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Sicilian Wars
The Sicilian Wars, or Greco-Punic Wars, were a series of conflicts fought between Ancient Carthage
Ancient Carthage
and the Greek city-states led by Syracuse, Sicily, over control of Sicily
Sicily
and the western Mediterranean between 600-265 BC. Carthage's economic success, and its dependence on shipping to conduct most of its trade (for the empire's southern border was surrounded by desert), led to the creation of a powerful navy to discourage both pirates and rival nations. They had inherited their naval strength and experience from their forebearers, the Phoenicians, but had increased it because, unlike the Phoenicians, the Punics
Punics
did not want to rely on a foreign nation's aid
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Gorgon
In Greek mythology, a Gorgon
Gorgon
(/ˈɡɔːrɡən/; plural: Gorgons, Ancient Greek: Γοργών/Γοργώ Gorgon/Gorgo) is a female creature. The name derives from the ancient Greek word gorgós, which means "dreadful", and appears to come from the same root as the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
word "garğ" (Sanskrit: गर्जन, garjana) which is defined as a guttural sound, similar to the growling of a beast,[1] thus possibly originating as an onomatopoeia
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Killed In Action
Killed in action (KIA) is a casualty classification generally used by militaries to describe the deaths of their own combatants at the hands of hostile forces.[1] The United States
United States
Department of Defense, for example, says that those declared KIA need not have fired their weapons but have been killed due to hostile attack. KIAs do not come from incidents such as accidental vehicle crashes and other "non-hostile" events or terrorism. KIA can be applied both to front-line combat troops and to naval, air and support troops. Someone who is killed in action during a particular event is denoted with a † (dagger) beside their name to signify their death in that event or events. Further, KIA denotes one to have been killed in action on the battlefield whereas died of wounds (DOW) relates to someone who survived to reach a medical treatment facility
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Marsala
Marsala
Marsala
(Sicilian: Maissala; Latin: Lilybaeum) is an Italian town located in the Province of Trapani
Province of Trapani
in the westernmost part of Sicily. Marsala
Marsala
is the most populated town in its province and the fifth in Sicily. The town is famous for the docking of Giuseppe Garibaldi
Giuseppe Garibaldi
on 11 May 1860 (the Expedition of the Thousand) and for its Marsala
Marsala
wine. A feature of the area is the Stagnone Lagoon Natural Reserve — a marine area with salt ponds. Marsala
Marsala
is built on the ruins of the ancient Carthaginian city of Lilybaeum, and includes in its territory the archaeological site of the island of Motya, an ancient Phoenician town
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Soluntum
Soluntum
Soluntum
or Solus (Greek: Σολόεις, Thuc.; Σολοῦς, Diod.: Eth. Σολουντῖνος, Diod., but coins have Σολοντῖνος; Italian Solunto) was an ancient city of Sicily, one of the three chief Phoenician settlements in the island, situated on the north coast, about 16 kilometres (10 mi) east of Panormus (modern Palermo), and immediately to the east of the bold promontory called Capo Zafferano
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Motya
Motya
Motya
(Ancient Greek: Μοτύη, Μοτύα; Italian: Mozia, Mothia; Sicilian: Mozzia), was an ancient and powerful city on an island off the west coast of Sicily, between Drepanum
Drepanum
(modern Trapani) and Lilybaeum (modern Marsala). The island was renamed San Pantaleo in the 11th century by Basilian monks. It lies in the Stagnone Lagoon, and is within the comune of Marsala. The island is nearly 850 metres (2,790 ft) long and 750 metres (2,460 ft) wide, and about 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) (six stadia) from the mainland of Sicily. It was joined to the mainland in ancient times by an artificial causeway (paved road), by which chariots with large wheels could reach the town.[1] The remarkable and exquisite Motya
Motya
Charioteer marble sculpture[2] found in 1979 is world famous[3] and is on display at the local Giuseppe Whitaker museum.[4]The Mozia Charioteer (5th c
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Sicels
The Sicels
Sicels
(Latin: Siculi; Ancient Greek: Σικελοί Sikeloi) were an Italic tribe who inhabited eastern Sicily
Sicily
during the Iron Age. Their neighbours to the west were the Sicani. The Sicels
Sicels
gave Sicily the name it has held since antiquity, but they rapidly fused into the culture of Magna Graecia.Contents1 History 2 Language 3 Mythology 4 See also 5 Notes 6 Sources 7 Further reading 8 External linksHistory[edit] Archaeological excavation has shown some Mycenean influence on Bronze Age Sicily
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Sicani
The Sicani
Sicani
(Greek Σικανοί Sikanoi) or Sicanians were one of three ancient peoples of Sicily
Sicily
present at the time of Phoenician and Greek colonization. The Sicani
Sicani
dwelt east of the Elymians
Elymians
and west of the Sicels, having, according to Diodorus Siculus,[1] the boundary with the last in the ancient Himera river (Salso) after a series of battles between these tribes.Contents1 History 2 Herodotus and King Minos 3 Language 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit] The Sicani
Sicani
are thought to be the oldest inhabitants of Sicily
Sicily
with a recorded name
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Elymians
The Elymians
Elymians
(Greek: Ἔλυμοι; Latin: Elymi) were an ancient people who inhabited the western part of Sicily
