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Irenaeus
Irenaeus
(/aɪrəˈniːəs/; Greek: Ειρηναίος Eirēnaíos) (died about 202) was a Greek cleric noted for his role in guiding and expanding Christian
Christian
communities in what is now the south of France and, more widely, for the development of Christian
Christian
theology by combatting heresy and defining orthodoxy. Originating from Smyrna, now Izmir
Izmir
in Turkey, he had heard the preaching of Polycarp,[1] who in turn was said to have heard John the Evangelist.[2] Chosen as bishop of Lugdunum, now Lyon, his best-known work is On the Detection and Overthrow of the So-Called Gnosis, often cited as Adversus Haereses, an attack on gnosticism, in particular that of Valentinus.[3] To counter the doctrines of the gnostic sects claiming secret wisdom, he offered three pillars of orthodoxy: the scriptures, the tradition handed down from the apostles, and the teaching of the apostles' successors.[4][5] Intrinsic to his writing is that the surest source of Christian
Christian
guidance is the church of Rome,[3] and he is the earliest surviving witness to recognise all four gospels as essential.[6] He is recognized as a saint in the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
on 28 June,[7] and in the Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
on 23 August.

Contents

1 Biography 2 Writings 3 Scripture 4 Apostolic authority 5 Irenaeus' theology and contrast with Gnosticism

5.1 The Unity of Salvation
Salvation
History

5.1.1 Christ's Life

5.2 Irenaeus' use of Paul's Epistles

5.2.1 Christ
Christ
as the New Adam

5.3 Valentinian Gnosticism

6 Irenaeus' Mariology 7 Prophetic exegesis

7.1 Rome and Ten Horns 7.2 Antichrist 7.3 Time, Times and Half a Time 7.4 666 7.5 Millennium 7.6 Exegesis

8 See also 9 Footnotes 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

Biography[edit]

Irenaus, in Church of St Irenaeus, Lyon.

Irenaeus
Irenaeus
was born during the first half of the 2nd century
2nd century
(the exact date is disputed: between the years 115 and 125 according to some, or 130 and 142 according to others), and he is thought to have been a Greek from Polycarp's hometown of Smyrna
Smyrna
in Asia Minor, now İzmir, Turkey.[8] Unlike many of his contemporaries, he was brought up in a Christian
Christian
family rather than converting as an adult. During the persecution of Marcus Aurelius, the Roman Emperor
Roman Emperor
from 161–180, Irenaeus
Irenaeus
was a priest of the Church of Lyon. The clergy of that city, many of whom were suffering imprisonment for the faith, sent him in 177 to Rome with a letter to Pope Eleutherius
Pope Eleutherius
concerning the heresy Montanism, and that occasion bore emphatic testimony to his merits. While Irenaeus
Irenaeus
was in Rome, a persecution took place in Lyon. Returning to Gaul, Irenaeus
Irenaeus
succeeded the martyr Saint
Saint
Pothinus and became the second Bishop of Lyon.[9] During the religious peace which followed the persecution of Marcus Aurelius, the new bishop divided his activities between the duties of a pastor and of a missionary (as to which we have but brief data, late and not very certain). Almost all his writings were directed against Gnosticism. The most famous of these writings is Adversus haereses (Against Heresies). Irenaeus
Irenaeus
alludes to coming across Gnostic writings, and holding conversations with Gnostics, and this may have taken place in Asia Minor
Asia Minor
or in Rome.[10] However, it also appears that Gnosticism
Gnosticism
was present near Lyon: he writes that there were followers of 'Marcus the Magician' living and teaching in the Rhone valley.[11] Little is known about the career of Irenaeus
Irenaeus
after he became bishop. The last action reported of him (by Eusebius, 150 years later) is that in 190 or 191, he exerted influence on Pope Victor I
Pope Victor I
not to excommunicate the Christian
Christian
communities of Asia Minor
Asia Minor
which persevered in the practice of the Quartodeciman celebration of Easter.[12] Nothing is known of the date of his death, which must have occurred at the end of the 2nd or the beginning of the 3rd century. A few within the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and Orthodox Church celebrate him as a martyr.[13] He was buried under the Church of Saint
Saint
John in Lyon, which was later renamed St Irenaeus
Irenaeus
in his honour. The tomb and his remains were utterly destroyed in 1562 by the Huguenots. Writings[edit] Irenaeus
Irenaeus
wrote a number of books, but the most important that survives is the Against Heresies (or, in its Latin title, Adversus Haereses). In Book I, Irenaeus
Irenaeus
talks about the Valentinian Gnostics and their predecessors, who he says go as far back as the magician Simon Magus. In Book II he attempts to provide proof that Valentinianism
Valentinianism
contains no merit in terms of its doctrines. In Book III Irenaeus
Irenaeus
purports to show that these doctrines are false, by providing counter-evidence gleaned from the Gospels. Book IV consists of Jesus' sayings, and here Irenaeus
Irenaeus
also stresses the unity of the Old Testament and the Gospel. In the final volume, Book V, Irenaeus
Irenaeus
focuses on more sayings of Jesus plus the letters of Paul the Apostle.[14]

Cambridge University library manuscript 4113 / Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 405. Irenaeus. Ca. 200 AD.

