Jews (Hebrew: יְהוּדִים
ISO 259-3 Yehudim, Israeli
pronunciation [jehuˈdim]) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious
group and a nation originating from the
Israelites, or Hebrews, of the Ancient Near East.
Jewish ethnicity, nationhood, and religion are strongly
Judaism is the traditional faith of the Jewish
people, while its observance varies from strict observance to complete
Jews originated as an ethnic and religious group in the Middle East
during the second millennium BCE, in the part of the
as the Land of Israel. The
Merneptah Stele appears to confirm the
existence of a people of
Israel somewhere in
Canaan as far back as the
13th century BCE (Late Bronze Age). The Israelites, as an
outgrowth of the Canaanite population, consolidated their hold
with the emergence of the Kingdom of
Israel and the Kingdom of Judah.
Some consider that these Canaanite sedentary
Israelites melded with
incoming nomadic groups known as 'Hebrews'. Though few sources
mention the exilic periods in detail, the experience of diaspora
life, from the Ancient Egyptian rule over the Levant, to Assyrian
captivity and exile, to Babylonian Captivity and Exile, to Seleucid
Imperial rule, to the Roman occupation and exile, and the historical
Jews and their homeland thereafter, became a major
feature of Jewish history, identity and memory.
World War II
World War II the worldwide
Jewish population reached a peak
of 16.7 million, representing around 0.7% of the world
population at that time. Approximately 6 million
systematically murdered during the Holocaust. Since then the
population has slowly risen again, and as of 2016[update] was
estimated at 14.4 million by the Berman Jewish DataBank, or
less than 0.2% of the total world population. The exact world
Jewish population, however, is difficult to measure. In addition to
issues with census methodology, disputes among proponents of halakhic,
secular, political, and ancestral identification factors regarding who
is a Jew may affect the figure considerably depending on the
Israel is the only country where
Jews form a majority of
the population. The modern State of
Israel was established as a Jewish
state and defines itself as such in its Declaration of Independence
and Basic Laws. Its
Law of Return
Law of Return grants the right of citizenship to
any Jew who requests it.
Despite their small percentage of the world's population,
significantly influenced and contributed to human progress in many
fields, both historically and in modern times, including
philosophy, ethics, literature, politics,
business, fine arts and architecture, music, theatre and
cinema, medicine, and science and technology, as well as
Jews authored the Bible, founded Early
Christianity and had a profound influence on Islam.
also played a significant role in the development of Western
1 Name and etymology
2 Who is a Jew?
Babylon and Rome
5.1 Ethnic divisions
5.2 Genetic studies
5.3 Population centers
5.3.2 Diaspora (outside Israel)
5.4 Demographic changes
5.4.2 War and persecution
6 Notable individuals
7 See also
9 Further reading
10 External links
Name and etymology
Main article: Jew (word)
For a more comprehensive list, see List of Jewish ethnonyms.
The English word "Jew" continues
Middle English Gyw, Iewe. These terms
Old French giu, earlier juieu, which through elision had
dropped the letter "d" from the
Medieval Latin Iudaeus, which, like
New Testament Greek term Ioudaios, meant both "Jews" and "Judeans"
/ "of Judea". The Greek term was a loan from Aramaic Y'hūdāi,
corresponding to Hebrew יְהוּדִי Yehudi, originally the term
for a member of the tribe of Judah or the people of the kingdom of
Judah. According to the Hebrew Bible, the name of both the tribe and
kingdom derive from Judah, the fourth son of Jacob. Genesis 29:35
and 49:8 connect the name "Judah" with the verb yada, meaning
"praise", but scholars generally agree that the name of both the
patriarch and the kingdom instead have a geographic origin—possibly
referring to the gorges and ravines of the region.
The Hebrew word for "Jew" is יְהוּדִי Yehudi, with the
plural יְהוּדִים Yehudim. Endonyms in other Jewish
languages include the Ladino ג׳ודיו Djudio (plural
ג׳ודיוס, Djudios) and the
Yiddish ייִד Yid (plural
The etymological equivalent is in use in other languages, e.g.,
يَهُودِيّ yahūdī (sg.), al-yahūd (pl.), in Arabic, "Jude"
in German, "judeu" in Portuguese, "juif" in French, "jøde" in Danish
and Norwegian, "judío" in Spanish, "jood" in Dutch, "żyd" in Polish
etc., but derivations of the word "Hebrew" are also in use to describe
a Jew, e.g., in Italian (Ebreo), in Persian ("Ebri/Ebrani" (Persian:
عبری/عبرانی)) and Russian (Еврей, Yevrey). The
German word "Jude" is pronounced [ˈjuːdə], the corresponding
adjective "jüdisch" [ˈjyːdɪʃ] (Jewish) is the origin of the word
According to The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language,
fourth edition (2000),
It is widely recognized that the attributive use of the noun Jew, in
phrases such as Jew lawyer or Jew ethics, is both vulgar and highly
offensive. In such contexts Jewish is the only acceptable possibility.
Some people, however, have become so wary of this construction that
they have extended the stigma to any use of Jew as a noun, a practice
that carries risks of its own. In a sentence such as There are now
Jews on the council, which is unobjectionable, the
substitution of a circumlocution like Jewish people or persons of
Jewish background may in itself cause offense for seeming to imply
that Jew has a negative connotation when used as a noun.
Who is a Jew?
Who is a Jew? and Jewish identity
Judaism shares some of the characteristics of a
nation, an ethnicity, a religion, and a
culture, making the definition of who is a Jew vary
slightly depending on whether a religious or national approach to
identity is used. Generally, in modern secular usage Jews
include three groups: people who were born to a Jewish family
regardless of whether or not they follow the religion, those who have
some Jewish ancestral background or lineage (sometimes including those
who do not have strictly matrilineal descent), and people without any
Jewish ancestral background or lineage who have formally converted to
Judaism and therefore are followers of the religion.
Historical definitions of
Jewish identity have traditionally been
based on halakhic definitions of matrilineal descent, and halakhic
conversions. Historical definitions of who is a Jew date back to the
codification of the Oral
Torah into the Babylonian Talmud, around 200
CE. Interpretations of sections of the Tanakh, such as Deuteronomy
7:1–5, by Jewish sages, are used as a warning against intermarriage
Canaanites because "[the non-Jewish husband] will
cause your child to turn away from Me and they will worship the gods
(i.e., idols) of others." Leviticus 24:10 says that the son in a
marriage between a Hebrew woman and an Egyptian man is "of the
community of Israel." This is complemented by Ezra 10:2–3, where
Israelites returning from
Babylon vow to put aside their gentile wives
and their children. A popular theory is that the rape of
Jewish women in captivity brought about the law of Jewish identity
being inherited through the maternal line, although scholars challenge
this theory citing the Talmudic establishment of the law from the
pre-exile period. Another argument is that the rabbis changed the
law of patrilineal descent to matrilineal descent due to the
widespread rape of Jewish women by Roman soldiers. Since the
Haskalah movement of the late 18th and 19th centuries,
halakhic interpretations of
Jewish identity have been challenged.
According to historian Shaye J. D. Cohen, the status of the offspring
of mixed marriages was determined patrilineally in the Bible. He
brings two likely explanations for the change in Mishnaic times:
Mishnah may have been applying the same logic to mixed
marriages as it had applied to other mixtures (Kil'ayim). Thus, a
mixed marriage is forbidden as is the union of a horse and a donkey,
and in both unions the offspring are judged matrilineally. Second,
Tannaim may have been influenced by Roman law, which dictated that
when a parent could not contract a legal marriage, offspring would
follow the mother.
Rabbi Rivon Krygier follows a similar
reasoning, arguing that Jewish descent had formerly passed through the
patrineal descent and the law of matrilineal descent had its roots in
the Roman legal system.
Main article: Jewish history
Further information: Canaan, Israelites, Origins of Judaism, and
History of ancient
Israel and Judah
Map of Canaan
Tribes of Israel
Ten Lost Tribes
A factual reconstruction for the origin of the
Jews is a difficult and
complex endeavor. It requires examining at least 3,000 years of
ancient human history using documents in vast quantities and variety
written in at least ten near Eastern languages. As archaeological
discovery relies upon researchers and scholars from diverse
disciplines, the goal is to interpret all of the factual data,
focusing on the most consistent theory. In recent years some scholars
have criticized what they see as the biases of other researchers,
citing their opponents' perceived Zionist or
Jewish identity as a
The prehistory and ethnogenesis of the
Jews are closely intertwined
with archaeology, biology, and historical textual records, as well as
religious literature and mythology. The ethnic stock to which Jews
originally trace their ancestry was a confederation of Iron Age
semitic-speaking tribes known as the
Israelites that inhabited a part
Canaan during the tribal and monarchic periods.
According to the
Hebrew Bible narrative, Jewish ancestry is traced
back to the Biblical patriarchs such as Abraham, his son Isaac,
Isaac's son Jacob, and the Biblical matriarchs Sarah, Rebecca, Leah,
and Rachel, who lived in Canaan. The
Twelve Tribes are described as
descending from the twelve sons of Jacob.
Jacob and his family
Ancient Egypt after being invited to live with Jacob's son
Joseph by the Pharaoh himself. The patriarchs' descendants were later
enslaved until the Exodus led by Moses, after which the Israelites
Canaan under Moses' successor Joshua, went through the
period of the
Biblical judges after the death of Joshua, then through
the mediation of
Samuel became subject to a king, Saul, who was
David and then Solomon, after whom the United Monarchy
ended and was split into a separate Kingdom of
Israel and a Kingdom of
Kingdom of Judah
Kingdom of Judah is described as comprising the Tribe of
Judah, the Tribe of Benjamin, and partially the Tribe of Levi, and
later adding other tribes who migrated there from the Kingdom of
Jews claim lineage from the Tribes of Judah and
Benjamin since the ten northern tribes were lost following Assyrian
Modern archaeology has largely discarded the historicity of this
narrative, with it being reframed as constituting the Israelites'
inspiring national myth narrative. The
Israelites and their culture,
according to the modern archaeological account, did not overtake the
region by force, but instead branched out of the Canaanite peoples and
culture through the development of a distinct monolatristic—and
later monotheistic—religion centered on Yahweh. The growth of
Yahweh-centric belief, along with a number of cultic practices,
gradually gave rise to a distinct
Israelite ethnic group, setting them
apart from other Canaanites.
Israelites become visible in the historical record as a people
between 1200 and 1000 BCE. It is not certain if a period like that
Biblical judges occurred nor if there was
ever a United Monarchy. There is well accepted
archeological evidence referring to "Israel" in the Merneptah Stele,
which dates to about 1200 BCE, and the
archeologically attested in the Middle Bronze Age. There is
debate about the earliest existence of the Kingdoms of
Judah and their extent and power, but historians agree that a Kingdom
Israel existed by ca. 900 BCE:169–195 and that a
Kingdom of Judah
Kingdom of Judah existed by ca. 700 BCE. It is widely accepted
that the Kingdom of
Israel was destroyed around 720 BCE, when it was
conquered by the Neo-Assyrian Empire.
