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Terminal Operating System
A Terminal Operating System, or TOS, is a key part of the supply chain and primarily aims to control the movement and storage of various types of Cargo in and around a Container terminal or Port. The systems also enables you to make better use of your assets, labour and equipment, plan your workload, and get up to the minute information which allows for more timely and cost-effective decision making. Terminal Operating Systems often utilize other technologies such as internet, EDI processing, mobile computers, wireless LANs and Radio-frequency identification (RFID) to efficiently monitor the flow of products in, out and around the terminal. Data is either a batch synchronization with, or a real-time wireless transmission to a central database
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Port Security
Port security refers to the defense, law and treaty enforcement, and counterterrorism activities that fall within the port and maritime domain. It includes the protection of the seaports themselves, the protection and inspection of the cargo moving through the ports, and maritime security. Internationally, port security is governed by rules issued by the International Maritime Organization and its 2002 International Ship and Port Facility Security Code
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Port State Control
Port state control (PSC) is an internationally agreed regime for the inspection by PSC inspectors of foreign ships in ports other those of the flag state. PSC officers are required to investigate compliance with the requirements of international conventions, such as SOLAS, MARPOL, STCW, and the MLC. Inspections can involve checking that the vessel is manned and operated in compliance with applicable international law, and verifying the competency of the ship's master and officers, and the ship's condition and equipment. The United States is not a member of any port state control MOU. However, the United States Coast Guard verifies that all foreign vessels operating in United States waters are in substantial compliance with international conventions, as well as all applicable U.S
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Port Authority
In Canada and the United States, port authority (less commonly a port district) is a governmental or quasi-governmental public authority for a special-purpose district usually formed by a legislative body (or bodies) to operate ports and other transportation infrastructure. Most port authorities are financially self-supporting
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Ballast Water Management Convention
The International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments (Ballast Water Management Convention) 2004, is an international maritime treaty which requires Signatory flag states to ensure that ships flagged by them comply with standards and procedures for the management and control of ships’ ballast water and sediments. The Convention aims to prevent the spread of harmful aquatic organisms from one region to another and halt damage to the marine environment from ballast water discharge, by minimising the uptake and subsequent discharge of sediments and organisms. From 2024 all ships are required to have approved Ballast Water Management Treatment System, according to the D2 standard (see below)
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STCW Convention
The International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers (STCW), 1978 sets qualification standards for masters, officers and watch personnel on seagoing merchant ships. STCW was adopted in 1978 by conference at the International Maritime Organization (IMO) in London, and entered into force in 1984. The Convention was significantly amended in 1995. The 1978 STCW Convention was the first to establish basic requirements on training, certification and watchkeeping for seafarers on an international level. Previously the standards of training, certification and watchkeeping of officers and ratings were established by individual governments, usually without reference to practices in other countries
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MARPOL 73/78
The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973 as modified by the Protocol of 1978 (MARPOL 73/78, MARPOL is short for marine pollution and 73/78 short for the years 1973 and 1978) is one of the most important international marine environmental conventions. It was developed by the International Maritime Organization in an effort to minimize pollution of the oceans and seas, including dumping, oil and air pollution. The objective of this convention is to preserve the marine environment in an attempt to completely eliminate pollution by oil and other harmful substances and to minimize accidental spillage of such substances. The original MARPOL was signed on 17 February 1973, but did not come into force at the signing date. The current convention is a combination of 1973 Convention and the 1978 Protocol, which entered into force on 2 October 1983
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SOLAS Convention
The International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) is an international maritime treaty which sets minimum safety standards in the construction, equipment and operation of merchant ships. The convention requires signatory flag states to ensure that ships flagged by them comply with at least these standards
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Port Operations Simulator
Port operations simulators are applications of simulation technology used to determine the outcomes of potential changes to factors affecting ports, security policies, traffic patterns, port expansion or growth, natural disasters, inclement weather, or terrorist activity.

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Ship Transport
Maritime transport is the transport of people (passengers) or goods (cargo) by water. Freight transport has been achieved widely by sea throughout recorded history. Although the importance of sea travel for passengers has decreased due to aviation, it is effective for short trips and pleasure cruises. Transport by water is cheaper than transport by air, despite fluctuating exchange rates and a fee placed on top of freighting charges for carrier companies known as the Currency Adjustment Factor (CAF). Maritime transport can be realized over any distance by boat, ship, sailboat or barge, over oceans and lakes, through canals or along rivers. Shipping may be for commerce, recreation, or for military purposes. While extensive inland shipping is less critical today, the major waterways of the world including many canals are still very important and are integral parts of worldwide economies
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