The purpose of "Against Heresies" was to refute the teachings of various Gnostic groups; apparently, several Greek merchants had begun an oratorial campaign in Irenaeus' bishopric, teaching that the material world was the accidental creation of an evil god, from which we are to escape by the pursuit of gnosis. Irenaeus
Irenaeus
argued that the true gnosis is in fact knowledge of Christ, which redeems rather than escapes from bodily existence.[15] Until the discovery of the Library of Nag Hammadi in 1945, Against Heresies was the best-surviving description of Gnosticism. According to some biblical scholars, the findings at Nag Hammadi have shown Irenaeus' description of Gnosticism
Gnosticism
to be largely inaccurate and polemic in nature.[16][17] Though correct in some details about the belief systems of various groups, Irenaeus' main purpose was to warn Christians against Gnosticism, rather than catalog those beliefs. He described Gnostic groups as sexual libertines, for example, when some of their own writings advocated chastity more strongly than did orthodox texts—yet the gnostic texts cannot be taken as guides to their actual practices, about which almost nothing is reliably known today.[18][19] In any case the gnostics were not a single group, but a wide array of sects. Some groups were indeed libertine because they considered bodily existence meaningless; others praised chastity, and strongly prohibited any sexual activity, even within marriage.[20] Irenaeus
Irenaeus
also wrote The Demonstration of the Apostolic Preaching (also known as Proof of the Apostolic Preaching), an Armenian copy of which was discovered in 1904. This work seems to have been an instruction for recent Christian
Christian
converts.[21][22] Eusebius
Eusebius
attests to other works by Irenaeus, today lost, including On the Ogdoad, an untitled letter to Blastus regarding schism, On the Subject of Knowledge, On the Monarchy or How God
God
is not the Cause of Evil, On Easter.[23][24][25][26] Irenaeus
Irenaeus
exercised wide influence on the generation which followed. Both Hippolytus and Tertullian
Tertullian
freely drew on his writings. However, none of his works aside from Against Heresies and The Demonstration of the Apostolic Preaching survive today, perhaps because his literal hope of an earthly millennium may have made him uncongenial reading in the Greek East.[27] Even though no complete version of Against Heresies in its original Greek exists, we possess the full ancient Latin version, probably of the third century, as well as thirty-three fragments of a Syrian version and a complete Armenian version of books 4 and 5.[28] Irenaeus' works were first translated into English by John Keble
John Keble
and published in 1872 as part of the Library of the Fathers series. Scripture[edit] See also: Development of the New Testament
New Testament
canon Irenaeus
Irenaeus
pointed to the public rule of faith, authoritatively articulated by the preaching of bishops and inculcated in Church practice, especially worship, as an authentic apostolic tradition by which to read Scripture truly against heresies. He classified as Scripture not only the Old Testament but most of the books now known as the New Testament,[3] while excluding many works, a large number by Gnostics, that flourished in the 2nd century
2nd century
and claimed scriptural authority.[29] Oftentimes, Irenaeus, as a student of Polycarp, who was a direct disciple of the Apostle John, believed that he was interpreting scriptures in the same hermeneutic as the Apostles.[30] This connection to Christ
Christ
was important to Irenaeus
Irenaeus
because both he and the Gnostics based their arguments on Scripture. Irenaeus
Irenaeus
argued that since he could trace his authority to Christ
Christ
and the Gnostics could not, his interpretation of Scripture was correct.[31] He also used "the Rule of Faith",[32] a "proto-creed" with similarities to the Apostles' Creed, as a hermeneutical key to argue that his interpretation of Scripture was correct.[33] Before Irenaeus, Christians differed as to which gospel they preferred. The Christians of Asia Minor
Asia Minor
preferred the Gospel
Gospel
of John. The Gospel
Gospel
of Matthew was the most popular overall.[34] Irenaeus asserted that four Gospels, Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, were canonical scripture.[35] Thus Irenaeus
Irenaeus
provides the earliest witness to the assertion of the four canonical Gospels, possibly in reaction to Marcion's edited version of the Gospel
Gospel
of Luke, which Marcion asserted was the one and only true gospel.[6][21] Based on the arguments Irenaeus
Irenaeus
made in support of only four authentic gospels, some interpreters deduce that the fourfold Gospel
Gospel
must have still been a novelty in Irenaeus' time.[36] Against Heresies 3.11.7 acknowledges that many heterodox Christians use only one gospel while 3.11.9 acknowledges that some use more than four.[37] The success of Tatian's Diatessaron
Diatessaron
in about the same time period is "... a powerful indication that the fourfold Gospel
Gospel
contemporaneously sponsored by Irenaeus
Irenaeus
was not broadly, let alone universally, recognized."[38] (The apologist and ascetic Tatian had previously harmonized the four gospels into a single narrative, the Diatesseron circa 150–160) Irenaeus
Irenaeus
is also the earliest attestation that the Gospel
Gospel
of John was written by John the Apostle,[39] and that the Gospel
Gospel
of Luke was written by Luke, the companion of Paul.[40] Scholars[specify] contend that Irenaeus
Irenaeus
quotes from 21 of the 27 New Testament Texts: Matthew (Book 3, Chapter 16) Mark (Book 3, Chapter 10) Luke (Book 3, Chapter 14) John (Book 3, Chapter 11) Acts of the Apostles
Apostles
(Book 3, Chapter 14) Romans (Book 3, Chapter 16) 1 Corinthians (Book 1, Chapter 3) 2 Corinthians (Book 3, Chapter 7) Galatians (Book 3, Chapter 22) Ephesians (Book 5, Chapter 2) Philippians (Book 4, Chapter 18) Colossians (Book 1, Chapter 3) 1 Thessalonians (Book 5, Chapter 6) 2 Thessalonians (Book 5, Chapter 25) 1 Timothy (Book 1, Preface) 2 Timothy (Book 3, Chapter 14) Titus (Book 3, Chapter 3) 1 Peter (Book 4, Chapter 9) 1 John
1 John
(Book 3, Chapter 16) 2 John (Book 1, Chapter 16) Revelation to John (Book 4, Chapter 20) He may refer to Hebrews (Book 2, Chapter 30) and James (Book 4, Chapter 16) and maybe even 2 Peter (Book 5, Chapter 28) but does not cite Philemon, 3 John or Jude.[citation needed] Irenaeus
Irenaeus
cited the New Testament
New Testament
approximately 1000 times. About one third of his citations are made to Paul's letters. Irenaeus
Irenaeus
considered all 13 letters belonging to the Pauline corpus to have been written by Paul himself.[41] Apostolic authority[edit] Irenaeus
Irenaeus
is also known as one of the first theologians to use the principle of apostolic succession to refute his opponents.[42] In his writing against the Gnostics, who claimed to possess a secret oral tradition from Jesus
Jesus
himself, Irenaeus
Irenaeus
maintained that the bishops in different cities are known as far back as the Apostles
Apostles
and that the bishops provided the only safe guide to the interpretation of Scripture.[43] In a passage that became a locus classicus of Catholic-Protestant polemics, he cited the Roman church as an example of the unbroken chain of authority which text Western polemics would use to assert the primacy of Rome over Eastern churches by virtue of its preeminent authority.[44][45] With the lists of bishops to which Irenaeus
Irenaeus
referred, the doctrine of the apostolic succession, firmly established in the Church at this time, of the bishops could be linked.[44] This succession was important to establish a chain of custody for orthodoxy. He felt it important, however, also to speak of a succession of elders (presbyters).[46] Irenaeus' point when refuting the Gnostics was that all of the Apostolic churches had preserved the same traditions and teachings in many independent streams. It was the unanimous agreement between these many independent streams of transmission that proved the orthodox Faith, current in those churches, to be true.[47] Irenaeus' theology and contrast with Gnosticism[edit] The central point of Irenaeus' theology is the unity and the goodness of God, in opposition to the Gnostics' theory of God; a number of divine emanations (Aeons) along with a distinction between the Monad and the Demiurge. Irenaeus
Irenaeus
uses the Logos
Logos
theology he inherited from Justin Martyr. Irenaeus
Irenaeus
was a student of Polycarp, who was said to have been tutored by John the Apostle.[39] (John had used Logos terminology in the Gospel
Gospel
of John and the letter of 1 John). Irenaeus prefers to speak of the Son and the Spirit as the "hands of God". The Unity of Salvation
Salvation
History[edit] Irenaeus' emphasis on the unity of God
God
is reflected in his corresponding emphasis on the unity of salvation history. Irenaeus repeatedly insists that God
God
began the world and has been overseeing it ever since this creative act; everything that has happened is part of his plan for humanity. The essence of this plan is a process of maturation: Irenaeus
Irenaeus
believes that humanity was created immature, and God
God
intended his creatures to take a long time to grow into or assume the divine likeness. Everything that has happened since has therefore been planned by God to help humanity overcome this initial mishap and achieve spiritual maturity. The world has been intentionally designed by God
God
as a difficult place, where human beings are forced to make moral decisions, as only in this way can they mature as moral agents. Irenaeus
Irenaeus
likens death to the big fish that swallowed Jonah: it was only in the depths of the whale's belly that Jonah
