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Salutati
COLUCCIO SALUTATI (16 February 1331 – 4 May 1406) was an Italian humanist and man of letters, and one of the most important political and cultural leaders of Renaissance Florence ; as chancellor of the Republic and its most prominent voice, he was effectively the permanent secretary of state in the generation before the rise of the Medici . CONTENTS * 1 Early career * 2 Chancellor of Florence * 3 Cultural achievements * 4 References * 5 External links EARLY CAREERSalutati was born in Stignano, a tiny commune near Buggiano (today's province of Pistoia , Tuscany
Tuscany
). After studies in Bologna
Bologna
, where his father lived in exile after a Ghibelline coup in Buggiano, the family returned to Buggiano, which had become more securely part of the Republic of Florence . There he worked as notary and pursued his literary studies, coming into contact with the Florentine humanists Boccaccio
Boccaccio
and Francesco Nelli
Francesco Nelli
. The refined and masterful classical Latin of his letters to Florentine scholars earned him the admiring nickname of "Ape of Cicero
Cicero
", In 1367 Coluccio was appointed chancellor of Todi in the Papal States
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Italians
C. 135 MILLION Italian citizens: C. 55 MILLION Italian ancestry: C. 80 MILLION REGIONS WITH SIGNIFICANT POPULATIONS Italy c. 55,000,000 BRAZIL 32,500,000 ARGENTINA 22,047,494 UNITED STATES 17,250,211 VENEZUELA 1,736,766 FRANCE 1,530,563 CANADA 1,488,425 PERU 1,400,000 URUGUAY 1,055,220 AUSTRALIA 1,000,006 GERMANY 830,000 BELGIUM 451,825 CHILE 184,997 UNITED KINGDOM 130,000 MEXICO 85,000 SOUTH AFRICA 77,400 RUSSIA 53,649 SPAIN 124,013 AUSTRIA 29,287 ALBANIA 19,000 CROATIA 17,807 NEW ZEALAND 3,795 CZECH REPUBLIC 3,503 ROMANIA 3,203 LANGUAGES Italian and other related languages (Corsican · Sardinian · Sicilian · Neapolitan · Emilian-Romagnol · Ligurian · Piedmontese · Lombard · Venetian · Friulian · Ladin · Romansh · Istriot ) RELIGION Roman Catholicism (predominantly) RELATED ETHNIC GROUPS other Romance peoples , Swiss people , Maltese people , Greek people The ITALIANS (Italian : _Italiani_ ) are a nation and ethnic group native to Italy , who share a common culture and ancestry and speak the Italian language as a parent language
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Renaissance Humanism
RENAISSANCE HUMANISM is the study of classical antiquity , at first in Italy and then spreading across Western Europe in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries. The term _ Renaissance humanism_ is contemporary to that period — Renaissance (_rinascimento_ "rebirth") and "humanist" (whence modern _humanism_; also _ Renaissance humanism_ to distinguish it from later developments grouped as humanism ). Renaissance humanism was a response to the utilitarian approach and what came to be depicted as the "narrow pedantry" associated with medieval scholasticism . Humanists sought to create a citizenry able to speak and write with eloquence and clarity and thus capable of engaging in the civic life of their communities and persuading others to virtuous and prudent actions. This was to be accomplished through the study of the "studia humanitatis ", today known as the humanities : grammar , rhetoric , history , poetry , and moral philosophy . According to one scholar of the movement, Early Italian humanism, which in many respects continued the grammatical and rhetorical traditions of the Middle Ages , not merely provided the old Trivium with a new and more ambitious name (_Studia humanitatis_), but also increased its actual scope, content and significance in the curriculum of the schools and universities and in its own extensive literary production
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Renaissance
The RENAISSANCE (UK : /rᵻˈneɪsəns/ , US : /rɛnəˈsɑːns/ ) was a period in European history , from the 14th to the 17th century, regarded as the cultural bridge between the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and modern history . It started as a cultural movement in Italy
Italy
in the Late Medieval period and later spread to the rest of Europe, marking the beginning of the Early Modern Age . The intellectual basis of the Renaissance
Renaissance
was its own invented version of humanism , derived from the rediscovery of classical Greek philosophy, such as that of Protagoras
Protagoras
, who said that "Man is the measure of all things." This new thinking became manifest in art, architecture, politics, science and literature. Early examples were the development of perspective in oil painting and the recycled knowledge of how to make concrete . Although the invention of metal movable type sped the dissemination of ideas from the later 15th century, the changes of the Renaissance
