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Shoes
A SHOE is an item of footwear intended to protect and comfort the human foot while the wearer is doing various activities. Shoes are also used as an item of decoration and fashion . The design of shoes has varied enormously through time and from culture to culture, with appearance originally being tied to function. Additionally, fashion has often dictated many design elements, such as whether shoes have very high heels or flat ones. Contemporary footwear in the 2010s varies widely in style, complexity and cost. Basic sandals may consist of only a thin sole and simple strap and be sold for a low cost. High fashion shoes made by famous designers may be made of expensive materials, use complex construction and sell for hundreds or even thousands of dollars a pair. Some shoes are designed for specific purposes, such as boots designed specifically for mountaineering or skiing . Traditionally, shoes have been made from leather, wood or canvas , but in the 2010s, they are increasingly made from rubber , plastics , and other petrochemical -derived materials. Though the human foot is adapted to varied terrain and climate conditions, it is still vulnerable to environmental hazards such as sharp rocks and hot ground, which shoes protect against. Some shoes are worn as safety equipment, such as steel-soled boots which are required on construction sites
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Insole (other)
An INSOLE is the inner sole of a shoe or other footwear. INSOLE may also refer to: * Doug Insole , an English cricketer * Insole Court , a Gothic mansion in Cardiff, Wales This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title INSOLE. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Insole_(other) additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Footwear
FOOTWEAR refers to garments worn on the feet, which originally serves to purpose of protection against adversities of the environment, usually regarding ground textures and temperature. Footwear in the manner of shoes therefore primarily serves the purpose to ease the locomotion and prevent injuries. Secondly footwear can also be used for fashion and adornment as well as to indicate the status or rank of the person within a social structure . Socks and other hosiery are typically worn additionally between the feet and other footwear for further comfort and relief. Cultures have different customs regarding footwear. These include not using any in some situations, usually bearing a symbolic meaning. This can however also be imposed on specific individuals to place them at a practical disadvantage against shod people, if they are excluded from having footwear available or are prohibited from using any. This usually takes place in situations of captivity, such as imprisonment or slavery , where the groups are among other things distinctly divided by whether or whether not footwear is being worn. In these cases the use of footwear categorically indicates the exercise of power as against being devoid of footwear, evidently indicating inferiority. Chalcolithic leather shoe; ca. 5.000 BCE Footwear is in use since earliest human history, archeological finds of complete shoes date back to the copper age (ca. 5.000 BCE)
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Fashion
FASHION is a popular style or practice, especially in clothing , footwear , accessories , makeup , body , or furniture. Fashion
Fashion
is a distinctive and often constant trend in the style in which a person dresses. It is the prevailing styles in behaviour and the newest creations of textile designers. Because the more technical term costume is regularly linked to the term "fashion", the use of the former has been relegated to special senses like fancy dress or masquerade wear, while "fashion" generally means clothing, including the study of it. Although aspects of fashion can be feminine or masculine, some trends are androgynous
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Boot
A BOOT is a type of footwear and a specific type of shoe . Most boots mainly cover the foot and the ankle , while some also cover some part of the lower calf. Some boots extend up the leg , sometimes as far as the knee or even the hip . Most boots have a heel that is clearly distinguishable from the rest of the sole , even if the two are made of one piece. Traditionally made of leather or rubber , modern boots are made from a variety of materials. Boots are worn both for their functionality – protecting the foot and leg from water , extreme cold, mud or hazards (e.g., work boots may protect wearers from chemicals or use a steel toe ) or providing additional ankle support for strenuous activities with added traction requirements (e.g., hiking) – and for reasons of style and fashion . In some cases, the wearing of boots may be required by laws or regulations, such as the regulations in some jurisdictions requiring workers on construction sites to wear steel-toed safety boots. Some uniforms include boots as the regulated footwear. Boots are recommended as well for motorcycle riders. High-top athletic shoes are generally not considered boots, even though they do cover the ankle, primarily due to the absence of a distinct heel. In Britain, the term may be used to refer to football (soccer) cleats
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Mountaineering
