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Scythians
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe
Steppe
culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cerna
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Early Triassic
The Early Triassic
Triassic
is the first of three epochs of the Triassic
Triassic
Period of the geologic timescale. It spans the time between 251.902 Ma and 247.2 Ma (million years ago). Rocks from this epoch are collectively known as the Lower Triassic, which is a unit in chronostratigraphy. The Early Triassic
Triassic
is the oldest epoch of the Mesozoic
Mesozoic
Era and is divided into the Induan
Induan
and Olenekian
Olenekian
ages. The Lower Triassic
Triassic
series is coeval with the Scythian stage, which is today not included in the official timescales but can be found in older literature
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Greek Language
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά [eliniˈka], elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα [eliniˈci ˈɣlosa] ( listen), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean
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Italo-Celtic
In historical linguistics, Italo-Celtic
Italo-Celtic
is a grouping of the Italic and Celtic branches of the Indo-European language family on the basis of features shared by these two branches and no others. There is controversy about the causes of these similarities. They are usually considered to be innovations, likely to have developed after the breakup of the Proto-Indo-European language. It is also possible that some of these are not innovations, but shared conservative features, i.e. original Indo-European language features which have disappeared in all other language groups
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Indo-Hittite
In Indo-European linguistics, the term Indo-Hittite (also Indo-Anatolian) refers to Sturtevant's 1926 hypothesis that the Anatolian languages
Anatolian languages
may have split off a Pre-Proto-Indo-European language considerably earlier than the separation of the remaining Indo-European languages. The term may be somewhat confusing, as the prefix Indo- does not refer to the Indo-Aryan branch in particular, but is iconic for Indo-European, and the -Hittite part refers to the Anatolian language family as a whole. Proponents of the Indo-Hittite hypothesis claim the separation may have preceded the spread of the remaining branches by several millennia, possibly as early as 7000 BC. In this context, the proto-language before the split of Anatolian would be called Proto-Indo-Hittite, and the proto-language of the remaining branches, before the next split, presumably of Tocharian, would be called Proto-Indo-European (PIE)
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Graeco-Phrygian
Graeco-Phrygian /ˌɡriːkoʊˈfrɪdʒiən/ is a hypothetical branch of the Indo-European language family
Indo-European language family
with two branches in turn: Greek and Phrygian. Greek has also been variously grouped with Armenian (Graeco-Armenian; Graeco-Aryan), Ancient Macedonian (Graeco-Macedonian) and, more recently, Messapian. Multiple or all of these, with the exception of Armenian, are sometimes (tentatively) classified under "Hellenic"; at other times, Hellenic is posited to consist of only Greek
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Graeco-Aryan
Graeco-Aryan, or Graeco-Armeno-Aryan, is a hypothetical clade within the Indo-European family that would be the ancestor of Greek, Armenian, and the Indo-Iranian languages. Graeco-Aryan
Graeco-Aryan
unity would have become divided into Proto-Greek and Proto-Indo-Iranian
Proto-Indo-Iranian
by the mid-3rd millennium BC
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Graeco-Armenian
Graeco-Armenian
Graeco-Armenian
(or Helleno-Armenian) is the hypothetical common ancestor of Greek and Armenian that postdates Proto-Indo-European. Its status is comparable to that of the Italo-Celtic
Italo-Celtic
grouping: each is widely considered plausible without being accepted as established communis opinio
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Daco-Thracian
The linguistic classification of the ancient Thracian language
Thracian language
has long been a matter of contention and uncertainty, and there are widely varying hypotheses regarding its position among other Paleo-Balkan languages.[1][2] It is not contested, however, that the Thracian languages were Indo-European languages
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Indo-European Ablaut
In linguistics, the Indo-European ablaut (pronounced /ˈæblaʊt/) is a system of apophony (regular vowel variations) in the Proto-Indo-European language
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Proto-Indo-European Accent
Proto-Indo-European accent refers to the accentual system of Proto-Indo-European language.Contents1 Description 2 Reflexes 3 Unaccented words 4 Interpretation 5 Modern theories 6 See also 7 Notes 8 ReferencesDescription[edit] Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is usually reconstructed as having had variable lexical stress: the placement of the stress in a word (the accent) was not predictable by its phonological rules. Stressed syllables received a higher pitch than unstressed ones so PIE is often said to have had pitch accent. (That must not be confused with the other meaning of the term "pitch accent", which refers to a system of one or two syllables per word having one of at least two unpredictable tones, and the tones of any other syllables being predictable.) PIE accent could be mobile so it could change place throughout the inflectional paradigm
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Indo-European Sound Laws
As the Proto-Indo-European language
Proto-Indo-European language
(PIE) broke up, its sound system diverged as well, as evidenced in various sound laws associated with the daughter Indo-European languages. Especially notable is the palatalization that produced the satem languages, along with the associated ruki sound law. Other notable changes include: Grimm's law and Verner's law in Proto-Germanic an independent change similar to Grimm's law in Armenian loss of prevocalic *p- in Proto-Celtic Brugmann's law in Proto-Indo-Iranian Winter's law and Hirt's law in Balto-Slavic merging of voiced and breathy-voiced stops, and /a/ and /o/, in various "northern" languages Bartholomae's law in Indo-Iranian, and Sievers' law in Proto-Germanic and (to some extent) various other branches, may or may not have been common Indo-European features
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Proto-Indo-European Phonology
The phonology of the Proto-Indo-European language
Proto-Indo-European language
(PIE) has been reconstructed by linguists, based on the similarities and differences among current and extinct Indo-European languages. Because PIE was not written, linguists must rely on the evidence of its earliest attested descendants, such as Hittite, Sanskrit, Ancient Greek, and Latin, to reconstruct its phonology. The reconstruction of abstract units of PIE phonological systems (i.e. segments, or phonemes in traditional phonology) is mostly uncontroversial, although areas of dispute remain
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Paeonian Language
The Paeonian language is the poorly attested language of the ancient Paeonians, whose kingdom once stretched north of Macedon
Macedon
into Dardania and in earlier times into southwestern Thrace. Several Paeonian words are known from classical sources:monapos, monaipos, the European bison tilôn, a species of fish once found in Lake Prasias paprax, a species of fish once found in Lake Prasias. Paprakas, masc. acc. pl.A number of anthroponyms (some known only from Paeonian coinage) are attested: Agis (Άγις), Patraos (Πατράος), Lycpeios (Λύκπειος), Audoleon
Audoleon
(Αυδολέων), Eupolemos (Εὐπόλεμος), Ariston (Αρίστων), etc
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Mysian Language
The Mysian language was spoken by Mysians
Mysians
inhabiting Mysia
Mysia
in north-west Anatolia. Little is known about the Mysian language. Strabo noted that their language was, in a way, a mixture of the Lydian and Phrygian languages. As such, the Mysian language could be a language of the Anatolian group
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Messapian Language
Messapian (/mɛˈsæpiən, mə-, -ˈseɪ-/; also known as Messapic) is an extinct Indo-European language of southeastern Italy, once spoken in the region of Apulia. It was spoken by the three Iapygian tribes of the region: the Messapians, the Peucetians
Peucetians
and the Daunians. The language has been preserved in about 300 inscriptions dating from the 6th to the 1st century BC. Messapian might have been related to the Illyrian language
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