The term Jew originated from the Roman "Judean" and denoted someone
from the southern kingdom of Judah. The shift of ethnonym from
"Israelites" to "Jews" (inhabitant of Judah), although not contained
in the Torah, is made explicit in the
Book of Esther
Book of Esther (4th century
BCE), a book in the Ketuvim, the third section of the Jewish
Tanakh. In 587 BCE Nebuchadnezzar II, King of the Neo-Babylonian
Empire, besieged Jerusalem, destroyed the First Temple, and deported
the most prominent citizens of Judah.
According to the
Book of Ezra, the Persian
Cyrus the Great
Cyrus the Great ended the
Babylonian exile in 538 BCE, the year after he captured
Babylon. The exile ended with the return under
Prince (so-called because he was a descendant of the royal line of
Joshua the Priest (a descendant of the line of the former
High Priests of the Temple) and their construction of the Second
Temple in the period 521–516 BCE. The Cyrus Cylinder, an ancient
tablet on which is written a declaration in the name of Cyrus
referring to restoration of temples and repatriation of exiled
peoples, has often been taken as corroboration of the authenticity of
the biblical decrees attributed to Cyrus, but other scholars point
out that the cylinder's text is specific to
Babylon and Mesopotamia
and makes no mention of Judah or Jerusalem. Professor Lester L.
Grabbe asserted that the "alleged decree of Cyrus" regarding Judah,
"cannot be considered authentic", but that there was a "general policy
of allowing deportees to return and to re-establish cult sites". He
also stated that archaeology suggests that the return was a "trickle"
taking place over decades, rather than a single event.
As part of the Persian Empire, the former
Kingdom of Judah
Kingdom of Judah became the
province of Judah (Yehud Medinata) with different borders,
covering a smaller territory. The population of the province was
greatly reduced from that of the kingdom, archaeological surveys
showing a population of around 30,000 people in the 5th to 4th
centuries BCE.:308 The region was under control of the Achaemenids
until the fall of their empire in c. 333 BCE to Alexander the Great.
Jews were also politically independent during the Hasmonean dynasty
spanning from 140 to 37 BCE and to some degree under the Herodian
dynasty from 37 BCE to 6 CE. Since the destruction of the Second
Temple in 70 CE, most
Jews have lived in diaspora.
Genetic studies on Jews show that most
Jews worldwide bear a common
genetic heritage which originates in the Middle East, and that they
share certain genetic traits with other
Gentile peoples of the Fertile
Crescent. The genetic composition of different Jewish
groups shows that
Jews share a common gene pool dating back 4,000
years, as a marker of their common ancestral origin. Despite their
long-term separation, Jewish communities maintained commonalities in
culture, tradition, and language.
Babylon and Rome
Further information: History of the
Jews in the Roman Empire
After the destruction of the Second Temple,
Judaism lost much of its
sectarian nature.:69 Nevertheless, a significant Hellenized
Diaspora remained, centered in Alexandria, at the time the largest
urban Jewish community in the world. Hellenism was a force not just in
the Diaspora but also in the Land of
Israel over a long period of
time. Generally, scholars view Rabbinic
Judaism as having been
meaningfully influenced by Hellenism.
Without a Temple, Greek-speaking
Jews no longer looked to
the way they had before.
Judaism separated into a linguistically Greek
and a Hebrew / Aramaic sphere.: 8–11 The theology and religious
texts of each community were distinctively different.: 11–13
Judaism never developed yeshivas to study the Oral Law.
Judaism (centered in the Land of
Israel and Babylon) almost
entirely ignores the Hellenized Diaspora in its writings.:
Judaism eventually disappeared as its practitioners
assimilated into Greco-Roman culture, leaving a strong Rabbinic
eastern Diaspora with large centers of learning in Babylon.:
By the first century, the Jewish community in Babylonia, to which Jews
were exiled after the Babylonian conquest as well as after the Bar
Kokhba revolt in 135 CE, already held a speedily growing
population of an estimated one million Jews, which increased to an
estimated two million between the years 200 CE and 500 CE, both
by natural growth and by immigration of more
Jews from the Land of
Israel, making up about one-sixth of the world
Jewish population at
that era. The 13th-century author
Bar Hebraeus gave a figure of
Jews in the Roman world;
Salo Wittmayer Baron
Salo Wittmayer Baron considered the
figure convincing. The figure of seven million within and one
million outside the Roman world in the mid-first century became widely
accepted, including by Louis Feldman. However, contemporary scholars
now accept that
Bar Hebraeus based his figure on a census of total
Roman citizens, the figure of 6,944,000 being recorded in Eusebius'
Chronicon. Louis Feldman, previously an active supporter of
the figure, now states that he and Baron were mistaken.: 185
Feldman's views on active Jewish missionizing have also changed. While
Judaism as being receptive to converts, especially
from the second century BCE through the first century CE, he points to
a lack of either missionizing tracts or records of the names of rabbis
who sought converts as evidence for the lack of active Jewish
missionizing.: 205–06 Feldman maintains that conversion to
Judaism was common and the
Jewish population was large both within the
Israel and in the Diaspora.: 183–203, 206 Other
historians believe that conversion during the
Roman era was limited in
number and did not account for much of the
Jewish population growth,
due to various factors such as the illegality of male conversion to
Judaism in the Roman world from the mid-second century. Another factor
that made conversion difficult in the Roman world was the halakhic
requirement of circumcision, a requirement that proselytizing
Christianity quickly dropped. The Fiscus Judaicus, a tax imposed on
Jews in 70 CE and relaxed to exclude Christians in 96 CE, also limited
Main article: Jewish culture
Main article: Judaism
Part of a series on
Principles of faith
Names of God
Holy cities / places
Culture and education
Bar and Bat Mitzvah
Judaism and Christianity
The Jewish people and the religion of
Judaism are strongly
interrelated. Converts to
Judaism typically have a status within the
Jewish ethnos equal to those born into it. However, several
converts to Judaism, as well as ex-Jews, have claimed that converts
are treated as second-class
Jews by many born Jews. Conversion is
not encouraged by mainstream Judaism, and it is considered a difficult
task. A significant portion of conversions are undertaken by children
of mixed marriages, or would-be or current spouses of Jews.
The Hebrew Bible, a religious interpretation of the traditions and
early history of the Jews, established the first of the Abrahamic
religions, which are now practiced by 54% of the world.
its adherents in both practice and belief, and has been called not
only a religion, but also a "way of life," which has made drawing
a clear distinction between Judaism, Jewish culture, and Jewish
identity rather difficult. Throughout history, in eras and places as
diverse as the ancient Hellenic world, in
Europe before and after
The Age of Enlightenment
The Age of Enlightenment (see Haskalah), in Islamic
North Africa and the Middle East, India,
China, or the contemporary United States and Israel,
cultural phenomena have developed that are in some sense
characteristically Jewish without being at all specifically religious.
Some factors in this come from within Judaism, others from the
Jews or specific communities of
Jews with their
surroundings, and still others from the inner social and cultural
dynamics of the community, as opposed to from the religion itself.
This phenomenon has led to considerably different Jewish cultures
unique to their own communities.
Main article: Jewish languages
A page from Elia Levita's (right to left) Yiddish-Hebrew-Latin-German
dictionary (1542) contains a list of nations, including an entry for
Jew: Hebrew: יְהוּדִי, Yiddish: יוּד, German: Jud,
Hebrew is the liturgical language of
Judaism (termed lashon ha-kodesh,
"the holy tongue"), the language in which most of the Hebrew
scriptures (Tanakh) were composed, and the daily speech of the Jewish
people for centuries. By the 5th century BCE, Aramaic, a closely
related tongue, joined Hebrew as the spoken language in Judea. By
the 3rd century BCE, some
Jews of the diaspora were speaking
Greek. Others, such as in the Jewish communities of Babylonia,
were speaking Hebrew and Aramaic, the languages of the Babylonian
Talmud. These languages were also used by the
Israel at that
Jews worldwide have spoken the local or dominant
languages of the regions they migrated to, often developing
distinctive dialectal forms or branches that became independent
Yiddish is the Judæo-
German language developed by
Ashkenazi Jews who migrated to Central Europe. Ladino is the
Spanish language developed by Sephardic
Jews who migrated to
the Iberian peninsula. Due to many factors, including the impact of
the Holocaust on European Jewry, the Jewish exodus from Arab and
Muslim countries, and widespread emigration from other Jewish
communities around the world, ancient and distinct
Jewish languages of
several communities, including Judæo-Georgian, Judæo-Arabic,
Judæo-Malayalam and many others, have
largely fallen out of use.
For over sixteen centuries Hebrew was used almost exclusively as a
liturgical language, and as the language in which most books had been
written on Judaism, with a few speaking only Hebrew on the
Sabbath. Hebrew was revived as a spoken language by Eliezer ben
Yehuda, who arrived in Palestine in 1881. It had not been used as a
mother tongue since Tannaic times.
Modern Hebrew is now one of
the two official languages of the State of
Israel along with Modern
Despite efforts to revive Hebrew as the national language of the
Jewish people, knowledge of the language is not commonly possessed by
Jews worldwide and English has emerged as the lingua franca of the
Jewish diaspora. Although many
Jews once had
sufficient knowledge of Hebrew to study the classic literature, and
Jewish languages like
Yiddish and Ladino were commonly used as
recently as the early 20th century, most
Jews lack such knowledge
today and English has by and large superseded most Jewish vernaculars.
The three most commonly spoken languages among
Jews today are Hebrew,
English, and Russian. Some Romance languages, particularly French and
Spanish, are also widely used.
Yiddish has been spoken by more Jews
in history than any other language, but it is far less used today
following the Holocaust and the adoption of
Modern Hebrew by the
Zionist movement and the State of Israel. In some places, the mother
language of the Jewish community differs from that of the general
population or the dominant group. For example, in Quebec, the
Ashkenazic majority has adopted English, while the Sephardic minority
uses French as its primary language. Similarly, South
Jews adopted English rather than Afrikaans. Due to both
Czarist and Soviet policies, Russian has superseded Yiddish
as the language of Russian Jews, but these policies have also affected
neighboring communities. Today, Russian is the first language for
many Jewish communities in a number of Post-Soviet states, such as
Ukraine and Uzbekistan, as well as for
Jews in Azerbaijan, Georgia, and
Tajikistan. Although communities in
North Africa today are
small and dwindling,
Jews there had shifted from a multilingual group
to a monolingual one (or nearly so), speaking French in Algeria,
Morocco, and the city of Tunis, while most North
Africans continue to use
Arabic or Berber as their mother
Main article: Jewish leadership
There is no single governing body for the Jewish community, nor a
single authority with responsibility for religious doctrine.
Instead, a variety of secular and religious institutions at the local,
national, and international levels lead various parts of the Jewish
community on a variety of issues.
Jewish population by country
Main article: Jewish ethnic divisions
Ashkenazi Jews of late 19th century
Eastern Europe portrayed in Jews
Praying in the
Yom Kippur (1878), by Maurycy Gottlieb
Sephardi Jewish couple from
Sarajevo in traditional clothing. Photo
taken in 1900.