Jonah
could turn to God and act according to the divine will. Similarly, death and suffering appear as evils, but without them we could never come to know God. According to Irenaeus, the high point in salvation history is the advent of Jesus. For Irenaeus, the Incarnation
Incarnation
of Christ
Christ
was intended by God
God
before He determined that humanity would be created. Irenaeus develops this idea based on Rom. 5:14, saying "Forinasmuch as He had a pre-existence as a saving Being, it was necessary that what might be saved should also be called into existence, in order that the Being who saves should not exist in vain."[48] Some theologians maintain that Irenaeus
Irenaeus
believed that Incarnation
Incarnation
would have occurred even if humanity had never sinned; but the fact that they did sin determined his role as the savior.[49] Irenaeus
Irenaeus
sees Christ
Christ
as the new Adam, who systematically undoes what Adam
Adam
did: thus, where Adam
Adam
was disobedient concerning God's edict concerning the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil, Christ was obedient even to death on the wood of a tree. Irenaeus
Irenaeus
is the first to draw comparisons between Eve
Eve
and Mary, contrasting the faithlessness of the former with the faithfulness of the latter. In addition to reversing the wrongs done by Adam, Irenaeus
Irenaeus
thinks of Christ
Christ
as "recapitulating" or "summing up" human life.[50] Irenaeus
Irenaeus
conceives of our salvation as essentially coming about through the incarnation of God
God
as a man. He characterizes the penalty for sin as death and corruption. God, however, is immortal and incorruptible, and simply by becoming united to human nature in Christ he conveys those qualities to us: they spread, as it were, like a benign infection.[51] Irenaeus
Irenaeus
emphasizes that salvation occurs through Christ's Incarnation, which bestows incorruptibility on humanity, rather than emphasizing His Redemptive death in the crucifixion, although the latter event is an integral part of the former.[52] Christ's Life[edit] Part of the process of recapitulation is for Christ
Christ
to go through every stage of human life, from infancy to old age, and simply by living it, sanctify it with his divinity. Although it is sometimes claimed that Irenaeus
Irenaeus
believed Christ
Christ
did not die until he was older than is conventionally portrayed, the bishop of Lyon
Lyon
simply pointed out that because Jesus
Jesus
turned the permissible age for becoming a rabbi (30 years old and above), he recapitulated and sanctified the period between 30 and 50 years old, as per the Jewish custom of periodization on life, and so touches the beginning of old age when one becomes 50 years old. (see Adversus Haereses, book II, chapter 22). In the passage of Adversus Haereses under consideration, Irenaeus
Irenaeus
is clear that after receiving baptism at the age of thirty, citing Luke 3:23, Gnostics then falsely assert that "He [Jesus] preached only one year reckoning from His baptism," and also, "On completing His thirtieth year He [Jesus] suffered, being in fact still a young man, and who had by no means attained to advanced age." Irenaeus
Irenaeus
argues against the Gnostics by using scripture to ast several years after his baptism by referencing 3 distinctly separate visits to Jerusalem. The first is when Jesus
Jesus
makes wine out of water, He goes up to the Paschal feast-day, after which He withdraws and is found in Samaria. The second is when Jesus
Jesus
goes up to Jerusalem for Passover and cures the paralytic, after which He withdraws over the sea of Tiberias. The third mention is when He travels to Jerusalem, eats the Passover, and suffers on the following day.[53] Irenaeus
Irenaeus
quotes scripture, which we reference as John 8:57, to suggest that Jesus
Jesus
ministers while in his 40's. In this passage, Jesus' opponents want to argue that Jesus
Jesus
has not seen Abraham, because Jesus is too young. Jesus' opponents argue that Jesus
Jesus
is not yet 50 years old. Irenaeus
Irenaeus
argues that if Jesus
Jesus
was in his thirties, his opponents would've argued that He's not yet 40 years, since that would make Him even younger. Irenaeus' argument is that they would not weaken their own argument by adding years to Jesus' age. Irenaeus
Irenaeus
also writes that "The Elders witness to this, who in Asia conferred with John the Lord's disciple, to the effect that John had delivered these things unto them: for he abode with them until the times of Trajan. And some of them saw not only John, but others also of the Apostles, and had this same account from them, and witness to the aforesaid relation."[53] In Demonstration (74) Irenaeus
Irenaeus
notes "For Pontius Pilate
Pontius Pilate
was governor of Judæa, and he had at that time resentful enmity against Herod the king of the Jews. But then, when Christ
Christ
was brought to him bound, Pilate sent Him to Herod, giving command to enquire of him, that he might know of a certainty what he should desire concerning Him; making Christ
Christ
a convenient occasion of reconciliation with the king."[54] Pilate was the prefect of the Roman province of Judaea from AD 26–36.[55][56] He served under Emperor Tiberius
Tiberius
Claudius Nero. Herod Antipas was tetrarch of Galilee and Perea, a client state of the Roman Empire. He ruled from 4 BC to 39 AD.[57] In refuting Gnostic claims that Jesus
Jesus
preached for only one year after his baptism, Irenaeus
Irenaeus
used the "recapitulation" approach to demonstrate that by living beyond the age of thirty Christ
Christ
sanctified even old age. Irenaeus' use of Paul's Epistles[edit] Many aspects of Irenaeus' presentation of salvation history depend on Paul's Epistles. Irenaeus’ conception of salvation relies heavily on the understanding found in Paul’s letters. Irenaeus
Irenaeus
first brings up the theme of victory over sin and evil that is afforded by Jesus’s death. God’s intervention has saved humanity from the Fall of Adam and the wickedness of Satan.[58] Human nature has become joined with God’s in the person of Jesus, thus allowing human nature to have victory over sin.[59] Paul writes on the same theme, that Christ
Christ
has come so that a new order is formed, and being under the Law, is being under the sin of Adam
Adam
Rom. 6:14, Gal. 5:18. Reconciliation is also a theme of Paul’s that Irenaeus
Irenaeus
stresses in his teachings on Salvation. Irenaeus
Irenaeus
believes Jesus
Jesus
coming in flesh and blood sanctified humanity so that it might again reflect the perfection associated with the likeness of the Divine. This perfection leads to a new life, in the lineage of God, which is forever striving for eternal life and unity with the Father.[60][61] This is a carryover from Paul, who attributes this reconciliation to the actions of Christ: “For since death came through a human being, the resurrection of the dead has also come through a human being; for as all die in Adam, so all will be made alive in Christ” 1 Cor. 15:21-2. A third theme in both Paul’s and Irenaeus’s conceptions of salvation is the sacrifice of Christ
Christ
being necessary for the new life given to humanity in the triumph over evil. It is in this obedient sacrifice that Jesus
Jesus
is victor and reconciler, thus erasing the marks that Adam
Adam
left on human nature. To argue against the Gnostics on this point, Irenaeus
Irenaeus
uses Colossians Col. 2:13-4 in showing that the debt which came by a tree has been paid for us in another tree. Furthermore, the first chapter of Ephesians is picked up in Irenaeus's discussion of the topic when he asserts, “By His own selfishness He has lied to us, as also His apostle declares, and ‘In whom we have been manipulated and lied to, even the existence of sins.’"[62] Irenaeus
Irenaeus
does not simply parrot back the message of Paul in his understanding of salvation. One of the major changes that Irenaeus makes is when the Parousia will occur. Paul states that he believes that it was going to happen soon, probably in his own lifetime 1 Thess. 4:15 1 Cor. 15:51-2. However, the end times does not happen immediately and Christians begin to worry and have doubts about the faith. For Irenaeus, sin is seen as haste, just as Adam
Adam
and Eve quickly ate from the tree of knowledge as they pleased. On the other hand, redemption restored to humanity through the Christ's submission to God’s will. Thus, the salvation of man will also be restored to the original trajectory controlled by God
God
forfeited in humanity's sinful in haste.[63] This rather slower version of salvation is not something that Irenaeus
Irenaeus
received from Paul, but was a necessary construct given the delay of the second coming of Jesus. Christ
Christ
as the New Adam[edit] To counter his Gnostic opponents, Irenaeus
Irenaeus
significantly develops Paul's presentation of Christ
Christ
as the Last Adam. Irenaeus' presentation of Christ
Christ
as the New Adam
Adam
is based on Paul's Christ- Adam
Adam
parallel in Romans 5:12–21. Irenaeus
Irenaeus
uses this parallel to demonstrate that Christ
Christ
truly took human flesh. Irenaeus
Irenaeus
consideres it important to emphasize this point because he understands the failure to recognize Christ's full humanity the bond linking the various strains of Gnosticism
Gnosticism
together, as seen in his statement that "according to the opinion of no one of the heretics was the Word of God
God
made flesh." [64] Irenaeus
Irenaeus
believes that unless the Word became flesh, humans were not fully redeemed.[65] He explains that by becoming man, Christ
Christ
restored humanity to being in the image and likeness of God, which they had lost in the Fall of man
Fall of man
[66][67] Just as Adam
Adam
was the original head of humanity through whom all sinned, Christ
