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Sephardi
Sephardi Jews, also known as Sephardic
Sephardic
Jews
Jews
or Sephardim (Hebrew: סְפָרַדִּים‬, Modern Hebrew: Sfaraddim, Tiberian: Səp̄āraddîm; also יְהוּדֵי סְפָרַד‬ Y'hudey Spharad, lit. "The Jews
Jews
of Spain"), are a Jewish ethnic division whose ethnogenesis and emergence as a distinct community of Jews
Jews
coalesced during the early Middle Ages on the Iberian Peninsula
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Bosnia And Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina,[a] abbreviated B&H,[b] sometimes called Bosnia– Herzegovina
Herzegovina
and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe, located within the Balkan Peninsula. Sarajevo
Sarajevo
is the capital and largest city. Bosnia and Herzegovina
Herzegovina
is an almost landlocked country – it has a narrow coast at the Adriatic Sea, about 20 kilometres (12 miles) long surrounding the town of Neum. It is bordered by Croatia
Croatia
to the north, west and south; Serbia
Serbia
to the east; and Montenegro
Montenegro
to the southeast. In the central and eastern interior of the country the geography is mountainous, in the northwest it is moderately hilly, and the northeast is predominantly flatland
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Levant
The Levant
Levant
(/ləˈvænt/) is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean region of Western Asia. In its narrowest sense, it is equivalent to the historical region of Syria, which included present-day Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Israel
Israel
and Palestine
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Latinos
Latino
Latino
(/læˈtiːnoʊ, lə-/)[1] is a term often used in the United States to refer to people with cultural ties to Latin
Latin
America, in contrast to
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Ethnogenesis
Ethnogenesis (from Greek ethnos ἔθνος, "group of people, nation", and genesis γένεσις, "beginning, coming into being"; plural ethnogeneses) is "the formation and development of an ethnic group."[1] This can originate through a process of self-identification as well as come about as the result of outside identification.Contents1 Passive or active ethnogenesis 2 Inclusive or exclusive nationalism 3 Language
Language
revival
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Coalescent Theory
Coalescent theory is a model of how gene variants sampled from a population may have originated from a common ancestor. In the simplest case, coalescent theory assumes no recombination, no natural selection, and no gene flow or population structure, meaning that each variant is equally likely to have been passed from one generation to the next. The model looks backward in time, merging alleles into a single ancestral copy according to a random process in coalescence events. Under this model, the expected time between successive coalescence events increases almost exponentially back in time (with wide variance)
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France
France
France
(French: [fʁɑ̃s]), officially the French Republic (French: République française [ʁepyblik fʁɑ̃sɛz]), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France
France
in western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France
France
extends from the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the English Channel
English Channel
and the North Sea, and from the Rhine
Rhine
to the Atlantic Ocean. The overseas territories include French Guiana
French Guiana
in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans
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Andalusian Arabic Language
Andalusian Arabic, also known as Andalusi Arabic, was a variety or varieties of the Arabic language
Arabic language
spoken in Al-Andalus, the regions of the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
(modern Spain
Spain
and Portugal) under Muslim
Muslim
rule (and for some time after) from the 9th century to the 17th century. It became an extinct language in Iberia after the expulsion of the Moriscos, which took place over a century after the Conquest of Granada by Christian
Christian
Spain. Once widely spoken in Iberia, the expulsions and persecutions of Arabic speakers caused an abrupt end to the language's use on the peninsula
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Portugal
Portugal
Portugal
(Portuguese pronunciation: [puɾtuˈɣaɫ]), officially the Portuguese Republic
Republic
(Portuguese: República Portuguesa [ʁɛˈpuβlikɐ puɾtuˈɣezɐ]),[note 1] is a sovereign state located mostly on the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost country of mainland Europe, bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
and to the north and east by Spain
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Indonesia
Coordinates: 5°S 120°E / 5°S 120°E / -5; 120 Republic
Republic
of IndonesiaRepublik Indonesia  (Indonesian) Flag National emblem Motto:  Bhinneka Tunggal Ika
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Serbia
Coordinates: 44°N 21°E / 44°N 21°E / 44; 21Republic of Serbia Република Србија (Serbian) Republika Srbija  (Serbian)FlagCoat of armsAnthem:  "Боже правде / Bože pravde" "God of Justice"Location of Serbia
Serbia
(green) and the disputed territory of Kosovo
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Cuba
Coordinates: 22°00′N 80°00′W / 22.000°N 80.000°W / 22.000; -80.000Republic of Cuba República de Cuba  (Spanish)FlagCoat of armsMotto:  "¡Patria o Muerte, Venceremos!" (Spanish) "Homeland or Death, we shall overcome!"[1]Anthem: La Bayamesa Bayamo
Bayamo
Song [2]Location of  Cuba  (green)Capital and largest city Havana 23°8′N 82°23′W / 23.133°N 82.383°W / 23.133; -82.383Official languages SpanishEthnic groups (2012[3])64.1% White 26.6% Mulatto, Mest
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Bulgaria
Coordinates: 42°45′N 25°30′E / 42.750°N 25.500°E / 42.750; 25.500Republic of Bulgaria Република България  (Bulgarian) Republika BǎlgariyaFlagCoat of armsMotto: Съединението прави силата (Bulgarian) "Sǎedinenieto pravi silata"  (transliteration) "Unity makes strength"Anthem:  Мила Родино  (Bulgarian) Mila Rodino  (transliteration) Dear MotherlandLocation of  Bulgaria  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)  –  [Legend]Capital and largest city Sofia 42°41′N 23°19′E / 42.683°N 23.317°E / 42.683; 23.317Official languages BulgarianOfficial script CyrillicEthnic groups (2011[1])84.8% Bulgarians 8.8% Turks 4.9% Roma 1.5% othersReligion Bulgarian O
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Netherlands
The Netherlands
Netherlands
(Dutch: Nederland, [ˈneːdərlɑnt] (listen)), informally Holland,[11] is a country in Northwestern Europe with some overseas territories in the Caribbean. In Europe, it consists of 12 provinces that border Germany
Germany
to the east, Belgium
Belgium
to the south, and the North Sea
North Sea
to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea
North Sea
with those countries and the United Kingdom.[12] Together with three island territories in the Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius
Sint Eustatius
and Saba—it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The official language is Dutch and a secondary official language in the province of Friesland
Friesland
is West Frisian
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Tunisia
Islam
Islam
(state religion; 99.1% Sunni[9] others (1%; including Christian, Jewish, Shia, Bahá'í)[9]Demonym TunisianGovernment Unitary semi-presidential republic[12][13]• PresidentBeji Caid Essebsi• Head of GovernmentYoussef ChahedLegislature Assembly of the Representatives of the PeopleFormation•  Husainid Dynasty
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