The WORLD is the planet
History of the world is commonly understood as spanning the major geopolitical developments of about five millennia, from the first civilizations to the present. In terms such as world religion , world language , world government , and world war , _world_ suggests international or intercontinental scope without necessarily implying participation of the entire world.
* 1 Etymology and usage
* 2 Philosophy
* 3 Religion and mythology
* 3.2.1 Eastern
* 3.3 Islam
* 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links
ETYMOLOGY AND USAGE
The English word _world_ comes from the
The corresponding word in
'World' distinguishes the entire planet or population from any particular country or region : _world affairs_ pertain not just to one place but to the whole world, and _world history _ is a field of history that examines events from a global (rather than a national or a regional) perspective. _Earth_, on the other hand, refers to the planet as a physical entity, and distinguishes it from other planets and physical objects.
'World' was also classically used to mean the material universe, or the cosmos: "The worlde is an apte frame of heauen and earthe, and all other naturall thinges contained in them." The earth was often described as 'the center of the world'.
'_World_' can also be used attributively, to mean 'global', 'relating to the whole world', forming usages such as world community or world canonical texts.
By extension, a '_world_' may refer to any planet or heavenly body , especially when it is thought of as inhabited, especially in the context of science fiction or futurology .
'_World_', in its original sense, when qualified, can also refer to a particular domain of human experience .
* The _world of work_ describes paid work and the pursuit of a career , in all its social aspects, to distinguish it from home life and academic study. * The _fashion world_ describes the environment of the designers, fashion houses and consumers that make up the fashion industry . * historically, the _ New World _ vs. the _ Old World _, referring to the parts of the world colonized in the wake of the age of discovery . Now mostly used in zoology and botany, as in New World monkey .
The Garden of Earthly Delights _ triptych by Hieronymus Bosch
(c. 1503) shows the "garden" of mundane pleasures flanked by Paradise
In philosophy, the term world has several possible meanings. In some contexts, it refers to everything that makes up reality or the physical universe . In others, it can mean have a specific ontological sense (see world disclosure ). While clarifying the concept of world has arguably always been among the basic tasks of Western philosophy , this theme appears to have been raised explicitly only at the start of the twentieth century and has been the subject of continuous debate. The question of what the world is has by no means been settled.
The traditional interpretation of
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel 's philosophy of history , the
expression _Weltgeschichte ist Weltgericht_ (
_ The World as Will and Representation _ is the central work of Arthur Schopenhauer . Schopenhauer saw the human will as our one window to the world behind the representation; the Kantian thing-in-itself. He believed, therefore, that we could gain knowledge about the thing-in-itself, something Kant said was impossible, since the rest of the relationship between representation and thing-in-itself could be understood by analogy to the relationship between human will and human body.
Two definitions that were both put forward in the 1920s, however, suggest the range of available opinion. "The world is everything that is the case," wrote Ludwig Wittgenstein in his influential _Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus _, first published in 1922. This definition would serve as the basis of logical positivism , with its assumption that there is exactly one world, consisting of the totality of facts, regardless of the interpretations that individual people may make of them.
Martin Heidegger , meanwhile, argued that "the surrounding world is different for each of us, and notwithstanding that we move about in a common world". The world, for Heidegger, was that into which we are always already "thrown" and with which we, as beings-in-the-world, must come to terms. His conception of "world disclosure " was most notably elaborated in his 1927 work _ Being and Time _.
In response, Sigmund Freud proposed that we do not move about in a common world, but a common thought process. He believed that all the actions of a person are motivated by one thing: lust. This led to numerous theories about reactionary consciousness.
Some philosophers, often inspired by David Lewis , argue that metaphysical concepts such as possibility, probability, and necessity are best analyzed by comparing _the_ world to a range of possible worlds ; a view commonly known as modal realism .
RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGY
Mythological cosmologies often depict the world as centered on an axis mundi and delimited by a boundary such as a world ocean , a world serpent or similar. In some religions, worldliness (also called carnality) is that which relates to this world as opposed to other worlds or realms.
"Therefore I command you to do as I believe you are willing to do,
that you free yourself from worldly affairs _(
Although Hebrew and Greek words meaning "world" are used in Scripture
with the normal variety of senses, many examples of its use in this
particular sense can be found in the teachings of
_ Contemptus mundi _ is the name given to the recognition that the world, in all its vanity, is nothing more than a futile attempt to hide from God by stifling our desire for the good and the holy. This view has been criticized as a "pastoral of fear" by modern historian Jean Delumeau .
During the Second Vatican Council , there was a novel attempt to develop a positive theological view of the World, which is illustrated by the pastoral optimism of the constitutions _ Gaudium et spes _, _ Lumen gentium _, _ Unitatis redintegratio _ and _ Dignitatis humanae _.
In Eastern Christian monasticism or asceticism the world of mankind
is driven by passions. Therefore, the passions of the
_Orbis Catholicus_ is a
Main article: Dunya
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* ^ Merriam-webster.com
* ^ _American Heritage Dictionary_
* ^ Orel, Vladimir (2003). _A Handbook of Germanic Etymology_
Leiden: Brill. pg. 462. ISBN 90-04-12875-1 .
* ^ Record, R (1556). _Castle of Knowledge_. cited in _The Oxford
English Dictionary_. World, sense 8. (Subscription required (help)).
* ^ e.g. Sacrobosco (1230). _Treatise on the Sphere_. trans by Lynn
* ^ _