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Salutati
COLUCCIO SALUTATI (16 February 1331 – 4 May 1406) was an Italian humanist and man of letters, and one of the most important political and cultural leaders of Renaissance
Renaissance
Florence ; as chancellor of the Republic and its most prominent voice, he was effectively the permanent secretary of state in the generation before the rise of the Medici . CONTENTS * 1 Early career * 2 Chancellor of Florence * 3 Cultural achievements * 4 References * 5 External links EARLY CAREERSalutati was born in Stignano, a tiny commune near Buggiano
Buggiano
(today's province of Pistoia , Tuscany
Tuscany
)
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Roman Republic
The ROMAN REPUBLIC ( Latin
Latin
: Res publica Romana; Classical Latin: ) was the era of ancient Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom , traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. It was during this period that Rome's control expanded from the city\'s immediate surroundings to hegemony over the entire Mediterranean
Mediterranean
world . Roman government was headed by two consuls , elected annually by the citizens and advised by a senate composed of appointed magistrates. As Roman society was very hierarchical by modern standards, the evolution of the Roman government was heavily influenced by the struggle between the patricians , Rome's land-holding aristocracy, who traced their ancestry to the founding of Rome
Rome
, and the plebeians , the far more numerous citizen-commoners
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Roman Catholic Church
The CATHOLIC CHURCH, also known as the ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH, is the largest Christian church , with more than 1.29 billion members worldwide. As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation . Headed by the Bishop of Rome
Rome
, known as the Pope
Pope
, the church's doctrines are summarised in the Nicene Creed
Nicene Creed
. Its central administration, the Holy See
Holy See
, is in the Vatican City
Vatican City
, enclaved within Rome
Rome
, Italy
Italy

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Niccolò Niccoli
NICCOLò DE\' NICCOLI (1364 – 22 January 1437) was an Italian Renaissance humanist . He was born and died in Florence , and was one of the chief figures in the company of learned men which gathered around the patronage of Cosimo de\' Medici . Niccoli's chief services to classical literature consisted in his work as a copyist and collator of ancient manuscripts; he corrected the text, introduced divisions into chapters, and made tables of contents. His lack of critical faculty was compensated by his excellent taste; in Greek (of which he knew very little) he had the assistance of Ambrogio Traversari . Many of the most valuable manuscripts in the Laurentian library are by his hand, amongst them those of Lucretius and of twelve comedies of Plautus . The pursuit of ancient manuscripts was a dangerous and expensive task, agents working in the field at the time included Poggio Bracciolini
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Pier Paolo Vergerio The Elder
PIER PAOLO VERGERIO (the Elder) (23 July 1370 – 8 July 1444 or 1445) was an Italian humanist, statesman, and canon lawyer . CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Works * 3 References * 4 Notes LIFEVergerio was born at Capodistria , Istria, then in the Republic of Venice . He studied rhetoric at Padua
Padua
, canon law at Florence (1387–89) and at Bologna
Bologna
(1389–90). He is noted for writing to Pope Innocent VII and Pope Gregory XII . Hans Baron writes in The Crisis of the Early Italian Renaissance, 1966 edition, p.134. The catastrophe of 1405 ruined Vergerio's career as a humanist. (This refers to Padua
Padua
losing its independence in 1405) Later he became canon of Ravenna and took part in the Council of Constance in 1414
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Roman Empire
Mediolanum (286–402, Western ) Augusta Treverorum
Augusta Treverorum
Sirmium
Sirmium