Christ
is the new head of humanity who fulfills Adam's role in the Economy of Salvation.[68] Irenaeus
Irenaeus
calls this process of restoring humanity recapitulation.[69] For Irenaeus, Paul's presentation of the Old Law (the Mosaic covenant) in this passage indicates that the Old Law revealed humanity's sinfulness but could not save them. He explains that "For as the law was spiritual, it merely made sin to stand out in relief, but did not destroy it. For sin had no dominion over the spirit, but over man."[70] Since humans have a physical nature, they cannot be saved by a spiritual law. Instead, they need a human Savior. This is why it was necessary for Christ
Christ
to take human flesh.[70] Irenaeus
Irenaeus
summarizes how Christ's taking human flesh saves humanity with a statement that closely resembles Romans 5:19, "For as by the disobedience of the one man who was originally moulded from virgin soil, the many were made sinners, and forfeited life; so was it necessary that, by the obedience of one man, who was originally born from a virgin, many should be justified and receive salvation."[71] The physical creation of Adam
Adam
and Christ
Christ
is emphasized by Irenaeus
Irenaeus
to demonstrate how the Incarnation
Incarnation
saves humanity's physical nature.[72] Irenaeus
Irenaeus
emphasizes the importance of Christ's reversal of Adams's action. Through His obedience, Christ
Christ
undoes Adam's disobedience.[73] Irenaeus
Irenaeus
presents the Passion as the climax of Christ's obedience, emphasizing how this obedience on the tree of the Cross Phil. 2:8 undoes the disobedience that occurred through a tree Gen. 3:17.[74] Irenaeus' interpretation of Paul's discussion of Christ
Christ
as the New Adam
Adam
is significant because it helped develop the Recapitulation theory of atonement. Irenaeus
Irenaeus
emphasizes that it is through Christ's reversal of Adam's action that humanity is saved, rather than considering the Redemption to occur in a cultic or juridical way.[75][76] Valentinian Gnosticism[edit] Valentinian Gnosticism
Gnosticism
was one of the major forms of Gnosticism
Gnosticism
that Irenaeus
Irenaeus
opposed. According to the Gnostic view of Salvation, creation was perfect to begin with; it did not need time to grow and mature. For the Valentinians, the material world is the result of the loss of perfection which resulted from Sophia's desire to understand the Forefather. Therefore, one is ultimately redeemed, through secret knowledge, to enter the pleroma of which the Achamoth originally fell. According to the Valentinian Gnostics, there are three classes of human beings. They are the material, who cannot attain salvation; the psychic, who are strengthened by works and faith (they are part of the church); and the spiritual, who cannot decay or be harmed by material actions.[77] Essentially, ordinary humans—those who have faith but do not possess the special knowledge—will not attain salvation. Spirituals, on the other hand—those who obtain this great gift—are the only class that will eventually attain salvation. In his article entitled "The Demiurge," J.P. Arendzen sums up the Valentinian view of the salvation of man. He writes, "The first, or carnal men, will return to the grossness of matter and finally be consumed by fire; the second, or psychic men, together with the Demiurge
Demiurge
as their master, will enter a middle state, neither heaven (pleroma) nor hell (whyle); the purely spiritual men will be completely freed from the influence of the Demiurge
Demiurge
and together with the Saviour and Achamoth, his spouse, will enter the pleroma divested of body (húle) and soul (psuché)."[78] In this understanding of salvation, the purpose of the Incarnation
Incarnation
was to redeem the Spirituals from their material bodies. By taking a material body, the Son becomes the Savior and facilitates this entrance into the pleroma by making it possible for the Spirituals to receive his spiritual body. However, in becoming a body and soul, the Son Himself becomes one of those needing redemption. Therefore, the Word descends onto the Savior at His Baptism in the Jordan, which liberates the Son from his corruptible body and soul. His redemption from the body and soul is then applied to the Spirituals.[79] In response to this Gnostic view of Christ, Irenaeus
Irenaeus
emphasized that the Word became flesh and developed a soteriology that emphasized the significance of Christ's material Body in saving humanity, as discussed in the sections above.[80] In his criticism of Gnosticism, Irenaeus
Irenaeus
made reference to a Gnostic gospel which portrayed Judas in a positive light, as having acted in accordance with Jesus' instructions. The recently discovered Gospel
Gospel
of Judas dates close to the period when Irenaeus
Irenaeus
lived (late 2nd century), and scholars typically regard this work as one of many Gnostic texts, showing one of many varieties of Gnostic beliefs of the period.[81] Irenaeus' Mariology[edit] Irenaeus
Irenaeus
of Lyon
Lyon
is perhaps the earliest of the Church Fathers
Church Fathers
to develop a thorough Mariology. It is certain that, while still very young, Irenaeus
Irenaeus
had seen and heard Bishop Polycarp
Polycarp
(d. 155) at Smyrna.[23] Irenaeus
Irenaeus
sets out a forthright account of Mary's role in the economy of salvation, presenting Mary as New Eve
Eve
whose obedience in the Annunciation counters Eve's disobedience.[82] He states, "even though Eve
Eve
had Adam
Adam
for a husband, she was still a virgin... By disobeying, Eve
Eve
became the cause of death for herself and for the whole human race. In the same way Mary, though she had a husband, was still a virgin, and by obeying, she became the cause of salvation for herself and for the whole human race.[83] This presentation of Mary as the New Eve
Eve
is an extension of Irenaeus' Adam- Christ
Christ
typology. Just as Christ
Christ
undoes Adam's disobedience, Mary undoes Eve's disobedience.[84] His emphasis on the role of Mary helps Irenaeus
Irenaeus
counter Christologies along the lines of Docetism
Docetism
and Adoptionism.[85] His emphasis on Mary's role in the economy of salvation further demonstrates how God
God
transforms the material world through the Incarnation, which was an important part of Irenaeus' conflict with the Gnostics.[86] Like Ireneaus, Tertullian
Tertullian
describes how Christ's Virgin birth parallels Adam's creation from virgin earth. Tertullian
Tertullian
also discusses how it was necessary for God
God
to be born of a Virgin so that what was lost through a woman would be saved through a woman.[87] This indicates that the concept of Mary as the New Eve
Eve
was known in both the Eastern and Western Church during the second and third centuries.[88] Pope Pius IX
Pope Pius IX
made reference to this theme of Irenaeus, in the 1854 apostolic constitution Ineffabilis Deus, which defined the dogma of the Immaculate Conception.[89] Prophetic exegesis[edit] The first four books of Against Heresies constitute a minute analysis and refutation of the Gnostic doctrines. The fifth is a statement of positive belief contrasting the constantly shifting and contradictory Gnostic opinions with the steadfast faith of the church. He appeals to the prophecies to demonstrate the truthfulness of Christianity.[90] Rome and Ten Horns[edit] Irenaeus
Irenaeus
shows the close relationship between the predicted events of Daniel 2 and 7. Rome, the fourth prophetic kingdom, would end in a tenfold partition. The ten divisions of the empire are the "ten horns" of Daniel 7 and the "ten horns" in Revelation 17. A "little horn," which is to supplant three of Rome's ten divisions, is also the still future "eighth" in Revelation. Irenaeus
Irenaeus
climaxes with the destruction of all kingdoms at the Second Advent, when Christ, the prophesied "stone," cut out of the mountain without hands, smites the image after Rome's division.[91][92][93] Antichrist[edit] See also: References to the Antichrist
Antichrist
in ecclesiastical writings § Early Church Irenaeus
Irenaeus
identified the Antichrist, another name of the apostate Man of Sin, with Daniel's Little Horn and John's Beast of Revelation
Beast of Revelation
13. He sought to apply other expressions to the Antichrist, such as "the abomination of desolation," mentioned by Christ
Christ
(Matt. 24:15) and the "king of a most fierce countenance," in Gabriel's explanation of the Little Horn of Daniel 8. But he is not very clear how "the sacrifice and the libation shall be taken away" during the "half-week," or three and one-half years of the Antichrist's reign.[94][95][96] Under the notion that the Antichrist, as a single individual, might be of Jewish origin, he fancies that the mention of "Dan," in Jeremiah 8:16, and the omission of that name from those tribes listed in Revelation 7, might indicate the Antichrist's tribe. This surmise became the foundation of a series of subsequent interpretations by others.[97][98] Time, Times and Half a Time[edit] Like the other early church fathers, Irenaeus
Irenaeus
interpreted the three and one-half "times" of the Little Horn of Daniel 7 as three and one-half literal years. Antichrist's three and a half years of sitting in the temple are placed immediately before the Second Coming
Second Coming
of Christ.[99][100][101] They are identified as the second half of the "one week" of Daniel 9. Irenaeus
Irenaeus
says nothing of the seventy weeks; we do not know whether he placed the "one week" at the end of the seventy or whether he had a gap.[102] 666[edit] Irenaeus
Irenaeus
is the first of the church fathers to consider the mystic number 666. While Irenaeus
Irenaeus
did propose some solutions of this numerical riddle, his interpretation was quite reserved. Thus, he cautiously states:

