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Aquaculture
Aquaculture (less commonly spelled aquiculture[2]), also known as aquafarming, is the farming of fish, crustaceans, molluscs, aquatic plants, algae, and other organisms. Aquaculture involves cultivating freshwater and saltwater populations under controlled conditions, and can be contrasted with commercial fishing, which is the harvesting of wild fish.[3] Mariculture refers to aquaculture practiced in marine environments and in underwater habitats. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), aquaculture "is understood to mean the farming of aquatic organisms including fish, molluscs, crustaceans and aquatic plants. Farming implies some form of intervention in the rearing process to enhance production, such as regular stocking, feeding, protection from predators, etc
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Catch Per Unit Effort
In fisheries and conservation biology, the catch per unit effort (CPUE) is an indirect measure of the abundance of a target species. Changes in the catch per unit effort are inferred to signify changes to the target species' true abundance. A decreasing CPUE indicates overexploitation, while an unchanging CPUE indicates sustainable harvesting.[1] CPUE has a number of advantages over other methods of measuring abundance. It does not interfere with routine harvesting operations, and data are easily collected. The data are also easy to analyse, even for non-specialists, in contrast to methods based on transects
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Wild Fisheries
A fishery is an area with an associated fish or aquatic population which is harvested for its commercial value. Fisheries can be marine (saltwater) or freshwater. They can also be wild or farmed. Wild fisheries are sometimes called capture fisheries. The aquatic life they support is not controlled in any meaningful way and needs to be "captured" or fished. Wild fisheries exist primarily in the oceans, and particularly around coasts and continental shelves. They also exist in lakes and rivers. Issues with wild fisheries are overfishing and pollution. Significant wild fisheries have collapsed or are in danger of collapsing, due to overfishing and pollution
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Shifting Baseline
A shifting baseline (also known as sliding baseline) is a type of change to how a system is measured, usually against previous reference points (baselines), which themselves may represent significant changes from an even earlier state of the system. The concept arose in landscape architect Ian McHarg's 1969 manifesto Design With Nature[1] in which the modern landscape is compared to that on which ancient people once lived. The concept was then considered by the fisheries scientist Daniel Pauly in his paper "Anecdotes and the shifting baseline syndrome of fisheries".[2] Pauly developed the concept in reference to fisheries management where fisheries scientists sometimes fail to identify the correct "baseline" population size (e.g. how abundant a fish species population was before human exploitation) and thus work with a shifted baseline
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Fish Mortality
Fish mortality is a parameter used in fisheries population dynamics to account for the loss of fish in a fish stock through death. The mortality can be divided into two types: (M) and (F) are additive instantaneous rates that sum up to (Z), the instantaneous total mortality coefficient; that is, Z=M+F.[2] These rates are usually calculated on an annual basis. Estimates of fish mortality rates are often included in mathematical yield models to predict yield levels obtained under various exploitation scenarios. These are used as resource management indices or in bioeconomic studies of fisheries.

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  • Otolith Microchemical Analysis
    Otolith microchemical analysis is a technique used in fisheries management and fisheries biology to delineate stocks and characterize movements, and natal origin of fish. The concentrations of elements and isotopes in otoliths are compared to those in the water in which the fish inhabits in order to identify where it has been. In non-ostariophysian fishes, the largest of the three otoliths, or ear bones, the sagitta is analyzed by one of several methods to determine the concentrations of various trace elements and stable isotopes. In ostariophysian fishes, the lapilli is the largest otolith and may be more commonly analysed. Fisheries management requires intimate knowledge of fish life history traits. Migration patterns and spawning areas are key life history traits in the management of many species. If a fish is migrating between two regions that are managed separately then it will be managed as two separate stocks unless this migration can be understood
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