Yemenite Jew blows shofar, 1947
Within the world's
Jewish population there are distinct ethnic
divisions, most of which are primarily the result of geographic
branching from an originating
Israelite population, and subsequent
independent evolutions. An array of Jewish communities was established
by Jewish settlers in various places around the Old World, often at
great distances from one another, resulting in effective and often
long-term isolation. During the millennia of the
Jewish diaspora the
communities would develop under the influence of their local
environments: political, cultural, natural, and populational. Today,
manifestations of these differences among the
Jews can be observed in
Jewish cultural expressions of each community, including Jewish
linguistic diversity, culinary preferences, liturgical practices,
religious interpretations, as well as degrees and sources of genetic
Jews are often identified as belonging to one of two major groups: the
Ashkenazim and the Sephardim. Ashkenazim, or "Germanics" (Ashkenaz
meaning "Germany" in Hebrew), are so named denoting their German
Jewish cultural and geographical origins, while Sephardim, or
Sefarad meaning "Spain/Hispania" or "Iberia" in Hebrew),
are so named denoting their Spanish/Portuguese Jewish cultural and
geographic origins. The more common term in
Israel for many of those
broadly called Sephardim, is Mizrahim (lit. "Easterners", Mizrach
being "East" in Hebrew), that is, in reference to the diverse
collection of Middle Eastern and North African
Jews who are often, as
a group, referred to collectively as Sephardim (together with
Sephardim proper) for liturgical reasons, although Mizrahi Jewish
Sephardi Jews proper are ethnically distinct.
Smaller groups include, but are not restricted to,
Indian Jews such as
the Bene Israel, Bnei Menashe, Cochin Jews, and Bene Ephraim; the
Romaniotes of Greece; the
Italian Jews ("Italkim" or "Bené Roma");
Teimanim from Yemen; various African Jews, including most
numerously the Beta
Israel of Ethiopia; and Chinese Jews, most notably
the Kaifeng Jews, as well as various other distinct but now almost
The divisions between all these groups are approximate and their
boundaries are not always clear. The Mizrahim for example, are a
heterogeneous collection of North African, Central Asian, Caucasian,
and Middle Eastern Jewish communities that are no closer related to
each other than they are to any of the earlier mentioned Jewish
groups. In modern usage, however, the Mizrahim are sometimes termed
Sephardi due to similar styles of liturgy, despite independent
development from Sephardim proper. Thus, among Mizrahim there are
Egyptian Jews, Iraqi Jews, Lebanese Jews, Kurdish Jews, Libyan Jews,
Syrian Jews, Bukharian Jews, Mountain Jews, Georgian Jews, Iranian
Jews and various others. The
Yemen are sometimes
included, although their style of liturgy is unique and they differ in
respect to the admixture found among them to that found in Mizrahim.
In addition, there is a differentiation made between
who established themselves in the
Middle East and
North Africa after
the expulsion of the
Portugal in the 1490s and the
pre-existing Jewish communities in those regions.
Ashkenazi Jews represent the bulk of modern Jewry, with at least 70%
Jews worldwide (and up to 90% prior to
World War II
World War II and the
Holocaust). As a result of their emigration from Europe, Ashkenazim
also represent the overwhelming majority of
Jews in the New World
continents, in countries such as the United States, Canada, Argentina,
Australia, and Brazil. In France, the immigration of
Jews from Algeria
(Sephardim) has led them to outnumber the Ashkenazim. Only in
Israel is the
Jewish population representative of all groups, a
melting pot independent of each group's proportion within the overall
world Jewish population.
Main article: Genetic studies on Jews
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Y DNA studies tend to imply a small number of founders in an old
population whose members parted and followed different migration
paths. In most Jewish populations, these male line ancestors
appear to have been mainly Middle Eastern. For example,
share more common paternal lineages with other Jewish and Middle
Eastern groups than with non-Jewish populations in areas where Jews
lived in Eastern Europe,
Germany and the French
Rhine Valley. This is
consistent with Jewish traditions in placing most Jewish paternal
origins in the region of the Middle East. Conversely, the
maternal lineages of Jewish populations, studied by looking at
mitochondrial DNA, are generally more heterogeneous. Scholars
Harry Ostrer and
Raphael Falk believe this indicates that many
Jewish males found new mates from European and other communities in
the places where they migrated in the diaspora after fleeing ancient
Israel. In contrast, Behar has found evidence that about 40% of
Ashkenazi Jews originate maternally from just four female founders,
who were of Middle Eastern origin. The populations of
Mizrahi Jewish communities "showed no evidence for a narrow founder
effect." Subsequent studies carried out by Feder et al. confirmed
the large portion of non-local maternal origin among
Reflecting on their findings related to the maternal origin of
Ashkenazi Jews, the authors conclude "Clearly, the differences between
Jews and non-
Jews are far larger than those observed among the Jewish
communities. Hence, differences between the Jewish communities can be
overlooked when non-
Jews are included in the
comparisons."A study showed that 7% of
have the haplogroup G2c, which is mainly found in
Pashtuns and on
lower scales all major Jewish groups, Palestinians, Syrians, and
Lebanese. Studies of autosomal DNA, which look at the entire
DNA mixture, have become increasingly important as the technology
develops. They show that Jewish populations have tended to form
relatively closely related groups in independent communities, with
most in a community sharing significant ancestry in common. For
Jewish populations of the diaspora, the genetic composition of
Ashkenazi, Sephardi, and Mizrahi Jewish populations show a predominant
amount of shared Middle Eastern ancestry. According to Behar, the most
parsimonious explanation for this shared Middle Eastern ancestry is
that it is "consistent with the historical formulation of the Jewish
people as descending from ancient Hebrew and
Israelite residents of
the Levant" and "the dispersion of the people of ancient Israel
throughout the Old World". North African, Italian and others of
Iberian origin show variable frequencies of admixture with non-Jewish
historical host populations among the maternal lines. In the case of
Sephardi Jews (in particular Moroccan Jews), who are
closely related, the source of non-Jewish admixture is mainly southern
Mizrahi Jews show evidence of admixture with other
Middle Eastern populations. Behar et al. have remarked on a close
Ashkenazi Jews and modern
Italians. A 2001 study found that
Jews were found to be
more closely related to groups of the
Fertile Crescent (Kurds, Turks,
and Armenians) than to their Arab neighbors, the geographic
distribution of whose genetic signature was found to correlate with
the pattern of the Islamic conquests.
The studies also show that persons of
Sephardic Bnei Anusim origin
(those who are descendants of the "anusim" who were forced to convert
to Catholicism) throughout today's
Spain and Portugal) and
Hispanic America and Brazil), estimated at up to 19.8%
of the modern population of
Iberia and at least 10% of the modern
population of Ibero-America, have Sephardic Jewish ancestry within the
last few centuries. The Bene
Cochin Jews of India, Beta
Israel of Ethiopia, and a portion of the
Lemba people of Southern
Africa, meanwhile, despite more closely resembling the local
populations of their native countries, also have some more remote
ancient Jewish descent.
For a more comprehensive list, see List of urban areas by Jewish
Jews have been found all over the world, in the
World War II
World War II and the establishment of Israel, they have
increasingly concentrated in a small number of countries. In
United States and
Israel were collectively home to more than
80% of the global Jewish population, each country having approximately
41% of the world's Jews.
According to the
Israel Central Bureau of Statistics there were
Jews worldwide in 2009, roughly 0.19% of the world's
population at the time.
According to the 2007 estimates of The Jewish People Policy Planning
Institute, the world's
Jewish population is 13.2 million.
Adherents.com cites figures ranging from 12 to 18 million.
These statistics incorporate both practicing
Jews affiliated with
synagogues and the Jewish community, and approximately
4.5 million unaffiliated and secular Jews.
According to Sergio DellaPergola, a demographer of the Jewish
population, in 2015 there were about 6.3 million
Jews in Israel, 5.7
million in the United States, and 2.3 million in the rest of the
Main article: Israeli Jews
Israel, the Jewish nation-state, is the only country in which Jews
make up a majority of the citizens.
Israel was established as an
independent democratic and
Jewish state on 14 May 1948. Of the
120 members in its parliament, the Knesset, as of 2016, 14
members of the
Knesset are Arab citizens of
Israel (not including the
Druze), most representing Arab political parties. One of Israel's
Supreme Court judges is also an Arab citizen of Israel.
Between 1948 and 1958, the
Jewish population rose from 800,000 to two
Jews account for 75.4% of the Israeli
population, or 6 million people. The early years of the
Israel were marked by the mass immigration of Holocaust
survivors in the aftermath of the Holocaust and
Jews fleeing Arab
Israel also has a large population of Ethiopian Jews, many
of whom were airlifted to
Israel in the late 1980s and early
1990s. Between 1974 and 1979 nearly 227,258 immigrants arrived in
Israel, about half being from the Soviet Union. This period also
saw an increase in immigration to
Israel from Western Europe, Latin
America, and North America.
A trickle of immigrants from other communities has also arrived,
Indian Jews and others, as well as some descendants of
Holocaust survivors who had settled in countries such as the
United States, Argentina, Australia, Chile, and South Africa. Some
Jews have emigrated from
Israel elsewhere, because of economic
problems or disillusionment with political conditions and the
continuing Arab–Israeli conflict. Jewish Israeli emigrants are known
Diaspora (outside Israel)
Main article: Jewish diaspora
Rosh Hashana greeting card from the early 1900s, Russian Jews,
packs in hand, gaze at the American relatives beckoning them to the
United States. Over two million
Jews fled the pogroms of the Russian
Empire to the safety of the U.S. between 1881 and 1924.
Public Hanukkah menorah in Nicosia, Cyprus
The waves of immigration to the
United States and elsewhere at the
turn of the 19th century, the founding of
Zionism and later events,
including pogroms in Russia, the massacre of European Jewry during the
Holocaust, and the founding of the state of Israel, with the
subsequent Jewish exodus from Arab lands, all resulted in substantial
shifts in the population centers of world Jewry by the end of the 20th
More than half of the
Jews live in the Diaspora (see Population
table). Currently, the largest Jewish community outside Israel, and
either the largest or second-largest Jewish community in the world, is
located in the United States, with 5.2 million to
Jews by various estimates. Elsewhere in the Americas,
there are also large Jewish populations in
Canada (315,000), Argentina
Brazil (196,000–600,000), and smaller
populations in Mexico, Uruguay, Venezuela, Chile,
Colombia and several
other countries (see History of the
Jews in Latin America).
According to a 2010
Pew Research Center
Pew Research Center study, about 470,000 people of
Jewish heritage live in Latin-America and the Caribbean.
Demographers disagree on whether the
United States has a larger Jewish
population than Israel, with many maintaining that
United States in
Jewish population during the 2000s, while others
maintain that the
United States still has the largest Jewish
population in the world. Currently, a major national Jewish population
survey is planned to ascertain whether or not
Israel has overtaken the
United States in Jewish population.
