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Theodicy
THEODICY (/θiːˈɒdɪsi/ ), in its most common form, is an attempt to answer the question of why a good God
God
permits the manifestation of evil . Some theodicies also address the evidential problem of evil by attempting "to make the existence of an all-knowing , all-powerful and all-good or omnibenevolent God
God
consistent with the existence of evil" or suffering in the world. Unlike a defense, which tries to demonstrate that God's existence is logically possible in the light of evil, a theodicy attempts to provide a framework wherein God's existence is also plausible. The German mathematician and philosopher Gottfried Leibniz coined the term "theodicy" in 1710 in his work _ Théodicée _, though various responses to the problem of evil had been previously proposed
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Théodicée
ESSAIS DE THéODICéE SUR LA BONTé DE DIEU, LA LIBERTé DE L\'HOMME ET L\'ORIGINE DU MAL ("Essays of Theodicy on the Goodness of God, the Freedom of Man and the Origin of Evil"), more simply known as THéODICéE, is a book of philosophy by the German polymath Gottfried Leibniz . The book, published in 1710, introduced the term theodicy , and its optimistic approach to the problem of evil is thought to have inspired Voltaire's Candide
Candide
(albeit satirically). Much of the work consists of a response to the ideas of the French philosopher Pierre Bayle , with whom Leibniz carried on a debate for many years. Théodicée
Théodicée
was the only book Leibniz published during his lifetime; his other book, New Essays on Human Understanding , was published only after his death, in 1765
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Gottfried Leibniz
GOTTFRIED WILHELM (VON) LEIBNIZ (/ˈlaɪbnɪts/ ; German: or ; French : _Godefroi Guillaume Leibnitz_; 1 July 1646 – 14 November 1716) was a German polymath and philosopher who occupies a prominent place in the history of mathematics and the history of philosophy , having developed differential and integral calculus independently of Isaac Newton . Leibniz\'s notation has been widely used ever since it was published. It was only in the 20th century that his Law of Continuity and Transcendental Law of Homogeneity found mathematical implementation (by means of non-standard analysis ). He became one of the most prolific inventors in the field of mechanical calculators . While working on adding automatic multiplication and division to Pascal\'s calculator , he was the first to describe a pinwheel calculator in 1685 and invented the Leibniz wheel , used in the arithmometer , the first mass-produced mechanical calculator
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God
In monotheism , GOD is conceived of as the Supreme Being and principal object of faith . The concept of God , as described by most theologians , includes the attributes of omniscience (infinite knowledge), omnipotence (unlimited power), omnipresence (present everywhere), divine simplicity , and as having an eternal and necessary existence. Many theologians also describe God as being omnibenevolent (perfectly good) and all loving . God is most often held to be incorporeal (immaterial), and to be without gender, yet the concept of God actively creating the universe (as opposed to passively) has caused many religions to describe God using masculine terminology, using such terms as "Him" or "Father". Furthermore, some religions (such as Judaism ) attribute only a purely grammatical "gender" to God
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Agnosticism
Related concepts and fundamentals: * Agnosticism * Epistemology
Epistemology
* Presupposition * Probability
Probability
* v * t * e AGNOSTICISM is the view that the existence of God
God
or the supernatural is unknown or unknowable . According to the philosopher William L. Rowe , "agnosticism is the view that human reason is incapable of providing sufficient rational grounds to justify either the belief that God
God
exists or the belief that God
God
does not exist". Agnosticism
Agnosticism
is a doctrine or set of tenets rather than a religion . English biologist Thomas Henry Huxley coined the word "agnostic" in 1869
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Apatheism
APATHEISM (/ˌæpəˈθiːɪzəm/ a portmanteau of apathy and theism ) is the philosophical view that one should be apathetic towards the existence or non-existence of god(s). It is more of an attitude rather than a belief, claim or belief system. An apatheist is someone who is not interested in accepting or rejecting any claims that gods exist or do not exist. An apatheist may thus decide to live as if there are no gods. The existence of god(s) is not rejected, but may be designated irrelevant. Scientist and philosopher Ian von Hegner has argued that apatheism is an alternative to positions such as theism, atheism, and agnosticism, with implications that have been overlooked in modern philosophical discussions. Philosopher Trevor Hedberg has called apatheism uncharted territory in the philosophy of religion
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Atheism
ATHEISM is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities . Less broadly, atheism is the rejection of belief that any deities exist. In an even narrower sense, atheism is specifically the position that there are no deities. Atheism
Atheism
is contrasted with theism , which, in its most general form, is the belief that at least one deity exists . The etymological root for the word atheism originated before the 5th century BCE from the ancient Greek ἄθεος (atheos), meaning "without god(s)". In antiquity it had multiple uses as a pejorative term applied to those thought to reject the gods worshiped by the larger society, those who were forsaken by the gods or those who had no commitment to belief in the gods. The term denoted a social category created by orthodox religionists into which those who did not share their religious beliefs were placed. The actual term atheism emerged first in the 16th century
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Deism