The term MOUNTAINEERING describes the sport of mountain climbing . While some scholars identify mountaineering-related activities as climbing (rock and ice) and trekking up mountains, others are also adding backpacking, hiking, skiing, via ferrata and wilderness activities, and still others state that mountaineering activities also include indoor climbing, sport climbing and bouldering. However most of the scholars, the term mountaineering understand as a climbing (which now refers to adventure climbing or sports climbing) and trekking (hill walking in 'exotic' places). Hiking in the mountains can also be a simple form of mountaineering when it involves scrambling , or short stretches of the more basic grades of rock climbing , as well as crossing glaciers . While mountaineering began as attempts to reach the highest point of unclimbed big mountains it has branched into specializations that address different aspects of the mountain and consists of three (3) areas: rock-craft, snow-craft, and skiing, depending on whether the route chosen is over rock , snow or ice . All require experience, athletic ability, and technical knowledge to maintain safety. Mountaineering is often called ALPINISM, especially in European languages, which implies climbing routes with minimal equipment in high and often snow and ice-covered mountains such as the Alps , where technical difficulties frequently exceed environmental and physical challenges
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Skiing
SKIING can be a means of transport, a recreational activity or a competitive winter sport in which the participant uses skis to glide on snow . Many types of competitive skiing events are recognized by the International Olympic Committee (IOC), and the International Ski Federation (FIS). CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Types * 2.1 Alpine * 2.2 Nordic * 2.3 Telemark * 3 Competition * 4 Equipment * 5 Technique * 6 Skiing without snow * 7 Gallery * 8 See also * 9 References HISTORY Play media Video demonstration of a variety of ski techniques used in the 1940s. Main article: History of skiing Skiing has a history of almost five millennia. Although modern skiing has evolved from beginnings in Scandinavia , it may have been practiced more than 100 centuries ago in what is now China , according to an interpretation of ancient paintings. The word "ski" is one of a handful of words Norway has exported to the international community. It comes from the Old Norse word "skíð" which means "split piece of wood or firewood". Asymmetrical skis were used at least in northern Finland and Sweden until the late 19th century. On one leg the skier wore a long straight non-arching ski for sliding, and on the other a shorter ski for kicking
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Canvas
CANVAS is an extremely durable plain-woven fabric used for making sails , tents , marquees , backpacks , and other items for which sturdiness is required. It is also popularly used by artists as a painting surface, typically stretched across a wooden frame. It is also used in such fashion objects as handbags, electronic device cases, and shoes. Modern canvas is usually made of cotton or linen , although historically it was made from hemp . It differs from other heavy cotton fabrics, such as denim , in being plain weave rather than twill weave . Canvas comes in two basic types: plain and duck . The threads in duck canvas are more tightly woven. The term _duck_ comes from the Dutch word for cloth, _doek_. In the United States , canvas is classified in two ways: by weight (ounces per square yard) and by a graded number system. The numbers run in reverse of the weight so a number 10 canvas is lighter than number 4. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 For painting * 3 For embroidery * 4 As a compound agent * 5 Splined canvas, stretched canvas and canvas boards * 6 Types * 7 Products * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links ETYMOLOGYThe word "canvas" is derived from the 13th century Anglo-French _canevaz_ and the Old French _canevas_. Both may be derivatives of the Vulgar Latin _cannapaceus_ for "made of hemp ," originating from the Greek κάνναβις (cannabis )
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Synthetic Rubber
A SYNTHETIC RUBBER is any artificial elastomer . These are mainly polymers synthesised from petroleum byproducts. About 15 billion kilograms (5.3×1011 oz) of rubbers are produced annually, and of that amount two thirds are synthetic. Global revenues generated with synthetic rubbers are likely to rise to approximately US$56 billion in 2020. Synthetic rubber, like natural rubber, has uses in the automotive industry for tires , door and window profiles, hoses , belts , matting , and flooring. CONTENTS* 1 History of synthetic rubber * 1.1 World War II * 1.2 Post-war * 2 Natural vs. synthetic rubber * 3 Table of common synthetic rubbers * 4 Trade names * 5 See also * 6 References HISTORY OF SYNTHETIC RUBBERThe expanded use of motor vehicles, and particularly motor vehicle tires , starting in the 1890s, created increased demand for rubber. In 1909, a team headed by Fritz Hofmann , working at the Bayer laboratory in Elberfeld , Germany, succeeded in polymerizing Isoprene , the first synthetic rubber. The first rubber polymer synthesized from butadiene was created in 1910 by the Russian scientist Sergei Vasiljevich Lebedev . This form of synthetic rubber provided the basis for the first large-scale commercial production by the tsarist empire, which occurred during World War I as a result of shortages of natural rubber
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Plastic