Renaissance
were not uniformly experienced across Europe
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Florence, Italy
FLORENCE (/ˈflɒrəns/ FLOR-əns ; Italian : Firenze ( listen )) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany
Tuscany
and of the Metropolitan City of Florence . It is the most populous city in Tuscany, with 383,083 inhabitants (as at 2013), expanding to over 1,520,000 in the metropolitan area. Florence
Florence
was a centre of medieval European trade and finance and one of the wealthiest cities of that era. It is considered the birthplace of the Renaissance
Renaissance
, and has been called "the Athens
Athens
of the Middle Ages ". A turbulent political history includes periods of rule by the powerful Medici family and numerous religious and republican revolutions. From 1865 to 1871 the city was the capital of the recently established Kingdom of Italy
Italy
. The Florentine dialect forms the base of Standard Italian and it became the language of culture throughout Italy
Italy
due to the prestige of the masterpieces by Dante Alighieri , Petrarch , Giovanni Boccaccio , Niccolò Machiavelli and Francesco Guicciardini . The city attracts millions of tourists each year, and the Historic Centre of Florence
Florence
was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO
UNESCO
in 1982
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House Of Medici
The HOUSE OF MEDICI (/ˈmɛdᵻtʃi/ _MED-i-chee_ ; Italian pronunciation: ) was an Italian banking family, political dynasty and later royal house that first began to gather prominence under Cosimo de\' Medici in the Republic of Florence during the first half of the 15th century. The family originated in the Mugello region of the Tuscan countryside, gradually rising until they were able to fund the Medici Bank . The bank was the largest in Europe during the 15th century, seeing the Medici gain political power in Florence — though officially they remained citizens rather than monarchs. The Medici produced three Popes of the Catholic Church Pope Leo X (1513–1521), Pope Clement VII (1523–1534), and Pope Leo XI (1605); two regent queens of France—Catherine de\' Medici (1547–1559) and Marie de\' Medici (1600–1610). In 1531, the family became hereditary Dukes of Florence . In 1569, the duchy was elevated to a grand duchy after territorial expansion. They ruled the Grand Duchy of Tuscany from its inception until 1737, with the death of Gian Gastone de\' Medici . The grand duchy witnessed degrees of economic growth under the earlier grand dukes, but by the time of Cosimo III de\' Medici , Tuscany was fiscally bankrupt
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Buggiano
BUGGIANO is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Pistoia
Province of Pistoia
in the Italian region Tuscany
Tuscany
, located about 45 kilometres (28 mi) northwest of Florence
Florence
and about 15 kilometres (9 mi) southwest of Pistoia
Pistoia
. CONTENTS * 1 Main sights * 2 Twin cities * 3 Notable people * 4 References * 5 External links MAIN SIGHTS * Sanctuary of the Holy Crucifix (18th century) * Pieve di Sant\'Andrea (11th century). * Pieve of San Lorenzo (13th century), remade in the two following centuries. It has a Romanesque bell tower with double mullioned windows , including the basement of an 11th-century tower. The interior has several 16th-century canvasses and a 14th-century crucifix. * Church of Madonna della Salute e di San Nicolao (11th century)
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Province Of Pistoia
The PROVINCE OF PISTOIA (Italian : provincia di Pistoia) is a province in the Tuscany
Tuscany
region of central Italy. Its capital is the city of Pistoia
Pistoia
and the province is landlocked. It has an area of 964.12 square kilometres (372.25 sq mi) and a total population of 291,788 inhabitants (as of 2015). There are 22 communes in the province. The province was formed in 1927 under the rule of Mussolini, and had the lowest income per capita in Tuscany
Tuscany
in 1966 due to high poverty levels. This is because the province was mainly agricultural before World War II ended, and has since had to rapidly progress towards industrial capitalism and abandon its agricultural roots. The population of the province has recently been increasing, moving from 268,437 in 2011 to some 292,000 in 2015. The Mountains of Pistoia
Pistoia
and the resorts Abetone and Val di Luce are tourist destinations for skiers, and the province contains a combination of flat land such as the area of the valley of the Ombrone and the river flowing through it, and mountainous land. The city of Pistoia
Pistoia
is roughly 40 kilometres (25 mi) away from both Lucca and Florence
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Tuscany
TUSCANY (/ˈtʌskəni/ _TUSK-ə-nee_ ; Italian : _Toscana_, pronounced ) is a region in central Italy