Western Europe's largest Jewish community, and the third-largest
Jewish community in the world, can be found in France, home to between
483,000 and 500,000 Jews, the majority of whom are immigrants or
refugees from North African countries such as Algeria, Morocco, and
Tunisia (or their descendants). The
United Kingdom has a Jewish
community of 292,000. In Eastern Europe, the exact figures are
difficult to establish. The number of
Russia varies widely
according to whether a source uses census data (which requires a
person to choose a single nationality among choices that include
"Russian" and "Jewish") or eligibility for immigration to Israel
(which requires that a person have one or more Jewish grandparents).
According to the latter criteria, the heads of the Russian Jewish
community assert that up to 1.5 million Russians are eligible for
aliyah. In Germany, the 102,000
Jews registered with the
Jewish community are a slowly declining population, despite the
immigration of tens of thousands of
Jews from the former Soviet Union
since the fall of the Berlin Wall. Thousands of
live in Germany, either permanently or temporarily, for economic
Prior to 1948, approximately 800,000
Jews were living in lands which
now make up the
Arab world (excluding Israel). Of these, just under
two-thirds lived in the French-controlled
Maghreb region, 15–20% in
the Kingdom of Iraq, approximately 10% in the
Kingdom of Egypt
Kingdom of Egypt and
approximately 7% in the Kingdom of Yemen. A further 200,000 lived in
Pahlavi Iran and the Republic of Turkey. Today, around 26,000 Jews
live in Arab countries and around 30,000 in
Iran and Turkey. A
small-scale exodus had begun in many countries in the early decades of
the 20th century, although the only substantial aliyah came from Yemen
and Syria. The exodus from Arab and
Muslim countries took place
primarily from 1948. The first large-scale exoduses took place in the
late 1940s and early 1950s, primarily in Iraq,
Yemen and Libya, with
up to 90% of these communities leaving within a few years. The peak of
the exodus from
Egypt occurred in 1956. The exodus in the Maghreb
countries peaked in the 1960s.
Lebanon was the only Arab country to
see a temporary increase in its
Jewish population during this period,
due to an influx of refugees from other Arab countries, although by
the mid-1970s the Jewish community of
Lebanon had also dwindled. In
the aftermath of the exodus wave from Arab states, an additional
Iranian Jews peaked in the 1980s when around 80% of
Iranian Jews left the country.
Outside Europe, the Americas, the Middle East, and the rest of Asia,
there are significant Jewish populations in
Australia (112,500) and
South Africa (70,000). There is also a 7,500-strong community in
New Zealand..
Main article: Historical
Jewish population comparisons
Jewish assimilation and
Interfaith marriage in Judaism
Since at least the time of the Ancient Greeks, a proportion of Jews
have assimilated into the wider non-Jewish society around them, by
either choice or force, ceasing to practice
Judaism and losing their
Jewish identity. Assimilation took place in all areas, and during
all time periods, with some Jewish communities, for example the
Kaifeng Jews of China, disappearing entirely. The advent of the
Jewish Enlightenment of the 18th century (see Haskalah) and the
subsequent emancipation of the Jewish populations of
America in the 19th century, accelerated the situation, encouraging
Jews to increasingly participate in, and become part of, secular
society. The result has been a growing trend of assimilation, as Jews
marry non-Jewish spouses and stop participating in the Jewish
Rates of interreligious marriage vary widely: In the United States, it
is just under 50%, in the United Kingdom, around 53%; in France;
around 30%, and in
Australia and Mexico, as low as 10%.
In the United States, only about a third of children from
intermarriages affiliate with Jewish religious practice. The
result is that most countries in the Diaspora have steady or slightly
declining religiously Jewish populations as
Jews continue to
assimilate into the countries in which they live.
War and persecution
Persecution of Jews, Antisemitism, and Jewish
The Roman Emperor
Vespasian with an army to destroy the
Jews, 69 CE.
World War I
World War I poster showing a soldier cutting the bonds from a Jewish
man, who says, "You have cut my bonds and set me free – now let me
help you set others free!"
The Jewish people and
Judaism have experienced various persecutions
throughout Jewish history. During
Late Antiquity and the Early Middle
Roman Empire (in its later phases known as the Byzantine
Empire) repeatedly repressed the Jewish population, first by ejecting
them from their homelands during the pagan
Roman era and later by
officially establishing them as second-class citizens during the
Christian Roman era.
According to James Carroll, "
Jews accounted for 10% of the total
population of the Roman Empire. By that ratio, if other factors had
not intervened, there would be 200 million
Jews in the world
today, instead of something like 13 million."
Later in medieval Western Europe, further persecutions of
Christians occurred, notably during the Crusades—when
Jews all over
Germany were massacred—and a series of expulsions from the Kingdom
of England, Germany, France, and, in the largest expulsion of all,
Portugal after the
Reconquista (the Catholic Reconquest of
the Iberian Peninsula), where both unbaptized Sephardic
Jews and the
Moors were expelled.
In the Papal States, which existed until 1870,
Jews were required to
live only in specified neighborhoods called ghettos.
Judaism have a complex relationship. Traditionally
Christians living in
Muslim lands, known as dhimmis, were allowed to
practice their religions and administer their internal affairs, but
they were subject to certain conditions. They had to pay the
jizya (a per capita tax imposed on free adult non-
Muslim males) to the
Dhimmis had an inferior status under Islamic rule.
They had several social and legal disabilities such as prohibitions
against bearing arms or giving testimony in courts in cases involving
Muslims. Many of the disabilities were highly symbolic. The one
Bernard Lewis as "most degrading" was the
requirement of distinctive clothing, not found in the
Quran or hadith
but invented in early medieval Baghdad; its enforcement was highly
erratic. On the other hand,
Jews rarely faced martyrdom or exile,
or forced compulsion to change their religion, and they were mostly
free in their choice of residence and profession.
Notable exceptions include the massacre of
Jews and forcible
conversion of some
Jews by the rulers of the Almohad dynasty in
Al-Andalus in the 12th century, as well as in Islamic
Persia, and the forced confinement of
Moroccan Jews to walled
quarters known as mellahs beginning from the 15th century and
especially in the early 19th century. In modern times, it has
become commonplace for standard antisemitic themes to be conflated
with anti-Zionist publications and pronouncements of Islamic movements
Hezbollah and Hamas, in the pronouncements of various agencies
of the Islamic Republic of Iran, and even in the newspapers and other
publications of Turkish Refah Partisi."
Throughout history, many rulers, empires and nations have oppressed
their Jewish populations or sought to eliminate them entirely. Methods
employed ranged from expulsion to outright genocide; within nations,
often the threat of these extreme methods was sufficient to silence
dissent. The history of antisemitism includes the
First Crusade which
resulted in the massacre of Jews; the
Spanish Inquisition (led by
Tomás de Torquemada) and the Portuguese Inquisition, with their
persecution and autos-da-fé against the
New Christians and Marrano
Cossack massacres in Ukraine;
Pogroms backed by the Russian Tsars; as well as expulsions
from Spain, Portugal, England, France, Germany, and other countries in
Jews had settled. According to a 2008 study published
in the American Journal of Human Genetics, 19.8% of the modern Iberian
population has Sephardic Jewish ancestry, indicating that the
number of conversos may have been much higher than originally
Jews in Minsk, 1941. Before
World War II
World War II some 40% of the population
was Jewish. By the time the Red Army retook the city on 3 July 1944,
there were only a few Jewish survivors.
The persecution reached a peak in Nazi Germany's Final Solution, which
led to the Holocaust and the slaughter of approximately 6 million
Jews. Of the world's 15 million
Jews in 1939, more than a
third were killed in the Holocaust. The Holocaust—the
state-led systematic persecution and genocide of European
certain communities of North African
Jews in European controlled North
Africa) and other minority groups of
World War II
World War II by
Germany and its collaborators remains the most notable modern-day
persecution of Jews. The persecution and genocide were
accomplished in stages. Legislation to remove the
Jews from civil
society was enacted years before the outbreak of World War II.
Concentration camps were established in which inmates were used as
slave labour until they died of exhaustion or disease. Where the
Third Reich conquered new territory in Eastern Europe, specialized
Jews and political opponents in
Jews and Roma were crammed into ghettos before
being transported hundreds of miles by freight train to extermination
camps where, if they survived the journey, the majority of them were
killed in gas chambers. Virtually every arm of Germany's
bureaucracy was involved in the logistics of the mass murder, turning
the country into what one Holocaust scholar has called "a genocidal
Further information: Expulsions of Jews
Etching of the expulsion of the
Jews from Frankfurt in 1614. The text
says: "1380 persons old and young were counted at the exit of the
Jews fleeing pogroms, 1882
Throughout Jewish history,
Jews have repeatedly been directly or
indirectly expelled from both their original homeland, the Land of
Israel, and many of the areas in which they have settled. This
experience as refugees has shaped
Jewish identity and religious
practice in many ways, and is thus a major element of Jewish
history. The patriarch
Abraham is described as a migrant to the
Canaan from Ur of the Chaldees after an attempt on his
life by King Nimrod. His descendants, the Children of Israel, in
the Biblical story (whose historicity is uncertain) undertook the
Exodus (meaning "departure" or "exit" in Greek) from ancient Egypt, as
recorded in the
Book of Exodus.
Centuries later, Assyrian policy was to deport and displace conquered
peoples, and it is estimated some 4,500,000 among captive populations
suffered this dislocation over 3 centuries of Assyrian rule. With
regard to Israel,
Tiglath-Pileser III claims he deported 80% of the
population of Lower Galilee, some 13,520 people. Some 27,000
Israelites, 20–25% of the population of the Kingdom of Israel, were
described as being deported by Sargon II, and were replaced by other
deported populations and sent into permanent exile by Assyria,
initially to the Upper Mesopotamian provinces of the Assyrian
Empire, Between 10,000 and 80,000 people from the Kingdom of
Judah were similarly exiled by Babylonia, but these people were
then returned to
Cyrus the Great
Cyrus the Great of the Persian Achaemenid
Jews were exiled again by the Roman Empire. The 2,000 year
dispersion of the
Jewish diaspora beginning under the Roman
Empire, as
Jews were spread throughout the Roman
world and, driven from land to land, settled wherever
they could live freely enough to practice their religion. Over the
course of the diaspora the center of Jewish life moved from
Babylonia to the Iberian Peninsula to Poland to the
United States and, as a result of Zionism, back to Israel.
There were also many expulsions of
Jews during the
Middle Ages and
Enlightenment in Europe, including: 1290, 16,000
Jews were expelled
from England, see the (Statute of Jewry); in 1396, 100,000 from
France; in 1421 thousands were expelled from Austria. Many of
Jews settled in Eastern Europe, especially Poland.
Spanish Inquisition in 1492, the Spanish population of
around 200,000 Sephardic
Jews were expelled by the Spanish crown and
Catholic church, followed by expulsions in 1493 in Sicily (37,000
Portugal in 1496. The expelled
Jews fled mainly to the
Ottoman Empire, the Netherlands, and North Africa, others migrating to
Europe and the Middle East.