DEISM (/ˈdiː.ɪzəm/ DEE-iz-əm   or /ˈdeɪ.ɪzəm/ DAY-iz-əm ; derived from Latin
Latin
"deus " meaning "god ") is a philosophical position which posits that a god does not interfere directly with the world. It also rejects revelation as a source of religious knowledge with the conclusion that reason and observation of the natural world are sufficient to determine the existence of a single creator of the universe . Deism
Deism
gained prominence among intellectuals during the Age of Enlightenment , especially in Britain, France, Germany, and the United States. Typically, these had been raised as Christians and believed in one God
God
, but they had become disenchanted with organized religion and orthodox teachings such as the Trinity
Trinity
, Biblical inerrancy
Biblical inerrancy
, and the supernatural interpretation of events, such as miracles
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Henotheism
HENOTHEISM (from Greek ἑνας θεός _(henas theos)_, meaning 'one god') is the worship of a single god while not denying the existence or possible existence of other deities . Friedrich Schelling (1775–1854) coined the word, and Friedrich Welcker (1784–1868) used it to depict primordial monotheism among ancient Greeks. Max Müller (1823–1900), a German philologist and orientalist, brought the term into wider usage in his scholarship on the Indian religions , particularly Hinduism whose scriptures mention and praise numerous deities as if they are one ultimate unitary divine essence. Müller made the term central to his criticism of Western theological and religious exceptionalism (relative to Eastern religions ), focusing on a cultural dogma which held "monotheism" to be both fundamentally well-defined and inherently superior to differing conceptions of God
God

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Ignosticism
IGNOSTICISM claims that knowledge regarding the reality of God is altogether unprofitable. This idea is directly contested by the mainstream teachings of monothesitic religions such as Judaism , Christianity , Islam , and Bahá\'í Faith . It is the idea that every theological position assumes too much about the concept of God and other theological concepts; including (but not limited to) concepts of faith , spirituality , heaven , hell , afterlife , damnation , salvation , sin and the soul . CONTENTS * 1 Terminology * 2 Distinction from theological noncognitivism * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Sources * 6 External links TERMINOLOGYThe term _ignosticism_ was coined in the 1960s by Sherwin Wine , a rabbi and a founding figure of Humanistic Judaism
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Monotheism
MONOTHEISM has been defined as the belief in the existence of only one god that created the world, is all-powerful and intervenes in the world. A broader definition of monotheism is the belief in one god. A distinction may be made between exclusive monotheism, and both inclusive monotheism and pluriform (panentheistic ) monotheism which, while recognising various distinct gods, postulate some underlying unity. Monotheism is distinguished from henotheism , a religious system in which the believer worships one god without denying that others may worship different gods with equal validity, and monolatrism , the recognition of the existence of many gods but with the consistent worship of only one deity
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Monism
MONISM is the view that attributes oneness or singleness (Greek: μόνος) to a concept (e.g., existence). Various kinds of monism can be distinguished: * _Priority monism_ states that all existing things go back to a source that is distinct from them (e.g., in Neoplatonism everything is derived from The One). In this view only one thing is ontologically basic or prior to everything else. * _ Existence monism_ ("stuff monism") posits that, strictly speaking, there exists only a single thing (e.g., the universe), which can only be artificially and arbitrarily divided into many things. * _Substance monism_ ("stuff monism") asserts that a variety of existing things can be explained in terms of a single reality or substance
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Dualism
DUALISM (from the Latin
Latin
word _duo_ meaning "two") denotes the state of two parts. The term _dualism_ was originally coined to denote co-eternal binary opposition , a meaning that is preserved in metaphysical and philosophical duality discourse but has been more generalized in other usages to indicate a system which contains two essential parts. Moral dualism is the belief of the great complement of or conflict between the benevolent and the malevolent. It simply implies that there are two moral opposites at work, independent of any interpretation of what might be "moral" and independent of how these may be represented. Moral opposites might, for example, exist in a worldview which has one god, more than one god, or none. By contrast, ditheism or bitheism implies (at least) two gods. While bitheism implies harmony, ditheism implies rivalry and opposition, such as between good and evil, or light and dark, or summer and winter
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Monolatrism
MONOLATRY or MONOLATRISM (Greek : μόνος (_monos_) = single, and λατρεία (_latreia_) = worship ) is belief in the existence of many gods but with the consistent worship of only one deity. The term "monolatry" was perhaps first used by Julius Wellhausen . Monolatry is distinguished from monotheism , which asserts the existence of only one god, and henotheism , a religious system in which the believer worships one god without denying that others may worship different gods with equal validity. CONTENTS * 1 Atenism * 2 In ancient Israel * 3 In Christianity * 3.1 The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints * 4 References * 5 Further reading * 6 External links ATENISM Main article: Atenism The ancient Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten initially introduced Atenism in Year 5 of his reign (1348/1346 BCE), during the 18th dynasty