Italy
with an area of about 23,000 square kilometres (8,900 square miles) and a population of about 3.8 million inhabitants (2013). The regional capital is Florence (_Firenze_). Tuscany
Tuscany
is known for its landscapes, traditions, history, artistic legacy and its influence on high culture . It is regarded as the birthplace of the Italian Renaissance and has been home to many figures influential in the history of art and science, and contains well-known museums such as the Uffizi
Uffizi
and the Pitti Palace
Pitti Palace
. Tuscany produces wines , including Chianti , Vino Nobile di Montepulciano , Morellino di Scansano and Brunello di Montalcino . Having a strong linguistic and cultural identity, it is sometimes considered "a nation within a nation". Tuscany
Tuscany
is traditionally a popular destination in Italy
Italy
, and the main tourist destinations by number of tourist arrivals are Florence
Florence
, Pisa
Pisa
, Montecatini Terme , Castiglione della Pescaia and Grosseto
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Bologna
BOLOGNA (/bəˈloʊnjə/ _bə-LOHN-yə_ ; Italian pronunciation: (_ listen ); Emilian : Bulåggna_, pronounced ; Latin : _Bŏnṓnĭa_) is the capital and largest city of the Emilia-Romagna Region in Northern Italy
Italy
. It is the seventh most populous city in Italy, located in the heart of a metropolitan area (officially recognised by the Italian government as a _città metropolitana _) of about one million. The first settlements date back to at least 1000 BC. The city has been an urban centre, first under the Etruscans (Velzna/Felsina) and the Celts
Celts
(_Bona_), then under the Romans (_Bononia_), then again in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, as a free municipality (for one century it was the fifth largest European city based on population). Home to the oldest university in the world , University of Bologna , founded in 1088, Bologna
Bologna
hosts thousands of students who enrich the social and cultural life of the city. Famous for its towers and lengthy porticoes , Bologna
Bologna
has a well-preserved historical centre (one of the largest in Italy) thanks to a careful restoration and conservation policy which began at the end of the 1970s, on the heels of serious damage done by the urban demolition at the end of the 19th century as well as that caused by wars
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Ghibelline
The GUELPHS and GHIBELLINES (/ɡwɛlfs/ ; /ˈɡɪbᵻlaɪnz/ , also US : /ˈɡɪbəliːnz/ , /ˈɡɪbələnz/ ; Italian : guelfi e ghibellini ) were factions supporting the Pope
Pope
and the Holy Roman Emperor , respectively, in the Italian city-states of central and northern Italy. During the 12th and 13th centuries, rivalry between these two parties formed a particularly important aspect of the internal politics of medieval Italy
Italy
. The struggle for power between the Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
had arisen with the Investiture Controversy , which began in 1075 and ended with the Concordat of Worms in 1122. The division between the Guelphs and Ghibellines in Italy, however, persisted until the 15th century. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Origins * 1.2 13th–14th centuries * 1.3 Later history * 2 Allegiance of the main Italian cities * 3 In heraldry * 4 In literature and popular culture * 4.1 In literature * 4.2 In movies * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORY PART OF A SERIES ON THE HISTORY OF ITALY Ancient * Prehistoric Italy * Etruscan civilization (12th–6th c. BC) * Magna Graecia (8th–7th c
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Republic Of Florence
The REPUBLIC OF FLORENCE, also known as the FLORENTINE REPUBLIC (Italian : _Repubblica Fiorentina_; Romanian pronunciation: ), was a medieval and early modern state that was centered on the Italian city of Florence in Tuscany . The republic originated in 1115, when the Florentine people rebelled against the Margraviate of Tuscany upon the death of Matilda , a woman who controlled vast territories including Florence. The Florentines formed a commune in her successors' place. The republic was ruled by a council, known as the signoria . The signoria was chosen by the _gonfaloniere _ (titular ruler of the city), who was elected every two months by Florentine guild members. The republic had a checkered history of coups and counter-coups against various factions. The Medici faction gained governance of the city in 1434, upon Cosimo de\' Medici 's counter-coup against the faction that had sent him into exile the previous year. The Medici kept control of Florence until 1494. Giovanni de' Medici (later Pope Leo X ) re-conquered the republic in 1512. Florence repudiated Medici authority for a second time in 1527, during the War of the League of Cognac . The Medici re-assumed their rule in 1531, after an 11-month siege of the city