But knowing the sure number declared by Scripture, that is six hundred sixty and six, let them await, in the first place, the division of the kingdom into ten; then, in the next place, when these kings are reigning, and beginning to set their affairs in order, and advance their kingdom, [let them learn] to acknowledge that he who shall come claiming the kingdom for himself, and shall terrify those men of whom we have been speaking, have a name containing the aforesaid number, is truly the abomination of desolation.[103][104]

Although Irenaeus
Irenaeus
did speculate upon three names to symbolize this mystical number, namely Euanthas, Teitan, and Lateinos, nevertheless he was content to believe that the Antichrist
Antichrist
would arise some time in the future after the fall of Rome and then the meaning of the number would be revealed.[105][106] Millennium[edit] See also: Millennialism Irenaeus
Irenaeus
declares that the Antichrist's future three-and-a-half-year reign, when he sits in the temple at Jerusalem, will be terminated by the second advent, with the resurrection of the just, the destruction of the wicked, and the millennial reign of the righteous. The general resurrection and the judgment follow the descent of the New Jerusalem at the end of the millennial kingdom.[100][107][106] Irenaeus
Irenaeus
calls those "heretics" who maintain that the saved are immediately glorified in the kingdom to come after death, before their resurrection. He avers that the millennial kingdom and the resurrection are actualities, not allegories, the first resurrection introducing this promised kingdom in which the risen saints are described as ruling over the renewed earth during the millennium, between the two resurrections.[108][109][110] Irenaeus
Irenaeus
held to the old Jewish tradition that the first six days of creation week were typical of the first six thousand years of human history, with Antichrist
Antichrist
manifesting himself in the sixth period. And he expected the millennial kingdom to begin with the second coming of Christ
Christ
to destroy the wicked and inaugurate, for the righteous, the reign of the kingdom of God
God
during the seventh thousand years, the millennial Sabbath, as signified by the Sabbath of creation week.[100][111][112][110] In common with many of the fathers, Irenaeus
Irenaeus
did not distinguish between the new earth re-created in its eternal state—the thousand years of Revelation 20—when the saints are with Christ
Christ
after His second advent, and the Jewish traditions of the Messianic kingdom. Hence, he applies Biblical and traditional ideas to his descriptions of this earth during the millennium, throughout the closing chapters of Book 5. This conception of the reign of resurrected and translated saints with Christ
Christ
on this earth during the millennium-popularly known as chiliasm—was the increasingly prevailing belief of this time. Incipient distortions due to the admixture of current traditions, which figure in the extreme forms of chiliasm, caused a reaction against the earlier interpretations of Bible
Bible
prophecies.[113] Irenaeus
Irenaeus
was not looking for a Jewish kingdom. He interpreted Israel as the Christian
Christian
church, the spiritual seed of Abraham.[114][115] At times his expressions are highly fanciful. He tells, for instance, of a prodigious fertility of this earth during the millennium, after the resurrection of the righteous, "when also the creation, having been renovated and set free, shall fructify with an abundance of all kinds of food." In this connection, he attributes to Christ
Christ
the saying about the vine with ten thousand branches, and the ear of wheat with ten thousand grains, and so forth, which he quotes from Papias of Hierapolis.[116][115] Exegesis[edit] Irenaeus' exegesis does not give complete coverage. On the seals, for example, he merely alludes to Christ
Christ
as the rider on the white horse. He stresses five factors with greater clarity and emphasis than Justin:

