to this date is still an active unit. As of 2014, the active element of the Argentine Army numbered some 38,500 military personnel, a reduction from over 44,000 personnel in 2010
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Snowfall
SNOW refers to forms of ice crystals that precipitate from the atmosphere (usually from clouds) and undergo changes on the Earth's surface. It pertains to frozen crystalline water throughout its life cycle, starting when, under suitable conditions, the ice crystals form in the atmosphere, increase to millimeter size, precipitate and accumulate on surfaces, then metamorphose in place, and ultimately melt, slide or sublimate away. Snowstorms organize and develop by feeding on sources of atmospheric moisture and cold air. Snowflakes nucleate around particles in the atmosphere by attracting supercooled water droplets, which freeze in hexagonal-shaped crystals. Snowflakes take on a variety of shapes, basic among these are platelets, needles, columns and rime . As snow accumulates into a snowpack , it may blow into drifts. Over time, accumulated snow metamorphoses, by sintering , sublimation and freeze-thaw
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Glacier Terminus
A GLACIER TERMINUS, TOE, or SNOUT, is the end of a glacier at any given point in time. Although glaciers seem motionless to the observer, in reality glaciers are in endless motion and the glacier terminus is always either advancing or retreating. The location of the terminus is often directly related to glacier mass balance , which is based on the amount of snowfall which occurs in the accumulation zone of a glacier, as compared to the amount that is melted in the ablation zone . The position of a glacier terminus is also impacted by localized or regional temperature change over time. CONTENTS * 1 Tracking * 2 See also * 3 Notes * 4 External links TRACKINGTracking the change in location of a glacier terminus is a method of monitoring a glacier's movement. The end of the glacier terminus is measured from a fixed position in neighboring bedrock periodically over time
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