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Boccaccio
GIOVANNI BOCCACCIO (/boʊˈkɑːtʃiˌoʊ, -tʃoʊ, bə-/ ; Italian: ; 1313 – 21 December 1375) was an Italian writer, poet, correspondent of Petrarch , and an important Renaissance
Renaissance
humanist . Boccaccio wrote a number of notable works, including The Decameron
The Decameron
and On Famous Women . He wrote his imaginative literature mostly in the Italian vernacular , as well as other works in Latin, and is particularly noted for his realistic dialogue which differed from that of his contemporaries, medieval writers who usually followed formulaic models for character and plot. CONTENTS* 1 Biography * 1.1 Early life * 1.2 Adult years * 2 Works * 3 See also * 4 Citations * 5 Sources * 6 Further reading * 7 External links BIOGRAPHYThe details of Boccaccio's birth are uncertain. He was born in Florence
Florence
or in a village near Certaldo where his family was from. He was the son of Florentine merchant Boccaccino di Chellino and an unknown woman; he was likely born out of wedlock. Boccaccio's stepmother was called Margherita de' Mardoli. EARLY LIFEBoccaccio grew up in Florence. His father worked for the Compagnia dei Bardi and, in the 1320s, married Margherita dei Mardoli, who was of a well-to-do family. Boccaccio may have been tutored by Giovanni Mazzuoli and received from him an early introduction to the works of Dante
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Francesco Nelli
FRANCESCO NELLI ( Florence Naples , 1363) was the secretary of bishop Angelo Acciaioli I and a pastor at the Prior of the Church of the Holy Apostles in Florence. Nelli corresponded much with Francesco Petrarch as is evident by the fifty letters still existing of his to Petrarch, and the thirty-eight letters still existing from Petrarch to him. Six of the nineteen letters of Petrarch's Liber sine nomine are addressed to Nelli. REFERENCES * Liber Sine Nomine in Latin with letters # 6, #, 9, # 10, # 17, # 18, and # 19 to the priest Francesco Nelli of Florence * Petrarch (1973). Norman P. Zacour (tr.). Petrarch's Book Without A Name. ISBN 978-0-88844-260-4 . (Page 60) * Petrarch letters in JSTOR Modern Language Notes, Volume LXV May, 1950 Number 5 (ref: Francesco Nelli of Florence). * JSTOR Petrarch\'s Laelius, Chaucer\'s Lollius by Lillian Herlands Hornstein PMLA, Vol. 63, No. 1 (Mar., 1948), pp
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Latin Language
LATIN (Latin: _lingua latīna_, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages . The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet . Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium , in the Italian Peninsula . Through the power of the Roman Republic , it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages , such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian . Latin
Latin
and French have contributed many words to the English language . Latin
Latin
and Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
roots are used in theology , biology , and medicine . By the late Roman Republic (75 BC), Old Latin had been standardised into Classical Latin . Vulgar Latin was the colloquial form spoken during the same time and attested in inscriptions and the works of comic playwrights like Plautus
Plautus
and Terence
Terence

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Cicero
MARCUS TULLIUS CICERO (/ˈsɪsᵻroʊ/ ; Classical Latin: ; 3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman politician and lawyer, who served as consul in the year 63 BC. He came from a wealthy municipal family of the Roman equestrian order , and is considered one of Rome's greatest orators and prose stylists. His influence on the Latin language was so immense that the subsequent history of prose, not only in Latin but in European languages up to the 19th century, was said to be either a reaction against or a return to his style. According to Michael Grant , "the influence of Cicero upon the history of European literature and ideas greatly exceeds that of any other prose writer in any language". Cicero introduced the Romans to the chief schools of Greek philosophy and created a Latin philosophical vocabulary (with neologisms such as _evidentia_, _humanitas _, _qualitas_, _quantitas_, and _essentia_) distinguishing himself as a translator and philosopher. Though he was an accomplished orator and successful lawyer, Cicero believed his political career was his most important achievement. It was during his consulship that the second Catilinarian conspiracy attempted to overthrow the government through an attack on the city by outside forces, and Cicero suppressed the revolt by executing five conspirators without due process
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