During the 19th century, France's policies of equal citizenship
regardless of religion led to the immigration of
Jews (especially from
Eastern and Central Europe). This contributed to the arrival of
Jews in the New World. Over two million Eastern European
Jews arrived in the
United States from 1880 to 1925.
In summary, the pogroms in Eastern Europe, the rise of modern
antisemitism, the Holocaust, and the rise of Arab
nationalism all served to fuel the movements and migrations of
huge segments of Jewry from land to land and continent to continent,
until they arrived back in large numbers at their original historical
homeland in Israel.
In the latest phase of migrations, the Islamic Revolution of Iran
Iranian Jews to flee Iran. Most found refuge in the US
Los Angeles, California
Los Angeles, California and Long Island, New York) and
Israel. Smaller communities of Persian
Jews exist in
Western Europe. Similarly, when the
Soviet Union collapsed, many
Jews in the affected territory (who had been refuseniks) were
suddenly allowed to leave. This produced a wave of migration to Israel
in the early 1990s.
A man praying at the Western Wall
Israel is the only country with a
Jewish population that is
consistently growing through natural population growth, although the
Jewish populations of other countries, in
Europe and North America,
have recently increased through immigration. In the Diaspora, in
almost every country the
Jewish population in general is either
declining or steady, but Orthodox and
Haredi Jewish communities, whose
members often shun birth control for religious reasons, have
experienced rapid population growth.
Orthodox and Conservative
Judaism discourage proselytism to non-Jews,
but many Jewish groups have tried to reach out to the assimilated
Jewish communities of the Diaspora in order for them to reconnect to
their Jewish roots. Additionally, while in principle Reform Judaism
favors seeking new members for the faith, this position has not
translated into active proselytism, instead taking the form of an
effort to reach out to non-Jewish spouses of intermarried
There is also a trend of Orthodox movements pursuing secular
order to give them a stronger
Jewish identity so there is less chance
of intermarriage. As a result of the efforts by these and other Jewish
groups over the past 25 years, there has been a trend (known as the
Baal teshuva movement) for secular
Jews to become more religiously
observant, though the demographic implications of the trend are
unknown. Additionally, there is also a growing rate of conversion
Jews by Choice
Jews by Choice of gentiles who make the decision to head in the
direction of becoming Jews.
For a more comprehensive list, see Lists of Jews.
Jews have made a myriad of contributions to humanity in a broad and
diverse range of fields, including the sciences, arts, politics, and
Jews comprise only 0.2% of the world's
population, over 20% of Nobel Prize
laureates have been Jewish or of Jewish descent, with multiple winners
in each category.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Dashefsky, Arnold;
DellaPergola, Sergio; Sheskin, Ira, eds. (2017). World Jewish
Population, 2016 (Report). Berman Jewish DataBank. Retrieved 12 June
^ Monthly Bulletin of Statistics (Report).
Israel Central Bureau of
Statistics. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
^ An estimated figure, the following sources claim the number to be
either slightly higher or lower:
"American Jewish Population Estimates: 2012" (PDF). Brandeis
University – Steinhardt Social Research Institute: 7. Retrieved 21
"Jewish Population in the United States, by State". JVL. Retrieved 21
Naomi Zeveloff (17 January 2012). "U.S. Jewish Population Pegged at 6
Million". Forward. Retrieved 5 February 2013.
American Jewish Year
Book 2012 – Google Books
US Jewish Population is Anywhere Between 5.425 Million and 6.722
Million – Gestetner Updates
"A portrait of Jewish Americans Chapter 1: Population Estimates". Pew
Research Center. 1 October 2013. Retrieved 7 October 2013. Combining
5.3 million adult
Jews (the estimated size of the net Jewish
population in this survey) with 1.3 million children (in
households with a Jewish adult who are being raised Jewish or partly
Jewish) yields a total estimate of 6.7 million
Jews of all ages
United States (rounded to the nearest 100,000).
DellaPergola, Sergio (6 October 2013). "Bigger Population Estimate
Means Wider Definition of Jewishness". The Jewish Daily Forward.
Retrieved 7 October 2013.
^ a b c "Links". Beth Hatefutsoth. Archived from the original on 26
March 2009. Retrieved 2 April 2012.
^ Kiaris, Hippokratis (2012). Genes, Polymorphisms and the Making of
Societies: How Genetic Behavioral Traits Influence Human Cultures.
Universal Publishers (published 1 April 2012). p. 21.
^ a b c d Shen, P; Lavi, T; Kivisild, T; Chou, V; Sengun, D; Gefel, D;
Shpirer, I; Woolf, E; Hillel, J (2004). "Reconstruction of
patrilineages and matrilineages of
Samaritans and other Israeli
populations from Y-chromosome and mitochondrial DNA sequence
variation" (PDF). Human Mutation. 24 (3): 248–60.
doi:10.1002/humu.20077. PMID 15300852.
^ a b Ridolfo, Jim (2015). Digital Samaritans: Rhetorical Delivery and
Engagement in the Digital Humanities. University of Michigan Press
(published 16 September 2015). p. 69.
^ Wade, Nicholas (9 June 2010). "Studies Show Jews' Genetic
Similarity". New York Times.
^ Nebel, Almut; Filon, Dvora; Weiss, Deborah A.; Weale, Michael;
Faerman, Marina; Oppenheim, Ariella; Thomas, Mark G. (2000).
Y chromosome haplotypes of Israeli and Palestinian
Arabs reveal geographic substructure and substantial overlap with
haplotypes of Jews" (PDF). Human Genetics. 107 (6): 630–41.
doi:10.1007/s004390000426. PMID 11153918.
^ a b "
Jews Are The Genetic Brothers Of Palestinians, Syrians, And
Lebanese". Sciencedaily.com. 9 May 2000. Retrieved 12 April
^ a b Atzmon, G; Hao, L; Pe'Er, I; Velez, C; Pearlman, A; Palamara,
PF; Morrow, B; Friedman, E; Oddoux, C (2010). "Abraham's Children in
the Genome Era: Major Jewish Diaspora Populations Comprise Distinct
Genetic Clusters with Shared Middle Eastern Ancestry". American
Journal of Human Genetics. 86 (6): 850–59.
doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2010.04.015. PMC 3032072 .
^ a b
Ethnic minorities in English law. Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved on 23
Edgar Litt (1961). "Jewish Ethno-Religious Involvement and Political
Liberalism". Social Forces. 39 (4): 328–32. doi:10.2307/2573430.
Craig R. Prentiss (1 June 2003).
Religion and the Creation of Race and
Ethnicity: An Introduction. NYU Press. pp. 85–.
The Avraham Harman Institute of Contemporary Jewry The Hebrew
Jerusalem Eli Lederhendler Stephen S. Wise Professor of
American Jewish History and Institutions (30 November 2001). Studies
in Contemporary Jewry : Volume XVII: Who Owns Judaism? Public
Religion and Private Faith in America and Israel: Volume XVII: Who
Owns Judaism? Public
Religion and Private Faith in America and Israel.
Oxford University Press, USA. pp. 101–.
Ernest Krausz; Gitta Tulea. Jewish Survival: The Identity Problem at
the Close of the Twentieth Century ; [... International Workshop
at Bar-Ilan University on the 18th and 19th of March, 1997].
Transaction Publishers. pp. 90–.
John A. Shoup III (17 October 2011). Ethnic Groups of Africa and the
Middle East: An Encyclopedia: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 133.
Tet-Lim N. Yee (10 March 2005). Jews,
Gentiles and Ethnic
Jewish identity and Ephesians. Cambridge
University Press. pp. 102–. ISBN 978-1-139-44411-8.
^ a b M. Nicholson (2002). International Relations: A Concise
Introduction. NYU Press. pp. 19–.
ISBN 978-0-8147-5822-9. "The
Jews are a nation and were so
before there was a
Jewish state of Israel"
^ a b
Jacob Neusner (1991). An Introduction to Judaism: A Textbook and
Reader. Westminster John Knox Press. pp. 375–.
ISBN 978-0-664-25348-6. "That there is a Jewish nation can
hardly be denied after the creation of the State of Israel"
^ a b Alan Dowty (30 January 1998). The Jewish State: A Century Later,
Updated With a New Preface. University of California Press.
pp. 3–. ISBN 978-0-520-92706-3. "
Jews are a people,
a nation (in the original sense of the word), an ethnos"
^ Raymond P. Scheindlin (1998). A Short History of the Jewish People:
From Legendary Times to Modern Statehood. Oxford University Press.
pp. 1–. ISBN 978-0-19-513941-9.
and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of
Jewish history is the
age of the Israelites"
^ Facts On File, Incorporated (2009). Encyclopedia of the Peoples of
Africa and the Middle East. Infobase Publishing. pp. 337–.
ISBN 978-1-4381-2676-0. "The people of the Kingdom of Israel
and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that
descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced
migrations in their history"
Harry Ostrer MD (10 August 2012). Legacy: A Genetic History of the
Jewish People. Oxford University Press. pp. 26–.
^ "In the broader sense of the term, a Jew is any person belonging to
the worldwide group that constitutes, through descent or conversion, a
continuation of the ancient Jewish people, who were themselves
descendants of the
Hebrews of the Old Testament." Jew at Encyclopædia
^ "Hebrew, any member of an ancient northern
Semitic people that were
the ancestors of the Jews." Hebrew (People) at Encyclopædia
^ Tet-Lim N. Yee (10 March 2005). Jews,
Gentiles and Ethnic
Jewish identity and Ephesians. Cambridge
University Press. pp. 102–. ISBN 978-1-139-44411-8.
"This identification in the Jewish attitude between the ethnic group
and religious identity is so close that the reception into this
religion of members not belonging to its ethnic group has become
^ "Facts About Israel: History". GxMSDev.
^ a b K. L. Noll,
Israel in Antiquity: A Textbook on
History and Religion, A&C Black, 2012, rev.ed. pp.137ff.
^ a b Thomas L. Thompson, Early History of the
Israelite People: From
the Written & Archaeological Sources, BRILL, 2000 pp. 275–76:
'They are rather a very specific group among the population of
Palestine which bears a name that occurs here for the first time that
at a much later stage in Palestine's history bears a substantially
^ John Day, [In Search of Pre-Exilic Israel,] Bloomsbury Publishing,
2005 pp. 47.5 p.48:'In this sense, the emergence of ancient
viewed not as the cause of the demise of Canaanite culture but as its
^ Day, pp. 31–33, p.57.n.33.
^ Rainer Albertz,
Israel in Exile: The History and Literature of the
Sixth Century B.C.E. Society of Biblical Lit, 2003 pp. 45ff: 'Since
the exilic era constitutes a gaping hole in the historical narrative
of the Bible, historical reconstruction of this era faces almost
insurmountable difficulties. Like the premonarchic period and the late
Persian period, the exilic period, though set in the bright light of
Ancient Near Eastern history, remains historically obscure. Since
there are very few
Israelite sources, the only recourse is to try to
cast some light on this darkness from the history of the surrounding
empires under whose dominion
Israel came in this period.'