Sicily
during the Bronze Age and Classical antiquity.Contents1 Origins 2 History 3 Areas of settlement 4 See also 5 External links 6 ReferencesOrigins[edit] Apart from mythological tales, there is little known about the identity and culture of the Elymians. They are indistinguishable from their Sicani
Sicani
neighbours in the archaeological record of the early Iron Age (c. 1100–c. 700 BC). Thereafter they appear to have adopted many aspects of the culture of the Greek colonists of Sicily, erecting the remarkable temple at Segesta
Segesta
and using the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
to write their own language
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List Of Ancient Greek Cities
This is a small list of ancient Greek cities, including colonies outside Greece
Greece
proper. Note that there were a great many Greek cities in the ancient world. In this list, a city is defined as a single population center
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Ionians
The Ionians
Ionians
(/aɪˈoʊniənz/; Greek: Ἴωνες, Íōnes, singular Ἴων, Íōn) were one of the four major tribes that the Greeks considered themselves to be divided into during the ancient period; the other three being the Dorians, Aeolians, and Achaeans.[1] The Ionian dialect was one of the three major linguistic divisions of the Hellenic world, together with the Dorian and Aeolian dialects. When referring to populations, “Ionian” defines several groups in Classical Greece. In the narrowest sense it referred to the region of Ionia
Ionia
in Asia Minor. In a broader sense it could be used to describe all speakers of the Ionic dialect, which in addition to those in Ionia proper also included the populations of Euboea, the Cyclades, and many cities founded by Ionian colonists
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Strait Of Sicily
Coordinates: 37°12′N 11°12′E / 37.20°N 11.20°E / 37.20; 11.20The Strait
Strait
of Sicily
Sicily
(also known as Sicilian Strait, Sicilian Channel, Channel of Sicily, Sicilian Narrows and Pantelleria
Pantelleria
Channel; Italian: Canale di Sicilia or the Stretto di Sicilia; Sicilian: Canali di Sicilia or Strittu di Sicilia) is the strait between Sicily
Sicily
and Tunisia.[1][2] The strait is about 145 kilometres (90 mi) wide and divides the Tyrrhenian Sea
Tyrrhenian Sea
and the western Mediterranean Sea, from the eastern Mediterranean Sea. The maximum depth is 316 meters (1,037 ft). Deep currents in the strait flow from east to west, and the current nearer the surface travels from west to east
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Ionian Sea
The Ionian Sea
Sea
(Greek: Ιόνιο Πέλαγος, Greek pronunciation: [iˈonio ˈpelaɣos], Italian: Mar Ionio, Italian pronunciation: [mar ˈjɔːnjo], Albanian: Deti Jon, Albanian pronunciation: [dɛti jɔ:n]) is an elongated bay of the Mediterranean Sea, south of the Adriatic Sea. It is bounded by southern Italy
Italy
including Calabria, Sicily, and the Salento
Salento
peninsula to the west, southern Albania
Albania
to the north, and the west coast of Greece. All major islands in the sea belong to Greece. They are collectively named the Ionian Islands, the main ones being Corfu, Zakynthos, Kephalonia, Ithaca, and Lefkada
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Magna Graecia
Timeline Italy
Italy
portalv t e Magna Graecia
Magna Graecia
(/ˌmæɡnə ˈɡriːsiə, ˈɡriːʃə/, US: /ˌmæɡnə ˈɡreɪʃə/; Latin
Latin
meaning "Great Greece", Greek: Μεγάλη Ἑλλάς, Megálē Hellás, Italian: Magna Grecia) was the name given by the Romans to the coastal areas of Southern Italy
Southern Italy
in the present-day regions of Campania, Apulia, Basilicata, Calabria
Calabria
and Sicily
Sicily
that were extensively populated by Greek settlers; particularly the Achaean settlements of Croton, and Sybaris, and to the north, the settlements of Cumae
Cumae
and Neapolis.[1] The settlers who began arriving in the 8th century BC brought with them their Hellenic civilization, which was to leave a lasting imprint on Italy, such as in the culture of ancient Rome
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Punic Wars
The Punic Wars
Punic Wars
were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage
Carthage
from 264 BC to 146 BC.[1] At the time, they were some of the largest wars that had ever taken place.[2] The term Punic comes from the Latin
Latin
word Punicus (or Poenicus), meaning "Carthaginian", with reference to the Carthaginians' Phoenician ancestry.[3] The main cause of the Punic Wars
Punic Wars
was the conflicts of interest between the existing Carthaginian Empire and the expanding Roman Republic. The Romans were initially interested in expansion via Sicily
Sicily
(which at that time was a cultural melting pot), part of which lay under Carthaginian control. At the start of the First Punic War
First Punic War
(264-241 BC), Carthage
Carthage
was the dominant power of the Western Mediterranean, with an extensive maritime empire
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Sardinia
Sardinia
Sardinia
(/sɑːrˈdɪniə/ sar-DIN-ee-ə; Italian: Sardegna [sarˈdeɲɲa], Sardinian: Sardìgna/Sardìnnia [sarˈdiɲɲa]/[sarˈdinja], Sassarese: Sardhigna, Gallurese: Saldigna, Catalan: Sardenya, Tabarchino: Sardegna) is the second largest island in the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
(after Sicily
Sicily
and before Cyprus) and an autonomous region of Italy. It is located in the Western Mediterranean, to the immediate south of the French island of Corsica. The region's official name is Regione Autonoma della Sardegna / Regione Autònoma de Sardigna (Autonomous Region of Sardinia),[3] and its capital and largest city is Cagliari. It is divided into four provinces and a metropolitan city
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