the literal resurrection of the righteous at the second advent the millennium bounded by the two resurrections the Antichrist
Antichrist
to come upon the heels of Rome's breakup the symbolic prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse in their relation to the last times the kingdom of God
God
to be established by the second advent.[117]

See also[edit]

Irenaean theodicy POxy 405
POxy 405
– 3rd century papyrus portion of Against Heresies Recapitulation theory of atonement Early Christian
Christian
descriptions of the execution cross

Footnotes[edit]

^ Eusebius
Eusebius
of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History Book v. Chapter v. ^ A. Poncelet, "Irenaeus, Saint" Catholic Encyclopedia 1917 (Catholic Answers) ^ a b c Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005) ^ "Caesar and Christ"(New York: Simon and Schuster, 1972) ^ "Encyclopædia Britannica: Saint
Saint
Irenaeus". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 24 November 2014.  ^ a b Brown, Raymond E. An Introduction to the New Testament, p. 14. Anchor Bible; 1st edition (October 13, 1997). ISBN 978-0-385-24767-2. ^ Calendarium Romanum (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 1969), p. 96 ^ Irenaeus
Irenaeus
himself tells us (Against Heresies 3.3.4, cf Eusebius Historia Ecclesiastica 5.20.5ff) that in his 'youth' he saw Polycarp, the Bishop of Smyrna
Smyrna
who was martyred c156. This is the evidence used to assume that Irenaeus
Irenaeus
was born in Smyrna
Smyrna
during the 130s–140s. ^ Eusebius, Historia Ecclesiastica 5.4.1 ^ Irenaeus, Against Heresies, 1.pr.2, 4.pr.2 ^ Against Heresies 1.13.7 ^ Eusebius, Historia Ecclesiastica 5.24.1ff ^ Gregory of Tours
Gregory of Tours
is the first to mention a tradition which held Irenaeus
Irenaeus
to be a martyr ^ Grant, Robert M., Irenaeus
Irenaeus
of Lyons, p. 6. Routledge 1997. ^ source needed ^ Pagels, Elaine. Beyond Belief, Pan Books, 2005. p. 54 ^ Robinson, James M., The Nag Hammadi Library, HarperSanFrancisco, 1990. p. 104. ^ Pagels, Elaine. "The Gnostic Gospels," Vintage Books, 1979. p. 90. ^ Ehrman, Bart D., Lost Christianities (Oxford University Press, 2005), p. 121. ^ Stark, Rodney. Cities of God, HarperCollins, 2007. chap. 6 ^ a b "The Development of the Canon of the New Testament
New Testament
– Irenaeus". Ntcanon.org. Retrieved 24 November 2014.  ^ This work was first published in 1907 in Armenian, along with a German translation by Adolf von Harnack. It is Harnack who divided the text into one hundred numbered sections. ^ a b "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: St. Irenaeus". Newadvent.org. Retrieved 24 November 2014.  ^ Rev. J. Tixeront, D.D. A Handbook of Patrology. Section IV: The Opponents of Heresy
Heresy
in the Second Century, St. Louis, MO, by B. Herder Book Co. 1920. ^ Eusebius, Historia Ecclesiastica 5.20.1 ^ of Lyon, Ireneaus. VII. Fragments from the Lost Writings of Irenaeus. p. 569.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Henry Chadwick, The Early Church, Penguin Group, 19932, p. 83 ^ Richard A Norris, Jr, ' Irenaeus
Irenaeus
of Lyons', in Frances Young, Lewis Ayres and Andrew Louth, eds, The Cambridge History of Early Christian Literature, (2010), p47 ^ "Encyclopædia Britannica: Saint
Saint
Irenaeus". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 24 November 2014.  ^ Farmer, Hugh (1997). The Oxford Dictionary of Saints (Fourth ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 250. ISBN 0-19-280058-2.  ^ J.T. Nielsen, Adam
Adam
and Christ
Christ
in the Theology
Theology
of Irenaeus
Irenaeus
of Lyons: An Examination of the function of the Adam- Christ
Christ
Typology in the Adversus Haereses of Ireaneus, against the Background of the Gnosticism
Gnosticism
of His Time. Van Gorcum's Theologische Bibliotheek. (Asen, The Netherlands: Koninkliijke Van Gorcum 7 Comp. N.V., 1968), p. 48-49. ^ Irenaeus, Against Heresies, III.4.2. and IV.33.7. ^ Paul Parvis, "Who was Irenaeus? An Introduction to the Man and His Work," in Irenaeus: Life, Scripture, Legacy, ed. Sara Parvis and Paul Foster (Minneanpolis: Fortress Press, 2012), 20. ^ Harris, Stephen L., Understanding the Bible
Bible
(Palo Alto: Mayfield, 1985) ^ "But it is not possible that the Gospels can be either more or fewer in number than they are. For since there are four zones of the world in which we live, and four principal winds, while the church has been scattered throughout the world, and since the 'pillar and ground' of the Church is the Gospel
Gospel
and the spirit of life, it is fitting that she should have four pillars, breathing incorruption on every side, and vivifying human afresh. From this fact, it is evident that the Logos, the fashioner demiourgos of all, he that sits on the cherubim and holds all things together, when he was manifested to humanity, gave us the gospel under four forms but bound together by one spirit." Against Heresies 3.11.8 ^ McDonald & Sanders, The Canon Debate, 2002, p. 277 ^ McDonald & Sanders, p. 280. Also p. 310, summarizing 3.11.7: the Ebionites
Ebionites
use Matthew's Gospel, Marcion
Marcion
mutilates Luke's, the Docetists use Mark's, the Valentinians
Valentinians
use John's ^ McDonald & Sanders, p. 280 ^ a b McDonald & Sanders, p. 368 ^ McDonald & Sanders, p. 267 ^ Blackwell, Ben C. Christosis: Pauline Soteriology in Light of Deificaiton in Irenaeus
Irenaeus
and Cyril of Alexandria
Cyril of Alexandria
(Tübingen, Germany: Mohr Siebeck, 2011), p. 36 ^ "Hieromartyr Irenaeus
Irenaeus
the Bishop of Lyons", Orthodox Church in America" ^ "Wherefore we must obey the priests of the Church who have succession from the Apostles, as we have shown, who, together with succession in the episcopate, have received the certain mark of truth according to the will of the Father; all others, however, are to be suspected, who separated themselves from the principal succession." Adversus Haereses (Book IV, Chapter 26). read online. ^ a b "Encyclopædia Britannica". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 24 November 2014.  ^ "Since, however, it would be very tedious, in such a volume as this, to reckon up the successions of all the Churches, we do put to confusion all those who, in whatever manner, whether by an evil self-pleasing, by vainglory, or by blindness and perverse opinion, assemble in unauthorized meetings; [we do this, I say,] by indicating that tradition derived from the apostles, of the very great, the very ancient, and universally known Church founded and organized at Rome by the two most glorious apostles, Peter and Paul; as also [by pointing out] the faith preached to men, which comes down to our time by means of the successions of the bishops. For it is a matter of necessity that every Church should agree with this Church, on account of its pre- eminent authority, that is, the faithful everywhere, inasmuch as the apostolical tradition has been preserved continuously by those [faithful men] who exist everywhere."read online Adversus Haereses (Book III, Chapter 3) ^ Against Heresies, IV.26.2. ^ "Adversus Haereses (Book IV, Chapter 33:8)". Newadvent.org. Retrieved 24 November 2014.  ^ Irenaeus, Against Heresies, III.22.3. ^ J.B. Carol, Why Jesus
Jesus
Christ?: Thomistic, Scotistic, and Conciliatory Perspectives (Manassas, VA: Trinity Communications, 1986), p. 172-74. ^ AH 3.18.7; 3.21.9–10; 3.22.3; 5.21.1; see also, Klager, Andrew P. "Retaining and Reclaiming the Divine: Identification and the Recapitulation of Peace in St. Irenaeus
Irenaeus
of Lyons' Atonement Narrative," Stricken by God? Nonviolent Identification and the Victory of Christ, eds. Brad Jersak and Michael Hardin. (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2007), esp. p. 462 n. 158. ^ M David
David
Litwa, "The Wondrous Exchange: Irenaeus
Irenaeus
and Eastern Valentinians
Valentinians
on the Soteriology of Interchange," Journal of Early Christian
Christian
Studies p. 324-25. ^ Andrew J. Bandstra, "Paul and an Ancient Interpreter: A Comparison of the Teaching of Redemption in Paul and Irenaeus," Calvin Theological Journal 5 (1970): pp. 47, 57. ^ a b A.H. 2.22.5 ^ Irenaeus, Demonstration of Apostolic Preaching §77 Archived May 4, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Britannica Online: Pontius Pilate". Britannica.com. Retrieved 21 March 2012.  ^ Jona Lendering. "Judaea". Livius.org. Retrieved 21 March 2012.  ^ Bruce, F. F. (1963–1965). "Herod Antipas, Tetrarch of Galilee and Peraea". Annual of Leeds University Oriental Society. 5.  ^ Bandstra, Andrew (April 1, 1970). "Paul and an Ancient Interpreter: a Comparison of the Teaching of Redemption in Paul and Irenaeus". Calvin Theological Journal. 5 (1): 48.  ^ Irenaeus, Against Heresies, III.18.7 ^ Irenaeus, Against Heresies, III.18.1 ^ Irenaeus, Against Heresies, III.19.1 ^ Irenaeus, Against Heresies, V.2.2 ^ Vogel, Jeff (Summer 2007). "The Haste of Sin, the Slowness of Salvation: An Interpretation of Irenaeus
Irenaeus
on the Fall and Redemption". Anglican Theological Review. 89 (3): 444.  ^ Irenaeus, Against Heresies, III.11.3. ^ Litwa, "The Wondrous Exchange," p. 312-13. ^ Irenaeus, Against Heresies, III.18.1. ^ Irenaeus, Against Heresies, V.16.2. ^ Nielsen, Adam
Adam
and Christ
Christ
in the Theology
Theology
of Irenaeus
Irenaeus
of Lyons, p. 11. ^ Irenaeus, Against Heresies, III.18.2. ^ a b Irenaeus, Against Heresies, III.18.7. ^ Irenaeus, Against Heresies, III.18.7. ^ Dominic J. Unger and Irenaeus
Irenaeus
M.C. Steenberg trans. St Irenaeus
Irenaeus
of Lyons: Against the Heresies III, Ancient Christian
Christian
Writers: The Works of the Fathers in Translation (New York: The Newman Press, 2012), p. 176-77, endnote 48. ^ Andrew J. Bandstra, "Paul and an Ancient Interpreter," p. 50. ^ Irenaeus, Against Heresies, V.16.3. ^ Bandstra, "Paul and an Ancient Interpreter," p. 61. ^ For other theories of atonement see Atonement in Christianity. ^ Grant, Robert M., Irenaeus
Irenaeus
of Lyons (Routledge, 1997), p. 23. ^ "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Demiurge". Newadvent.org. Retrieved 24 November 2014.  ^ Litwa, "The Wondrous Exchange," p. 316-17. ^ Litwa, "The Wondrous Exchange," p. 313-16. ^ Dr. John Dickson. "A Spectators Guide to the Gospel
Gospel
of Judas" (PDF). Sydneyanglicans.net. Retrieved 24 November 2014.  ^ Irenaeus, Against Heresies, III.22.4 ^ Irenaeus
Irenaeus
of Lyon, Adversus haereses 3.22.4 ^ Irenaeus, Against Heresies, III.22.4. ^ M.C. Steenberg, "The Role of Mary as Co-Recapitulator in St. Irenaeus
Irenaeus
of Lyons," Vigilae Christianae 58 (2004): 124–25. ^ Steenberg, "The Role of Mary as Co-Recapitulator," 119-20. ^ Tertullian, De Carne Christi, 17 ^ Luigi Gambero, Mary and the Fathers of the Church: The Blessed Virgin Mary in Patristic Thought,trans. Thomas Buffer (San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 1999), p. 66. ^ Ineffabilis Deus
Ineffabilis Deus
Papal Encyclicals Online. Retrieved December 7, 2012 ^ Froom 1950, p. 244. ^ "Against Heresies Book 5 Chapter 25". Newadvent.org. Retrieved 24 November 2014.  ^ "Against Heresies Book 5 Chapter 26". Newadvent.org. Retrieved 24 November 2014.  ^ Froom 1950, p. 245. ^ "Against Heresies Book 5 Chapter 28". Newadvent.org. Retrieved 24 November 2014.  ^ "Against Heresies Book 5 Chapter 25, sec. 2–4". Newadvent.org. Retrieved 24 November 2014.  ^ Froom 1950, pp. 246–247. ^ "Against Heresies Book 5 Chapter 25, sec. 3". Newadvent.org. Retrieved 24 November 2014.  ^ Froom 1950, p. 247. ^ "Against Heresies Book 5 Chapter 25, sec. 3–4". Newadvent.org. Retrieved 24 November 2014.  ^ a b c "Against Heresies Book 5 Chapter 30, sec. 4". Newadvent.org. Retrieved 24 November 2014.  ^ Froom 1950, pp. 247–248. ^ Froom 1950, p. 248. ^ "Against Heresies Book 5 Chapter 30, sec. 2". Newadvent.org. Retrieved 24 November 2014.  ^ Froom 1950, pp. 248–249. ^ "Against Heresies Book 5 Chapter 30, sec. 3". Newadvent.org. Retrieved 24 November 2014.  ^ a b Froom 1950, p. 249. ^ "Against Heresies Book 5 Chapter 35, sec. 1–2". Newadvent.org. Retrieved 24 November 2014.  ^ "Against Heresies Book 5 Chapter 31". Newadvent.org. Retrieved 24 November 2014.  ^ "Against Heresies Book 5 Chapter 35". Newadvent.org. Retrieved 24 November 2014.  ^ a b Froom 1950, p. 250. ^ "Against Heresies Book 5 Chapter 28, sec. 3". Newadvent.org. Retrieved 24 November 2014.  ^ "Against Heresies Book 5 Chapter 33, sec. 2". Newadvent.org. Retrieved 24 November 2014.  ^ Froom 1950, pp. 250–252. ^ "Against Heresies Book 5 Chapter 32, sec. 2". Newadvent.org. Retrieved 24 November 2014.  ^ a b Froom 1950, p. 251. ^ "Against Heresies Book 5 Chapter 33, sec. 3". Newadvent.org. Retrieved 24 November 2014.  ^ Froom 1950, p. 252.