Marvin Perry (1 January 2012). Western Civilization: A Brief History,
Volume I: To 1789. Cengage Learning. p. 87.
Botticini, Maristella and Zvi Eckstein. "From Farmers to Merchants,
Voluntary Conversions and Diaspora: A Human Capital Interpretation of
History." pp. 18–19. August 2006. Accessed 21 November 2015. "The
death toll of the Great Revolt against the Roman empire amounted to
about 600,000 Jews, whereas the
Bar Kokhba revolt
Bar Kokhba revolt in 135 caused the
death of about 500,000 Jews. Massacres account for roughly 40 percent
of the decrease of the
Jewish population in Palestine. Moreover, some
Jews migrated to
Babylon after these revolts because of the worse
economic conditions. After accounting for massacres and migrations,
there is an additional 30 to 40 percent of the decrease in the Jewish
population in Palestine (about 1–1.3 million Jews) to be explained"
Boyarin, Daniel, and Jonathan Boyarin. 2003. Diaspora: Generation and
the Ground of Jewish Diaspora. p. 714 "...it is crucial to recognize
that the Jewish conception of the Land of
Israel is similar to the
discourse of the Land of many (if not nearly all) "indigenous" peoples
of the world. Somehow the
Jews have managed to retain a sense of being
rooted somewhere in the world through twenty centuries of exile from
that someplace (organic metaphors are not out of place in this
discourse, for they are used within the tradition itself). It is
profoundly disturbing to hear Jewish attachment to the Land decried as
regressive in the same discursive situations in which the attachment
of native Americans or Australians to their particular rocks, trees,
and deserts is celebrated as an organic connection to the Earth that
"we" have lost" p. 714.
Cohen, Robin. 1997. Global Diasporas: An Introduction. p. 24 London:
UCL Press. "...although the word
Babylon often connotes captivity and
oppression, a rereading of the Babylonian period of exile can thus be
shown to demonstrate the development of a new creative energy in a
challenging, pluralistic context outside the natal homeland. When the
Romans destroyed the
Second Temple in AD 70, it was
remained as the nerve- and brain-centre for Jewish life and
thought...the crushing of the revolt of the Judaeans against the
Romans and the destruction of the
Second Temple by the Roman general
Titus in AD 70 precisely confirmed the catastrophic tradition. Once
Jews had been unable to sustain a national homeland and were
scattered to the far corners of the world" (p. 24).
Johnson, Paul A History of the
Jews "The Bar Kochba Revolt,"
(HarperPerennial, 1987) pp. 158–61.: Paul Johnson analyzes Cassius
Dio's Roman History: Epitome of
Book LXIX para. 13–14 (Dio's passage
cited separately) among other sources: "Even if Dio's figures are
somewhat exaggerated, the casualties amongst the population and the
destruction inflicted on the country would have been considerable.
According to Jerome, many
Jews were also sold into slavery, so many,
indeed, that the price of Jewish slaves at the slave market in Hebron
sank drastically to a level no greater than that for a horse. The
economic structure of the country was largely destroyed. The entire
spiritual and economic life of the Palestinian
Jews moved to Galilee.
Jerusalem was now turned into a Roman colony with the official name
Colonia Aelia Capitolina (Aelia after Hadrian's family name: P. Aelius
Hadrianus; Capitolina after Jupiter Capitolinus). The
forbidden on pain of death to set foot in the new Roman city. Aelia
thus became a completely pagan city, no doubt with the corresponding
public buildings and temples...We can...be certain that a statue of
Hadrian was erected in the centre of Aelia, and this was tantamount in
itself to a desecration of Jewish Jerusalem." p. 159.
Cassius Dio's Roman History: Epitome of
Book LXIX para. 13–14: "13
At first the Romans took no account of them. Soon, however, all Judaea
had been stirred up, and the
Jews everywhere were showing signs of
disturbance, were gathering together, and giving evidence of great
hostility to the Romans, partly by secret and partly by overt acts; 2
many outside nations, too, were joining them through eagerness for
gain, and the whole earth, one might almost say, was being stirred up
over the matter. Then, indeed, Hadrian sent against them his best
generals. First of these was Julius Severus, who was dispatched from
Britain, where he was governor, against the Jews. 3 Severus did not
venture to attack his opponents in the open at any one point, in view
of their numbers and their desperation, but by intercepting small
groups, thanks to the number of his soldiers and his under-officers,
and by depriving them of food and shutting them up, he was able,
rather slowly, to be sure, but with comparatively little danger, to
crush, exhaust and exterminate them. Very few of them in fact
survived. Fifty of their most important outposts and nine hundred and
eighty-five of their most famous villages were razed to the ground.
Five hundred and eighty thousand men were slain in the various raids
and battles, and the number of those that perished by famine, disease
and fire was past finding out. 2 Thus nearly the whole of Judaea was
made desolate, a result of which the people had had forewarning before
the war. For the tomb of Solomon, which the
Jews regard as an object
of veneration, fell to pieces of itself and collapsed, and many wolves
and hyenas rushed howling into their cities. 3 Many Romans, moreover,
perished in this war. Therefore Hadrian in writing to the senate did
not employ the opening phrase commonly affected by the emperors, 'If
you and our children are in health, it is well; I and the legions are
in health'" (para. 13–14).
Safran, William. 2005. The Jewish Diaspora in a Comparative and
Israel Studies 10 (1): 36.[dead link]
"...diaspora referred to a very specific case—that of the exile of
Jews from the Holy Land and their dispersal throughout several
parts of the globe. Diaspora [ galut] connoted deracination, legal
disabilities, oppression, and an often painful adjustment to a
hostland whose hospitality was unreliable and ephemeral. It also
connoted the existence on foreign soil of an expatriate community that
considered its presence to be transitory. Meanwhile, it developed a
set of institutions, social patterns, and ethnonational and/or
religious symbols that held it together. These included the language,
religion, values, social norms, and narratives of the homeland.
Gradually, this community adjusted to the hostland environment and
became itself a center of cultural creation. All the while, however,
it continued to cultivate the idea of return to the homeland." (p.
Sheffer, Gabriel. 2005. Is the Jewish Diaspora Unique? Reflections on
the Diaspora's Current Situation.
Israel Studies 10 (1): pp. 3–4.
"...the Jewish nation, which from its very earliest days believed and
claimed that it was the "chosen people," and hence unique. This
attitude has further been buttressed by the equally traditional view,
which is held not only by the
Jews themselves, about the exceptional
historical age of this diaspora, its singular traumatic experiences
its singular ability to survive pogroms, exiles, and Holocaust, as
well as its "special relations" with its ancient homeland, culminating
in 1948 with the nation-state that the Jewish nation has established
there... First, like many other members of established diasporas, the
vast majority of
Jews no longer regard themselves as being in Galut
[exile] in their host countries.7 Perceptually, as well as actually,
Jews permanently reside in host countries of their own free will, as a
result of inertia, or as a result of problematic conditions prevailing
in other hostlands, or in Israel. It means that the basic perception
Jews about their existential situation in their hostlands has
changed. Consequently, there is both a much greater self- and
collective-legitimatization to refrain from making serious plans
concerning "return" or actually "making Aliyah" [to emigrate, or "go
up"] to Israel. This is one of the results of their wider, yet still
rather problematic and sometimes painful acceptance by the societies
and political systems in their host countries. It means that they, and
to an extent their hosts, do not regard Jewish life within the
framework of diasporic formations in these hostlands as something that
they should be ashamed of, hide from others, or alter by returning to
the old homeland" (p. 4).
Davies, William David; Finkelstein, Louis; Katz, Steven T. (1 January
1984). The Cambridge History of Judaism: Volume 4, The Late
Roman-Rabbinic Period. Cambridge University Press.
ISBN 9780521772488. Although Dio's figure of 985 as the number of
villages destroyed during the war seems hyperbolic, all Judaean
villages, without exception, excavated thus far were razed following
the Bar Kochba Revolt. This evidence supports the impression of total
regional destruction following the war. Historical sources note the
vast number of captives sold into slavery in Palestine and shipped
abroad. ... The Judaean Jewish community never recovered from the Bar
Kochba war. In its wake,
Jews no longer formed the majority in
Palestine, and the Jewish center moved to the Galilee.
Jews were also
subjected to a series of religious edicts promulgated by Hadrian that
were designed to uproot the nationalistic elements with the Judaean
Jewish community, these proclamations remained in effect until
Hadrian's death in 138. An additional, more lasting punitive measure
taken by the Romans involved expunging Judaea from the provincial
name, changing it from Provincia Judaea to Provincia
Although such name changes occurred elsewhere, never before or after
was a nation's name expunged as the result of rebellion.
Dalit Rom-Shiloni, Exclusive Inclusivity: Identity Conflicts Between
the Exiles and the People who Remained (6th–5th Centuries BCE),
A&C Black, 2013 p. xv n.3: 'it is argued that biblical texts of
the Neo-Babylonian and the early Persian periods show a fierce
adversarial relationship(s) between the Judean groups. We find no
expressions of sympathy to the deported community for its dislocation,
no empathic expressions towards the People Who Remained under
Babylonian subjugation in Judah. The opposite is apparent: hostile,
denigrating, and denunciating language characterizes the relationships
between resident and exiled
Judeans throughout the sixth and fifth
centuries.' (p. xvii)
^ a b "The Jewish Population of the World (2014)". Jewish Virtual
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^ "Holocaust Basic questions about the Holocaust".
www.projetaladin.org. Retrieved 10 November 2015.
^ "The Holocaust". HISTORY.com. Retrieved 10 November 2015.
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^ Pfeffer, Anshel (12 September 2007). "Jewish Agency: 13.2 million
Jews worldwide on eve of Rosh Hashanah, 5768". Haaretz. Archived from
the original on 19 March 2009. Retrieved 24 January 2009.
^ A 1970 amendment to Israel's
Law of Return
Law of Return defines "Jew" as "a
person who was born of a Jewish mother or has become converted to
Judaism and who is not a member of another religion." "Law of
^ "Maimonides – Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy". utm.edu.
Retrieved 26 August 2015.
^ Sekine, Seizō. A Comparative Study of the Origins of Ethical
Thought: Hellenism and Hebraism. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield,
^ a b c d e Jonathan Daly (19 December 2013). The Rise of Western
Power: A Comparative History of Western Civilization. A&C Black.
pp. 21–. ISBN 978-1-4411-1851-6. "Upon the foundation
of Judaism, two civilizations centered on monotheistic religion
Christianity and Islam. To these civilizations, the Jews
added a leaven of astonishing creativity in business, medicine,
letters, science, the arts, and a variety of other leadership roles."
^ "Broadway Musicals: A Jewish Legacy". DC Theatre Scene.
^ Roni Caryn Rabin Exhibition Traces the emergence of
Jews as medical
The New York Times
The New York Times (14 May 2012). Accessed 16 August 2015.