_Note 1_: The use of this term instead of _polymer _ is a source of confusion and thus is not recommended. _Note 2_: This term is used in polymer engineering for materials often compounded that can be processed by flow. PLASTIC is material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid objects. Plasticity is the general property of all materials which can deform irreversibly without breaking but, in the class of moldable polymers , this occurs to such a degree that their actual name derives from this ability. Plastics are typically organic polymers of high molecular mass , but they often contain other substances. They are usually synthetic, most commonly derived from petrochemicals , but many are made from renewable materials such as polylactic acid from corn or cellulosics from cotton linters. Due to their relatively low cost, ease of manufacture, versatility, and imperviousness to water, plastics are used in an enormous and expanding range of products, from paper clips to spaceships. They have already displaced many traditional materials, such as wood , stone , horn and bone , leather , paper , metal , glass , and ceramic , in most of their former uses. In developed countries, about a third of plastic is used in packaging and another third in buildings such as piping used in plumbing or vinyl siding
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Petrochemical
PETROCHEMICALS, also called PETROLEUM DISTILLATES, are chemical products derived from petroleum . Some chemical compounds made from petroleum are also obtained from other fossil fuels , such as coal or natural gas , or renewable sources such as corn or sugar cane . The two most common petrochemical classes are olefins (including ethylene and propylene ) and aromatics (including benzene , toluene and xylene isomers ). Oil refineries produce olefins and aromatics by fluid catalytic cracking of petroleum fractions. Chemical plants produce olefins by steam cracking of natural gas liquids like ethane and propane . Aromatics are produced by catalytic reforming of naphtha . Olefins and aromatics are the building-blocks for a wide range of materials such as solvents , detergents , and adhesives . Olefins are the basis for polymers and oligomers used in plastics , resins , fibers , elastomers , lubricants , and gels . Global ethylene and propylene production are about 115 million tonnes and 70 million tonnes per annum, respectively. Aromatics production is approximately 70 million tonnes. The largest petrochemical industries are located in the USA and Western Europe ; however, major growth in new production capacity is in the Middle East and Asia . There is substantial inter-regional petrochemical trade
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Areni-1 Shoe
The ARENI-1 SHOE is a 5,500-year-old leather shoe that was found in 2008 in excellent condition in the Areni-1 cave located in the Vayots Dzor province of Armenia
Armenia
. It is a one-piece leather-hide shoe, the oldest piece of leather footwear in the world known to contemporary researchers. The discovery was made by an international team led by Boris Gasparyan , an archaeologist from the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography of the National Academy of Sciences of Armenia (co-directors of the project are Ron Pinhasi from University College Cork in Ireland, and Gregory Areshian from UCLA). CONTENTS * 1 Discovery * 2 Analysis * 3 See also * 4 References DISCOVERYAn Armenian post-graduate student, Diana Zardaryan , discovered the leather shoe in the course of excavations by a team of archeologists from Armenia’s Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography , Ireland and the United States. The shoe was found upside down at the base of a shallow, rounded, and plastered pit that was 45 cm (18 in) deep and 44–48 cm (17–19 in) wide, beneath an overturned broken Chalcolithic ceramic bowl. A broken pot and goat horns also were found nearby. Excavations in the same area also found the world\'s oldest wine-making site
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Armenia
Coordinates : 40°N 45°E / 40°N 45°E / 40; 45 Republic of Armenia Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն _Hayastani Hanrapetut’yun_ (Armenian ) Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: Մեր Հայրենիք _Mer Hayrenik_ "Our Fatherland" Capital and largest city Yerevan 40°11′N 44°31′E / 40.183°N 44.517°E / 40.183; 44.517 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES Armenian RECOGNISED NATIONAL LANGUAGES Armenian , Assyrian , Greek , Kurdish and Russian SPOKEN AND WRITTEN LANGUAGE Eastern Armenian OFFICIAL SCRIPT Armenian alphabet a ETHNIC GROUPS ( ) * 98.1% Armenians * 1.2% Yazidis * 0.4%
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Esparto
ESPARTO, HALFAH GRASS, or ESPARTO GRASS, is a fiber produced from two species of perennial grasses of north Africa
Africa
and southern Europe
Europe
. It is used for crafts, such as cords , basketry , and espadrilles . Stipa tenacissima and Lygeum spartum are the species used to produce esparto. Stipa tenacissima
Stipa tenacissima
(=Macrochloa tenacissima) produces the better and stronger esparto. It is endemic to the Western Mediterranean (growing in Portugal, Spain, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Libya). The Spanish name for the plant is "atocha"; a pre-Roman word, probably Iberian. "Esparto" or σπάρτο in Greek may refer to any woven products of sedge or broom , including cords and ropes. This species grows forming a steppic landscape - esparto grasslands - which covers large parts of Spain and Algeria. CONTENTS * 1 Esparto
Esparto
history * 2 Esparto
Esparto
basketry * 3 Esparto
Esparto
paper * 4 Other uses * 5 Gallery * 6 References * 7 External links ESPARTO HISTORY Esparto
Esparto
leaves have been used for millennia. The oldest baskets of esparto, dating back 7,000 years, were found in a cave in southern Spain (Cueva de los Murciélagos, Albuñol, Granada). This collection is now in the