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Thermodynamic Cycle
A thermodynamic cycle consists of a linked sequence of thermodynamic processes that involve transfer of heat and work into and out of the system, while varying pressure, temperature, and other state variables within the system, and that eventually returns the system to its initial state. In the process of passing through a cycle, the working fluid (system) may convert heat from a warm source into useful work, and dispose of the remaining heat to a cold sink, thereby acting as a Heat
Heat
engine">heat engine. Conversely, the cycle may be reversed and use work to move heat from a cold source and transfer it to a warm sink thereby acting as a Heat
Heat
pump">heat pump. At every point in the cycle, the system is in thermodynamic equilibrium, so the cycle is reversible (its entropy change is zero, as entropy is a state function). During a closed cycle, the system returns to its original thermodynamic state of temperature and pressure
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Chemical Potential
In thermodynamics, chemical potential of a species, is a form of energy that can be absorbed or released during a chemical reaction or phase transition due to a change of the particle number of the given species. The chemical potential of a species in a mixture is defined as the rate of change of a free energy of a thermodynamic system with respect to the change in the number of atoms or molecules of the species that are added to the system. Thus, it is the partial derivative of the free energy with respect to the amount of the species, all other species' concentrations in the mixture remaining constant. The molar chemical potential is also known as partial molar free energy. When both temperature and pressure are held constant, chemical potential is the partial molar Gibbs free energy
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Real Gas
Real gases are non-hypothetical gases whose molecules occupy space and have interactions; consequently, they adhere to gas laws. To understand the behaviour of real gases, the following must be taken into account: For most applications, such a detailed analysis is unnecessary, and the ideal gas approximation can be used with reasonable accuracy. On the other hand, real-gas models have to be used near the condensation point of gases, near critical points, at very high pressures, to explain the Joule–Thomson effect and in other less usual cases
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Statistical Mechanics
Statistical mechanics is a branch of theoretical physics that uses Probability
Probability
theory">probability theory to study the average behaviour of a mechanical system whose exact state is uncertain. Statistical mechanics
Statistical mechanics
is commonly used to explain the thermodynamic behaviour of large systems. This branch of statistical mechanics, which treats and extends classical thermodynamics, is known as statistical thermodynamics or equilibrium statistical mechanics. Microscopic mechanical laws do not contain concepts such as temperature, heat, or entropy; however, statistical mechanics shows how these concepts arise from the natural uncertainty about the state of a system when that system is prepared in practice
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Chemical Thermodynamics
Chemical thermodynamics is the study of the interrelation of heat and work with chemical reactions or with physical changes of state within the confines of the laws of thermodynamics. Chemical thermodynamics
Chemical thermodynamics
involves not only laboratory measurements of various thermodynamic properties, but also the application of mathematical methods to the study of chemical questions and the spontaneity of processes. The structure of chemical thermodynamics is based on the first two laws of thermodynamics. Starting from the first and second laws of thermodynamics, four equations called the "fundamental equations of Gibbs" can be derived. From these four, a multitude of equations, relating the thermodynamic properties of the thermodynamic system can be derived using relatively simple mathematics
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Quantum Thermodynamics
Quantum thermodynamics is the study of the relations between two independent physical theories: thermodynamics and Quantum mechanics">quantum mechanics. The two independent theories address the physical phenomena of light and matter. In 1905 Einstein argued that the requirement of consistency between thermodynamics and electromagnetism leads to the conclusion that light is quantized obtaining the relation . This paper is the dawn of quantum theory. In a few decades quantum theory became established with an independent set of rules. Currently quantum thermodynamics addresses the emergence of thermodynamic laws from quantum mechanics. It differs from Quantum statistical mechanics">quantum statistical mechanics in the emphasis on dynamical processes out of equilibrium
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Heat
In thermodynamics, heat refers to energy that is transferred from a warmer substance or object to a cooler one
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State Of Matter
In physics, a state of matter is one of the distinct forms in which matter can exist. Four states of matter are observable in everyday life: solid, liquid, gas, and plasma. Many other states are known to exist, such as glass or Liquid
Liquid
crystal">liquid crystal, and some only exist under extreme conditions, such as Bose–Einstein condensates, neutron-degenerate matter, and quark-gluon plasma, which only occur, respectively, in situations of extreme cold, extreme density, and extremely high-energy. Some other states are believed to be possible but remain theoretical for now. For a complete list of all exotic states of matter, see the list of states of matter. Historically, the distinction is made based on qualitative differences in properties. Matter
Matter
in the solid state maintains a fixed volume and shape, with component particles (atoms, molecules or ions) close together and fixed into place
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Polytropic Process
A polytropic process is a thermodynamic process that obeys the relation:
where p is the pressure, V is volume, n is the polytropic index , and C is a constant
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Reversible Process (thermodynamics)
In thermodynamics, a reversible process is a process whose direction can be "reversed" by inducing infinitesimal changes to some property of the system via its surroundings, with no increase in entropy. Throughout the entire reversible process, the system is in thermodynamic equilibrium with its surroundings. Since it would take an infinite amount of time for the reversible process to finish, perfectly reversible processes are impossible. However, if the system undergoing the changes responds much faster than the applied change, the deviation from reversibility may be negligible. In a reversible cycle, a cyclical reversible process, the system and its surroundings will be returned to their original states if one half cycle is followed by the other half cycle. Thermodynamic processes can be carried out in one of two ways: reversibly or irreversibly. Reversibility means the reaction operates continuously at equilibrium
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Irreversible Process
In science, a process that is not reversible is called irreversible. This concept arises frequently in thermodynamics. In thermodynamics, a change in the thermodynamic state of a system and all of its surroundings cannot be precisely restored to its initial state by infinitesimal changes in some property of the system without expenditure of energy. A system that undergoes an irreversible process may still be capable of returning to its initial state. However, the impossibility occurs in restoring the environment to its own initial conditions. An irreversible process increases the entropy of the universe. Because entropy is a state function, the change in entropy of the system is the same, whether the process is reversible or irreversible
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Thermal Efficiency
In thermodynamics, the thermal efficiency () is a dimensionless performance measure of a device that uses thermal energy, such as an Internal combustion
Internal combustion
engine">internal combustion engine, a steam turbine or a steam engine, a boiler, furnace, or a refrigerator for example. For a Heat
Heat
engine">heat engine, thermal efficiency is the fraction of the energy added by heat (primary energy) that is converted to net work output (secondary energy)
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Intensive And Extensive Properties
Physical properties of materials and systems can often be categorized as being either intensive or extensive quantities, according to how the property changes when the size (or extent) of the system changes. According to IUPAC, an intensive property is one whose magnitude is independent of the size of the system. An extensive property is one whose magnitude is additive for subsystems. An intensive property is a bulk property, meaning that it is a physical property of a system that does not depend on the system size or the amount of material in the system. Examples of intensive properties include temperature, T, refractive index, n, density, ρ, and hardness of an object, η (IUPAC symbols are used throughout this article). When a diamond is cut, the pieces maintain their intrinsic hardness (until the sample reduces to a few atoms thick), so hardness is independent of the size of the system, for larger samples.