^ Shatzmiller, Joseph. Doctors to Princes and Paupers: Jews, Medicine,
and Medieval Society. Berkeley: U of California, 1995. Print.
Max I. Dimont
Max I. Dimont (1 June 2004). Jews, God, and History. Penguin
Publishing Group. pp. 102–.
ISBN 978-1-101-14225-7. "During the subsequent five hundred
years, under Persian, Greek and Roman domination, the
revised, admitted and canonized all the books now comprising the
Jewish Old Testament"
^ Julie Galambush (14 June 2011). The Reluctant Parting: How the New
Testament's Jewish Writers Created a
Christian Book. HarperCollins.
pp. 3–. ISBN 978-0-06-210475-5. "The fact that Jesus
and his followers who wrote the
New Testament were first-century Jews,
then, produces as many questions as it does answers concerning their
experiences, beliefs, and practices"
^ John M. G. Barclay; John Philip McMurdo Sweet (28 June 1996). Early
Christian Thought in Its Jewish Context. Cambridge University Press.
pp. 20–. ISBN 978-0-521-46285-3. "Early Christianity
began as a Jewish movement in first-century Palestine"
^ Dr. Andrea C. Paterson (21 May 2009). Three Monotheistic Faiths –
Judaism, Christianity, Islam: An Analysis and Brief History.
AuthorHouse. pp. 41–.
ISBN 978-1-4520-3049-4. "
Judaism also contributed to the
Islam derives its ideas of holy text, the
Qur'an, ultimately from Judaism. The dietary and legal codes of Islam
are based on those of Judaism. The basic design of the mosque, the
Islamic house of worship, comes from that of the early synagogues. The
communal prayer services of
Islam and their devotional routines
resembles those of Judaism."
^ Cambridge University Historical Series, An Essay on Western
Civilization in Its Economic Aspects, p.40: Hebraism, like Hellenism,
has been an all-important factor in the development of Western
Civilization; Judaism, as the precursor of Christianity, has
indirectly had had much to do with shaping the ideals and morality of
western nations since the christian era.
^ Role of
Judaism in Western culture and civilization, "
played a significant role in the development of Western culture
because of its unique relationship with Christianity, the dominant
religious force in the West".
Judaism at Encyclopædia Britannica
^ Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and the Middle East, Facts On
File Inc., Infobase Publishing, 2009, p.336
^ "Jew", Oxford English Dictionary.
^ Botterweck, G. Johannes; Ringgren, Helmer, eds. (1986). Theological
Dictionary of the Old Testament. V. Translated by Green,
Grand Rapids, Mich.: William B. Eerdmans. pp. 483–484.
^ Grintz, Yehoshua M. (2007). "Jew". In Fred Skolnik. Encyclopaedia
Judaica. 11 (2d ed.). Farmington Hills, Mich.: Thomson Gale.
p. 253. ISBN 0-02-865928-7.
^ Falk, Avner (1996). A Psychoanalytic History of the Jews. Madison,
N.J.: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. p. 131.
^ "Yiddish". Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary (11th ed.).
Springfield, Massachusetts: Merriam-Webster. 2004. p. 1453.
^ "Jew". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language.
Archived from the original on August 5, 2011. Retrieved 2 April
^ Brandeis, Louis (25 April 1915). "The Jewish Problem: How To Solve
It". University of Louisville School of Law. Retrieved 2 April 2012.
Jews are a distinctive nationality of which every Jew, whatever his
country, his station or shade of belief, is necessarily a member
^ Palmer, Edward Henry (14 October 2002) [First published 1874]. A
History of the Jewish Nation: From the Earliest Times to the Present
Day. Gorgias Press. ISBN 978-1-931956-69-7. OCLC 51578088.
Retrieved 2 April 2012. Lay summary.
^ Einstein, Albert (21 June 1921). "How I Became a Zionist" (PDF).
Einstein Papers Project. Princeton University Press. Retrieved 5 April
2012. The Jewish nation is a living fact
David M. Gordis; Zachary I. Heller (2012). Jewish Secularity: The
Search for Roots and the Challenges of Relevant Meaning. University
Press of America. pp. 1–. ISBN 978-0-7618-5793-8. :
Judaism is a culture and a civilization which embraces the secular as
^ Seth Daniel Kunin (8 February 2000). Themes and Issues in Judaism.
A&C Black. pp. 1–. ISBN 978-0-304-33758-3. :
Although culture - and
Judaism is a culture (or cultures) as well as
religion - can be subdivided into different analytical categories..."
^ Paul R. Mendes-Flohr (1991). Divided Passions: Jewish Intellectuals
and the Experience of Modernity. Wayne State University Press.
pp. 421–. ISBN 0-8143-2030-9. : "Although
a culture - or rather has a culture - it is eminently more than a
^ "What Makes a Jew Jewish?". Chabad.org. Retrieved 2 October
Rebecca (2007). "Who is a Jew?". Jewish Virtual Library.
Retrieved 6 October 2007.
^ Fowler, Jeaneane D. (1997). World Religions: An Introduction for
Students. Sussex Academic Press. p. 7.
^ "What is the origin of Matrilineal Descent?". Shamash.org. 4
September 2003. Retrieved 9 January 2009.
^ "What is the source of the law that a child is Jewish only if its
mother is Jewish?". Torah.org. Archived from the original on 24
December 2008. Retrieved 9 January 2009.
^ a b Emma Klein (27 July 2016). Lost Jews: The Struggle for Identity
Today. Springer. pp. 6–. ISBN 978-1-349-24319-8.
^ Robin May Schott (25 October 2010). Birth, Death, and Femininity:
Philosophies of Embodiment. Indiana University Press. pp. 67–.
^ Dosick (2007), pp. 56–57.
^ a b Shaye J.D. Cohen (1999). The Beginnings of Jewishness. U.
California Press. pp. 305–06. ISBN 0-585-24643-2.
Archaeology Findings Ideology Politics".
^ Ostrer, Harry (2012). Legacy: A Genetic History of the Jewish
Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press (published 8 May 2012).
^ Judah: Hebrew Tribe, Encyclopædia Britannica
^ a b Broshi, Maguen (2001). Bread, Wine, Walls and Scrolls.
Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 174. ISBN 1-84127-201-9.
^ "Judah". Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved 1 April
^ Dever, William (2001). What Did the Biblical Writers Know, and When
Did They Know It?. Eerdmans. pp. 98–99.
ISBN 3-927120-37-5. After a century of exhaustive investigation,
all respectable archaeologists have given up hope of recovering any
context that would make Abraham, Isaac, or
Jacob credible "historical
figures" [...] archaeological investigation of
Moses and the Exodus
has similarly been discarded as a fruitless pursuit.
^ Tubb, 1998. pp. 13–14
^ Mark Smith in "The Early History of God:
Yahweh and Other Deities of
Ancient Israel" states "Despite the long regnant model that the
Israelites were people of fundamentally different
culture, archaeological data now casts doubt on this view. The
material culture of the region exhibits numerous common points between
Canaanites in the Iron I period (c.
1200–1000 BCE). The record would suggest that the Israelite
culture largely overlapped with and derived from Canaanite culture...
Israelite culture was largely Canaanite in nature. Given the
information available, one cannot maintain a radical cultural
Israelites for the Iron I period."
(pp. 6–7). Smith, Mark (2002) "The Early History of God:
Other Deities of Ancient Israel" (Eerdman's)
^ Rendsberg, Gary (2008). "
Israel without the Bible". In Frederick E.
Greenspahn. The Hebrew Bible: New Insights and Scholarship. NYU Press,
^ Spielvogel, Jackson J. (2012). Western civilization (8th ed.).
Australia: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning. p. 33.
ISBN 9780495913245. What is generally agreed, however, is that
between 1200 and 1000 B.C.E., the
Israelites emerged as a distinct
group of people, possibly united into tribes or a league of
^ For a bibliography of scholars who doubt anything like the period of
the Judges ever occurred, see John C. Yoder (1 May 2015). Power and
Politics in the
Book of Judges: Men and Women of Valor. FORTRESS
Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-1-4514-9642-0.
^ Marc Zvi Brettler (2002). The
Book of Judges. Psychology Press.
p. 107. ISBN 978-0-415-16216-6.
Thomas L. Thompson (1 January 2000). Early History of the Israelite
People: From the Written & Archaeological Sources. BRILL.
p. 96. ISBN 90-04-11943-4.
^ Hjelm, Ingrid; Thompson, Thomas L, eds. (2016). History, Archaeology
and The Bible Forty Years After "Historicity": Changing Perspectives.
Routledge. p. 4. ISBN 978-1-317-42815-2.
^ Philip R. Davies (1995). In Search of "Ancient Israel": A Study in
Biblical Origins. A&C Black. p. 26.
^ Lipschits, Oded (2014). "The History of
Israel in the Biblical
Period". In Berlin, Adele; Brettler, Marc Zvi. The Jewish Study Bible
(2nd ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199978465.
^ a b c Finkelstein, Israel; Silberman, Neil Asher (2001). The Bible
unearthed : archaeology's new vision of ancient
Israel and the
origin of its stories (1st Touchstone ed.). New York: Simon &
Schuster. ISBN 0-684-86912-8.
^ a b Kuhrt, Amiele (1995). The Ancient Near East. Routledge.
p. 438. ISBN 978-0415167628.
^ a b Wright,
Jacob L. (July 2014). "David, King of Judah (Not
Israel)". The Bible and Interpretation.
^ Jonathan M Golden,Ancient
Canaan and Israel: An Introduction, OUP
USA, 2009 pp. 3–4.
^ Lemche, Niels Peter (1998). The
Israelites in History and Tradition.
Westminster John Knox Press. p. 35.
^ The Pitcher Is Broken: Memorial Essays for Gosta W. Ahlstrom, Steven
W. Holloway, Lowell K. Handy, Continuum, 1 May 1995 Quote: "For
Israel, the description of the battle of Qarqar in the Kurkh Monolith
of Shalmaneser III (mid-ninth century) and for Judah, a
Tiglath-pileser III text mentioning (Jeho-) Ahaz of Judah (IIR67 = K.
3751), dated 734-733, are the earliest published to date."
^ Julia Phillips Berger, Sue Parker Gerson (2006). Teaching Jewish
History. Behrman House, Inc. p. 41.
ISBN 9780867051834. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
^ The people and the faith of the Bible by André Chouraqui, Univ of
Massachusetts Press, 1975, p. 43 
^ The Hebrews: A Learning Module from Washington State University, ©
Richard Hooker, reprinted by permission by the Jewish Virtual Library
under The Babylonian Exile
^ a b "
Second Temple Period (538 BCE. to 70 CE) Persian Rule".
Biu.ac.il. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
^ Harper's Bible Dictionary, ed. by Achtemeier, etc., Harper &
Row, San Francisco, 1985, p.103
^ a b Becking, Bob (2006). ""We All Returned as One!": Critical Notes
on the Myth of the Mass Return". In Lipschitz, Oded; Oeming, Manfred.