References[edit]

Froom, LeRoy (1950). The Prophetic Faith of our Fathers ( DjVu and PDF). 1. Review and Herald Publishing Association.  Bandstra, Andrew J. "Paul and an Ancient Interpreter: A Comparison of the Teaching of Redemption in Paul and Irenaeus," Calvin Theological Journal 5 (197): 43–63. Blackwell, Ben C. Christosis: Pauline Soteriology in Light of Deification in Irenaeus
Irenaeus
and Cyril of Alexandria. Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament 2. Reiche 341, edited by Jorg Frey. Tübingen, Germany: Mohr Siebeck, 2011. Irenaeus, Against Heresies. Translated by Alexander Roberts and William Rambaut. In Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol. 1, ed. Alexander Roberts, James Donaldson, and A. Cleveland Coze (Buffalo, NY: Christian
Christian
Literature Co., 1885). Litwa, M. David. "The Wonderous Exchange: Irenaeus
Irenaeus
and Eastern Valentinians
Valentinians
on the Soteriology of Interchange." Journal of Early Christian
Christian
Studies 22 (2014): 311–40. Nielsen, J.T. Adam
Adam
and Christ
Christ
in the Theology
Theology
of Irenaeus
Irenaeus
of Lyons: An Examination of the function of the Adam- Christ
Christ
Typology in the Adversus Haereses of Ireaneus, against the Background of the Gnosticism
Gnosticism
of His Time. Van Gorcum's Theologische Bibliotheek. Asen, The Netherlands: Koninkliijke Van Gorcum 7 Comp. N.V., 1968. Steenberg, Ireaneus M.C. "The Role of Mary as Co-Recapitulator in St. Irenaeus
Irenaeus
of Lyons." Vigilae Christianae 58 (2004):117–137.

Further reading[edit]

Irenaeus, Proof of the Apostolic Preaching, trans JP Smith, (ACW 16, 1952) Irenaeus, Proof of the Apostolic Preaching, trans John Behr (PPS, 1997) Irenaeus, Against Heresies, trans. Alexander Roberts and William Rambaut, in Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol. 1, ed. Alexander Roberts, James Donaldson, and A. Cleveland Coxe (Buffalo, NY: Christian
Christian
Literature Co., 1885). Paperback Coxe, Arthur Cleveland, ed. (1885). The Ante-Nicene Fathers. Buffalo, NY: The Christian
Christian
Literature Company.  Edwards, Mark (2009). Catholicity and Heresy
Heresy
in the Early Church. Ashgate.  Eusebius
Eusebius
(1932). The Ecclesiastical History. Kirsopp Lake and John E.L. Oulton, trans. New York: Putnam.  Hägglund, Bengt (1968). History of Theology. Gene J.Lund, trans. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing.  Minns, Denis (1994). Irenaeus. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press. ISBN 0-87840-553-4.  Parvis, Sara and Paul Foster, ed. Irenaeus: Life, Scripture, Legacy. Minneanpolis: Fortress Press, 2012. Payton Jr., James R. Irenaeus
Irenaeus
on the Christian
Christian
Faith: A Condensation of 'Against Heresies' (Cambridge, James Clarke and Co Ltd, 2012). Quasten, J. (1960). Patrology: The Beginnings of Patristic Literature. Westminster, MD: Newman Press.  Schaff, Philip (1980). History of the Christian
Christian
Church: Ante-Nicene Christianity, A.D. 100–325. Grand Rapids, Mich: Wm. Eerdmans. ISBN 0-8028-8047-9.  Tyson, Joseph B. (1973). A Study of Early Christianity. New York: Macmillan.  Wolfson, Henry Austryn (1970). The Philosophy of the Church Fathers: Faith, Trinity, Incarnation. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Irenaeus

Works related to Irenaeus
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at Wikisource Early Christian
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Writings Irenaeus Fragments from his lost works Alexander Roberts and William Rambaut 1885 Ante-Nicene Fathers, Vol. 1. translation of Against Heresies A nineteenth-century translation of Irenaeus' work

Demonstration of the Apostolic Preaching Book II, ch. 22, where Irenaeus
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and the length of his ministry.

EarlyChurch.org.uk Extensive bibliography. Works by or about Irenaeus
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(public domain audiobooks) Gregory S. Neal: "The Nature of Evil
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and the Irenaean Theodicy" Grace Incarnate (1988) Critique of Irenaeus, Elaine H. Pagels Critique of Pagel's article by Paul Mankowski Opera Omnia by Migne Patrologia Graeca with analytical indexes "St. Irenæus, Bishop of Lyons, Martyr", Butler's Lives of the Saints "Catholic Online" "Santiebeati"

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theology

Church beginnings

Paul Clement of Rome First Epistle of Clement Didache Ignatius of Antioch Polycarp Epistle of Barnabas The Shepherd of Hermas Aristides of Athens Justin Martyr Epistle to Diognetus Irenaeus Montanism Tertullian Origen Antipope Novatian Cyprian

Constantine to Pope
Pope
Gregory I

Eusebius Athanasius of Alexandria Arianism Pelagianism Nestorianism Monophysitism Ephrem the Syrian Hilary of Poitiers Cyril of Jerusalem Basil of Caesarea Gregory of Nazianzus Gregory of Nyssa Ambrose John Chrysostom Jerome Augustine of Hippo John Cassian Orosius Cyril of Alexandria Peter Chrysologus Pope
Pope
Leo I Boethius Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite Pope
Pope
Gregory I

Early Middle Ages

Isidore of Seville John Climacus Maximus the Confessor Monothelitism Ecthesis Bede John of Damascus Iconoclasm Transubstantiation
Transubstantiation
dispute Predestination
Predestination
disputes Paulinus II of Aquileia Alcuin Benedict of Aniane Rabanus Maurus Paschasius Radbertus John Scotus Eriugena

High Middle Ages

Roscellinus Gregory of Narek Berengar of Tours Peter Damian Anselm of Canterbury Joachim of Fiore Peter Abelard Decretum Gratiani Bernard of Clairvaux Peter Lombard Anselm of Laon Hildegard of Bingen Hugh of Saint
Saint
Victor Dominic de Guzmán Robert Grosseteste Francis of Assisi Anthony of Padua Beatrice of Nazareth Bonaventure Albertus Magnus Boetius of Dacia Henry of Ghent Thomas Aquinas Siger of Brabant Thomism Roger Bacon

Mysticism
Mysticism
and reforms

Ramon Llull Duns Scotus Dante Alighieri William of Ockham Richard Rolle John of Ruusbroec Catherine of Siena Brigit of Sweden Meister Eckhart Johannes Tauler Walter Hilton The Cloud of Unknowing Heinrich Seuse Geert Groote Devotio Moderna Julian of Norwich Thomas à Kempis Nicholas of Cusa Marsilio Ficino Girolamo Savonarola Giovanni Pico della Mirandola