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Petrarch
FRANCESCO PETRARCA (Italian pronunciation: ; July 20, 1304 – July 19, 1374), commonly anglicized as PETRARCH (/ˈpiːtrɑːrk, ˈpɛtrɑːrk/ ), was an Italian scholar and poet in Renaissance
Renaissance
Italy , who was one of the earliest humanists . His rediscovery of Cicero
Cicero
's letters is often credited with initiating the 14th-century Renaissance . Petrarch
Petrarch
is often considered the founder of Humanism . In the 16th century, Pietro Bembo
Pietro Bembo
created the model for the modern Italian language based on Petrarch's works, as well as those of Giovanni Boccaccio , and, to a lesser extent, Dante Alighieri
Dante Alighieri
. Petrarch
Petrarch
would be later endorsed as a model for Italian style by the Accademia della Crusca
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Dante
DURANTE DEGLI ALIGHIERI (Italian: ), simply called DANTE (Italian: , UK : /ˈdænti/ , US : /ˈdɑːnteɪ/ ; c. 1265 – 1321), was a major Italian poet of the Late Middle Ages . His Divine Comedy , originally called Comedìa (modern Italian: Commedia) and later christened Divina by Boccaccio , is widely considered the greatest literary work composed in the Italian language
Italian language
and a masterpiece of world literature . It has been referred to as the greatest poem of the Middle Ages. In the late Middle Ages, the overwhelming majority of poetry was written in Latin, and therefore accessible only to affluent and educated audiences. In De vulgari eloquentia (On Eloquence in the Vernacular), however, Dante defended use of the vernacular in literature
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Virgil
PUBLIUS VERGILIUS MARO (Classical Latin: ; traditional dates October 15, 70 BC – September 21, 19 BC ), usually called VIRGIL or VERGIL /ˈvɜːrdʒᵻl/ in English, was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period . He wrote three of the most famous poems in Latin literature , the Eclogues (or Bucolics), the Georgics , and the epic Aeneid
Aeneid
. A number of minor poems, collected in the Appendix Vergiliana , are sometimes attributed to him. Virgil
Virgil
is traditionally ranked as one of Rome's greatest poets. His Aeneid
Aeneid
has been considered the national epic of ancient Rome
Rome
since the time of its composition
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Classical Antiquity
CLASSICAL ANTIQUITY (also the CLASSICAL ERA, CLASSICAL PERIOD or CLASSICAL AGE) is the long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome
Rome
, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world . It is the period in which Greek and Roman society flourished and wielded great influence throughout Europe
Europe
, North Africa and Southwestern Asia . Conventionally, it is taken to begin with the earliest-recorded Epic Greek poetry of Homer
Homer
(8th–7th century BC), and continues through the emergence of Christianity
Christianity
and the decline of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(5th century AD)
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Antiquarian
An ANTIQUARIAN or ANTIQUARY (from the Latin
Latin
: antiquarius, meaning pertaining to ancient times) is an aficionado or student of antiquities or things of the past. More specifically, the term is used for those who study history with particular attention to ancient artifacts , archaeological and historic sites , or historic archives and manuscripts . The essence of ANTIQUARIANISM is a focus on the empirical evidence of the past, and is perhaps best encapsulated in the motto adopted by the 18th-century antiquary Sir Richard Colt Hoare , "We speak from facts not theory". Today the term is often used in a pejorative sense, to refer to an excessively narrow focus on factual historical trivia, to the exclusion of a sense of historical context or process
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Boethius
ANICIUS MANLIUS SEVERINUS BOëTHIUS, commonly called BOETHIUS (English: /boʊˈiːθiəs/ ; also BOETIUS /boʊˈiːʃəs/ ; c. 480–524 AD), was a Roman senator , consul , magister officiorum , and philosopher of the early 6th century. He was born four years after Odoacer
Odoacer
deposed the last Roman Emperor and declared himself King of Italy , and entered public service under Ostrogothic King Theodoric the Great , who later imprisoned and executed him in 524 on charges of conspiracy to overthrow him. While jailed, Boethius
Boethius
composed his Consolation of Philosophy , a philosophical treatise on fortune, death, and other issues, which became one of the most popular and influential works of the Middle Ages
Middle Ages

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Babylonian Captivity Of The Papacy
The AVIGNON PAPACY was the period from 1309 to 1376 during which seven successive popes resided in Avignon (then in the Kingdom of Arles , part of the Holy Roman Empire , now in France ) rather than in Rome . The situation arose from the conflict between the papacy and the French crown . Following the strife between Philip IV of France and Pope Boniface VIII and the death of his successor Benedict XI after only eight months in office, a deadlocked conclave finally elected Clement V , a Frenchman, as Pope in 1305. Clement declined to move to Rome, remaining in France, and in 1309, he moved his court to the papal enclave at Avignon, where it remained for the next 67 years. The absence from Rome is sometimes referred to as the "Babylonian Captivity of the Papacy". A total of seven popes reigned at Avignon; all were French, and they increasingly fell under the influence of the French Crown
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National Library Of Australia
The NATIONAL LIBRARY OF AUSTRALIA is the largest reference library in Australia
Australia
, responsible under the terms of the National Library Act for "maintaining and developing a national collection of library material, including a comprehensive collection of library material relating to Australia
Australia
and the Australian people ." In 2012–2013, the National Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, and an additional 15,506 metres (50,873 ft) of manuscript material. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Collections * 2.1 Australian such a library, indeed, as shall be worthy of the Australian Nation; the home of the literature, not of a State, or of a period, but of the world, and of all time. The present library building was opened in 1968. The building was designed by the architectural firm of Bunning and Madden
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National Library Of The Czech Republic
6,919,075 total items 21,204 manuscripts c. 4,200 incunabula OTHER INFORMATION DIRECTOR Petr Kroupa WEBSITE www.nkp.czThe NATIONAL LIBRARY OF THE CZECH REPUBLIC (Czech : Národní knihovna České republiky) is the central library of the Czech Republic . It is directed by the Ministry of Culture . The library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where approximately half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař . The National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers. As well as Czech texts, the library also stores older material from Turkey, Iran and India. The library also houses books for Charles University in Prague
Prague

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Istituto Centrale Per Il Catalogo Unico
The CENTRAL INSTITUTE FOR THE UNION CATALOGUE OF ITALIAN LIBRARIES AND FOR BIBLIOGRAPHIC INFORMATION (in Italian : Istituto centrale per il catalogo unico delle biblioteche italiane e per le informazioni bibliografiche) is an Italian government agency that was created in 1975 to supersede the Centro nazionale per il catalogo unico (National Single Directory Center), that had in turn been created in 1951 to build a single catalog of all the libraries in the nation
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