Judah and the
Judeans in the Persian Period. Winona Lake, IN:
Eisenbrauns. p. 8. ISBN 978-1-57506-104-7.
^ a b Grabbe, Lester L. (2004). A History of the
Second Temple Period: Yehud - A History of the Persian Province of
Judah v. 1. T & T Clark. p. 355.
^ Yehud being the Aramaic equivalent of the Hebrew Yehuda, or "Judah",
and "medinata" the word for province
^ Johnson (1987), p. 82.
^ Jared Diamond (1993). "Who are the Jews?" (PDF). Archived from the
original (PDF) on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 8 November 2010.
Natural History 102:11 (November 1993): 12–19.
^ Hammer, MF; Redd, AJ; Wood, ET; et al. (June 2000). "Jewish and
Middle Eastern non-Jewish populations share a common pool of
Y-chromosome biallelic haplotypes". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97
(12): 6769–74. Bibcode:2000PNAS...97.6769H.
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^ Wade, Nicholas (9 May 2000). "Y Chromosome Bears Witness to Story of
the Jewish Diaspora". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 October
^ Genes, Behavior, and the Social Environment:: Moving Beyond the
Nature ...By Committee on Assessing Interactions Among Social,
Behavioral, and Genetic Factors in Health, Board on Health Sciences
Policy, Institute of Medicine, Lyla M. Hernandez P:100
^ Jodi Magness (2011). "Sectarianism before and after 70 CE". In
Daniel R. Schwartz; Zeev Weiss. Was 70 CE a Watershed in Jewish
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Second Temple. BRILL. ISBN 9789004217447.
^ a b c d Mark Avrum Ehrlich, ed. (2009). Encyclopedia of the Jewish
Diaspora: Origins, Experiences, and Culture, Volume 1. ABC-CLIO.
^ מרדכי וורמברנד ובצלאל ס רותת "עם
ישראל – תולדות 4000 שנה – מימי האבות ועד
חוזה השלום", ע"מ 95. (Translation: Mordechai Vermebrand and
Betzalel S. Ruth – "The People of Israel – the history of
4000 years – from the days of the Forefathers to the Peace
Treaty", 1981, p. 95)
^ a b Dr.
Solomon Gryazel, "History of the
Jews – From the
destruction of Judah in 586 BC to the present Arab Israeli
conflict", p. 137
Salo Wittmayer Baron
Salo Wittmayer Baron (1937). A Social and Religious History of the
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History of the Jews. Columbia University Press. p. 132.
Jews in the Hellenistic and Roman Cities. Routledge. London and New
york. 2002. pp. 90, 94, 104–05. ISBN 9780203446348.
^ Leonard Victor Rutgers (1998). The Hidden Heritage of Diaspora
Judaism: Volume 20 of Contributions to biblical exegesis and theology.
Peeters Publishers. p. 202. ISBN 9789042906662.
^ a b c Louis H. Feldman (2006).
Judaism And Hellenism Reconsidered.
^ GOODMAN, MARTIN (26 February 2010). "Secta and natio". The Times
Literary Supplement. Docs.google.com. Retrieved 2 October 2013.
^ "BBC Religions/Converting to Judaism: "A person who converts to
Judaism becomes a Jew in every sense of the word, and is just as
Jewish as someone born into Judaism."". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2 October
^ "Are Converts Treated as Second Class?". InterfaithFamily.
^ "Paul Golin: The Complicated Relationship Between Intermarriage and
Jewish Conversion". Huffingtonpost.com. Retrieved 2 October
^ Neusner (1991) p. 64
^ Patai, Raphael (1996) . The Jewish Mind. Detroit: Wayne State
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^ Johnson, Lonnie R. (1996). Central Europe: Enemies, Neighbors,
Friends. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 145.
^ a b Sharot (1997), pp. 29–30.
^ Sharot (1997), pp. 42–43.
^ Sharot (1997), p. 42.
^ Fishman, Sylvia Barack (2000). Jewish Life and American Culture.
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^ Kimmerling, Baruch (1996). The Israeli State and Society: Boundaries
and Frontiers. Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press.
p. 169. ISBN 0-88706-849-9.
^ Lowenstein, Steven M. (2000). The Jewish Cultural Tapestry:
International Jewish Folk Traditions. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
p. 228. ISBN 0-19-513425-7.
^ a b Grintz, Jehoshua M. (March 1960). "Hebrew as the Spoken and
Written Language in the Last Days of the Second Temple". Journal of
Biblical Literature. The Society of Biblical Literature. 79 (1):
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^ Feldman (2006), p. 54.
^ Parfitt, T. V. (1972). "The Use Of Hebrew In Palestine 1800–1822".
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Israel and the United States: Friends, Partners, Allies" (PDF).
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on 13 October 2011. Retrieved 2 April 2012.
^ Nava Nevo (2001). International Handbook of Jewish Education.
Springer. p. 428. ISBN 9789400703544. In contrast to other
peoples who are masters of their national languages, Hebrew is not the
'common possession' of all Jewish people, and it mainly—if not
exclusively—lives and breathes in Israel.... Although there are
oases of Hebrew in certain schools, it has not become the Jewish
lingua franca and English is rapidly taking its place as the Jewish
people's language of communication. Even Hebrew-speaking Israeli
representatives tend to use English in their public appearances at
international Jewish conventions.
^ Chaya Herman (2006). Prophets and Profits: Managerialism and the
Restructuring of Jewish Schools in South Africa. HSRC Press.
p. 121. ISBN 9780796921147. It is English rather than Hebrew
that emerged as the lingua franca of the
Jews towards the late 20th
century.... This phenomenon occurred despite efforts to make Hebrew a
language of communication, and despite the fact that the teaching of
Hebrew was considered the raison d'être of the Jewish day schools and
the 'nerve center' of Jewish learning.
^ Elana Shohamy (2010). Negotiating Language Policy in Schools:
Educators as Policymakers. Routledge. p. 185.
ISBN 9781135146214. This priority given to English is related to
the special relationship between
Israel and the United States, and the
current status of English as a lingua franca for
^ Elan Ezrachi (2012). Dynamic Belonging: Contemporary Jewish
Collective Identities. Bergahn Books. p. 214.
ISBN 9780857452580. As Stephen P. Cohen observes: 'English is the
language of Jewish universal discourse.'
^ "Jewish Languages – How Do We
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^ Gartner (2001), pp. 410–10.
^ "Исследование: Около 1,5 млн людей с
еврейскими корнями проживают в
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^ The Rebirth of the Middle East, Jerry M. Rosenberg, Hamilton Books,
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^ Reeva S. Simon, Michael M. Laskier, Sara Reguer, The
Jews of the
Middle East and
North Africa in Modern Times, 2003, p. 327="Before the
1940s only two communities,
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^ a b Johnson (1987), p. 171.
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^ Goldenberg (2007), pp. 131, 135–36.
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^ Carroll, James.
Constantine's Sword (Houghton Mifflin, 2001)
ISBN 0-395-77927-8 p. 26
^ a b Johnson (1987), pp. 207–08.
^ a b Johnson (1987), pp. 213, 229–31.
^ Johnson (1987), pp. 243–44.
^ a b Lewis (1984), pp. 10, 20
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and Intolerance: Paternal Lineages of Christians, Jews, and Muslims in
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^ "DNA study shows 20 percent of Iberian population has Jewish
ancestry". The New York Times. 4 December 2008.
^ "The Genetic Legacy of Religious Diversity and Intolerance: Paternal
Lineages of Christians, Jews, and Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula".
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^ Johnson (1987), p. 512.
^ "History of the Holocaust – An Introduction".
Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. 19 April 1943. Retrieved 13 November
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^ Donald L Niewyk, The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust, Columbia
University Press, 2000, p. 45: "
The Holocaust is commonly defined as
the murder of more than 5,000,000
Jews by the Germans in World War
II." However, the Holocaust usually includes all of the different
victims who were systematically murdered.
^ Johnson (1987), pp. 484–88.
^ Johnson (1987), pp. 490–92.
^ "Ukrainian mass Jewish grave found". BBC News Online. 5 June 2007.
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^ Johnson (1987), pp. 493–98.
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^ de Lange (2002), pp. 41–43.
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^ Hirsch, Emil G.; Seligsohn, Max; Bacher, Wilhelm
(1901–1906). "NIMROD". In Singer, Isidore; et al. Jewish
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^ a b Daniel L. Smith-Christopher,The
Religion of the Landless: The
Social Context of the Babylonian Exile , Wipf and Stock Publishers,
2015 pp. 30ff.
^ Baruch Halpern, in Jerrold S. Cooper, Glenn M. Schwartz (eds.), The
Study of the
Ancient Near East
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William Foxwell Albright Centennial Conference, Eisenbrauns, 1996 p.
^ Megan Bishop Moore, Brad E. Kelle, Biblical History and
Past: The Changing Study of the Bible and History, Wm. B. Eerdmans
Publishing, 2011 p. 307.
Sarah J. Dille, Mixing Metaphors: God as Mother and Father in
Deutero-Isaiah, A&C Black, 2004 p. 81
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^ a b Gartner (2001), p. 431.
^ Gartner (2001), pp. 11–12.
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^ Netzer, Amnon (2007). "Iran". In Fred Skolnik. Encyclopaedia
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^ Gartner (2001), pp. 400–01.
^ Kaplan (2003), p. 301.
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^ de Lange (2002), p. 220.
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^ Shalev, Baruch (2005). 100 Years of Nobel Prizes. p. 57. A
striking fact... is the high number of Laureates of the Jewish
faith—over 20% of the total Nobel Prizes (138); including: 17% in
Chemistry, 26% in Medicine and Physics, 40% in Economics and 11% in
Peace and Literature each. These numbers are especially startling in
light of the fact that only some 14 million people (0.2% of the
world's population) are Jewish.
^ Dobbs, Stephen Mark (12 October 2001). "As the
Nobel Prize marks
Jews constitute 1/5 of laureates". j. Retrieved 3 April
2012. Throughout the 20th century, Jews, more so than any other
minority, ethnic or cultural group, have been recipients of the Nobel
Prize – perhaps the most distinguished award for human endeavor in
the six fields for which it is given. Remarkably,
almost one-fifth of all Nobel laureates. This, in a world in which
Jews number just a fraction of 1 percent of the population.
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^ Ted Falcon;
David Blatner (2001). "28".
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Wiley & Sons. Similarly, because
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of one percent of the world's population, it's surprising that over 20
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^ Lawrence E. Harrison (2008). The Central Liberal Truth: How Politics
Can Change a
Culture and Save It. Oxford University Press.
p. 102. That achievement is symbolized by the fact that 15 to 20
percent of Nobel Prizes have been won by Jews, who represent two
tenths of one percent of the world's population.
^ Jonathan B. Krasner; Jonathan D. Sarna (2006). The History of the
Jewish People: Ancient
Israel to 1880's America. Behrman House, Inc.
p. 1. These accomplishments account for 20 percent of the Nobel
Prizes awarded since 1901. What a feat for a people who make up only
.2 percent of the world's population!
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