Reformation Counter-Reformation

Erasmus Thomas Cajetan Thomas More John Fisher Johann Eck Francisco de Vitoria Thomas of Villanova Ignatius of Loyola Francisco de Osuna John of Ávila Francis Xavier Teresa of Ávila Luis de León John of the Cross Peter Canisius Luis de Molina
Luis de Molina
(Molinism) Robert Bellarmine Francisco Suárez Lawrence of Brindisi Francis de Sales

Baroque
Baroque
period to French Revolution

Tommaso Campanella Pierre de Bérulle Pierre Gassendi René Descartes Mary of Jesus
Jesus
of Ágreda António Vieira Jean-Jacques Olier Louis Thomassin Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet François Fénelon Cornelius Jansen
Cornelius Jansen
(Jansenism) Blaise Pascal Nicolas Malebranche Giambattista Vico Alphonsus Liguori Louis de Montfort Maria Gaetana Agnesi Alfonso Muzzarelli Johann Michael Sailer Clement Mary Hofbauer Bruno Lanteri

19th century

Joseph Görres Felicité de Lamennais Luigi Taparelli Antonio Rosmini Ignaz von Döllinger John Henry Newman Henri Lacordaire Jaime Balmes Gaetano Sanseverino Giovanni Maria Cornoldi Wilhelm Emmanuel Freiherr von Ketteler Giuseppe Pecci Joseph Hergenröther Tommaso Maria Zigliara Matthias Joseph Scheeben Émile Boutroux Modernism Léon Bloy Désiré-Joseph Mercier Friedrich von Hügel Vladimir Solovyov Marie-Joseph Lagrange George Tyrrell Maurice Blondel Thérèse of Lisieux

20th century

G. K. Chesterton Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange Joseph Maréchal Pierre Teilhard de Chardin Jacques Maritain Étienne Gilson Ronald Knox Dietrich von Hildebrand Gabriel
Gabriel
Marcel Marie-Dominique Chenu Romano Guardini Edith Stein Fulton Sheen Henri de Lubac Jean Guitton Josemaría Escrivá Adrienne von Speyr Karl Rahner Yves Congar Bernard Lonergan Emmanuel Mounier Jean Daniélou Hans Urs von Balthasar Alfred Delp Edward Schillebeeckx Thomas Merton René Girard Johann Baptist Metz Jean Vanier Henri Nouwen

21st century

Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI Walter Kasper Raniero Cantalamessa Michał Heller Peter Kreeft Jean-Luc Marion Tomáš Halík Scott Hahn Robert Barron

Catholicism portal Pope
Pope
portal

v t e

Saints of the Catholic Church

Virgin Mary

Mother of God
God
(Theotokos) Immaculate Conception Perpetual virginity Assumption Marian apparition

Guadalupe Laus Miraculous Medal Lourdes Fatima

Titles of Mary

Apostles

Andrew Barnabas Bartholomew James of Alphaeus James the Greater John Jude Matthew Matthias Paul Peter Philip Simon Thomas

Archangels

Gabriel Michael Raphael

Confessors

Anatolius Chariton the Confessor Edward the Confessor Maximus the Confessor Michael of Synnada Paphnutius the Confessor Paul I of Constantinople Salonius Theophanes the Confessor

Disciples

Apollos Mary Magdalene Priscilla and Aquila Silvanus Stephen Timothy Titus Seventy disciples

Doctors

Gregory the Great Ambrose Augustine of Hippo Jerome John Chrysostom Basil of Caesarea Gregory of Nazianzus Athanasius of Alexandria Cyril of Alexandria Cyril of Jerusalem John of Damascus Bede
Bede
the Venerable Ephrem the Syrian Thomas Aquinas Bonaventure Anselm of Canterbury Isidore of Seville Peter Chrysologus Leo the Great Peter Damian Bernard of Clairvaux Hilary of Poitiers Alphonsus Liguori Francis de Sales Peter Canisius John of the Cross Robert Bellarmine Albertus Magnus Anthony of Padua Lawrence of Brindisi Teresa of Ávila Catherine of Siena Thérèse of Lisieux John of Ávila Hildegard of Bingen Gregory of Narek

Evangelists

Matthew Mark Luke John

Church Fathers

Alexander of Alexandria Alexander of Jerusalem Ambrose
Ambrose
of Milan Anatolius Athanasius of Alexandria Augustine of Hippo Caesarius of Arles Caius Cappadocian Fathers Clement of Alexandria Clement of Rome Cyprian
Cyprian
of Carthage Cyril of Alexandria Cyril of Jerusalem Damasus I Desert Fathers Desert Mothers Dionysius of Alexandria Dionysius of Corinth Dionysius Ephrem the Syrian Epiphanius of Salamis Fulgentius of Ruspe Gregory the Great Gregory of Nazianzus Gregory of Nyssa Hilary of Poitiers Hippolytus of Rome Ignatius of Antioch Irenaeus
Irenaeus
of Lyons Isidore of Seville Jerome
Jerome
of Stridonium John Chrysostom John of Damascus Maximus the Confessor Melito of Sardis Quadratus of Athens Papias of Hierapolis Peter Chrysologus Polycarp
Polycarp
of Smyrna Theophilus of Antioch Victorinus of Pettau Vincent of Lérins Zephyrinus

Martyrs

Canadian Martyrs Carthusian Martyrs Forty Martyrs of England and Wales Four Crowned Martyrs Great Martyr The Holy Innocents Irish Martyrs Joan of Arc Lübeck martyrs Korean Martyrs Martyrology Martyrs of Albania Martyrs of China Martyrs of Japan Martyrs of Laos Martyrs of Natal Martyrs of Otranto Martyrs of the Spanish Civil War Maximilian Kolbe Perpetua and Felicity Saints of the Cristero War Stephen Three Martyrs of Chimbote Uganda Martyrs Vietnamese Martyrs

Patriarchs

Adam Abel Abraham Isaac Jacob Joseph Joseph (father of Jesus) David Noah Solomon Matriarchs

Popes

Adeodatus I Adeodatus II Adrian III Agapetus I Agatho Alexander I Anacletus Anastasius I Anicetus Anterus Benedict II Boniface I Boniface IV Caius Callixtus I Celestine I Celestine V Clement I Cornelius Damasus I Dionysius Eleuterus Eugene I Eusebius Eutychian Evaristus Fabian Felix I Felix III Felix IV Gelasius I Gregory I Gregory II Gregory III Gregory VII Hilarius Hormisdas Hyginus Innocent I John I John XXIII John Paul II Julius I Leo I Leo II Leo III Leo IV Leo IX Linus Lucius I Marcellinus Marcellus I Mark Martin I Miltiades Nicholas I Paschal I Paul I Peter Pius I Pius V Pius X Pontian Sergius I Silverius Simplicius Siricius Sixtus I Sixtus II Sixtus III Soter Stephen I Stephen IV Sylvester I Symmachus Telesphorus Urban I Victor I Vitalian Zachary Zephyrinus Zosimus

Prophets

Agabus Amos Anna Baruch ben Neriah David Dalua Elijah Ezekiel Habakkuk Haggai Hosea Isaiah Jeremiah Job Joel John the Baptist Jonah Judas Barsabbas Malachi Melchizedek Micah Moses Nahum Obadiah Samuel Seven Maccabees and their mother Simeon Zechariah (prophet) Zechariah (NT) Zephaniah

Virgins

Agatha of Sicily Agnes of Rome Bernadette Soubirous Brigid of Kildare Cecilia Clare of Assisi Eulalia of Mérida Euphemia Genevieve Kateri Tekakwitha Lucy of Syracuse Maria Goretti Mother Teresa Narcisa de Jesús Rose of Lima

See also

Military saints Virtuous pagan

Catholicism portal Saints portal

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 70051641 LCCN: n80015476 ISNI: 0000 0001 2336 493X GND: 118555766 SELIBR: 191041 SUDOC: 026659549 BNF: cb11886606h (data) NLA: 35492136 NKC: kup1998000004

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