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Salutati
Coluccio Salutati
Coluccio Salutati
(16 February 1331[1] – 4 May 1406)[2] was an Italian humanist and man of letters, and one of the most important political and cultural leaders of Renaissance
Renaissance
Florence; as chancellor of the Republic and its most prominent voice, he was effectively the permanent secretary of state in the generation before the rise of the Medici.Contents1 Early career 2 Chancellor of Florence 3 Cultural achievements 4 References 5 External linksEarly career[edit] Salutati was born in Stignano, a tiny commune near Buggiano
Buggiano
(today's province of Pistoia, Tuscany). After studies in Bologna, where his father lived in exile after a Ghibelline
Ghibelline
coup in Buggiano, the family returned to Buggiano, which had become more securely part of the Republic of Florence
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BIBSYS
BIBSYS is an administrative agency set up and organized by the Ministry of Education and Research in Norway. They are a service provider, focusing on the exchange, storage and retrieval of data pertaining to research, teaching and learning – historically metadata related to library resources. BIBSYS are collaborating with all Norwegian universities and university colleges as well as research institutions and the National Library of Norway.[1][2] Bibsys
Bibsys
is formally organized as a unit at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Norwegian University of Science and Technology
(NTNU), located in Trondheim, Norway. The board of directors is appointed by Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research. BIBSYS offer researchers, students and others an easy access to library resources by providing the unified search service Oria.no and other library services
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Pier Paolo Vergerio The Elder
Pier Paolo Vergerio
Pier Paolo Vergerio
(the Elder) (23 July, 1370 – 8 July, 1444 or 1445) was an Italian humanist, statesman, and canon lawyer.Contents1 Life 2 Works 3 References 4 NotesLife[edit] Vergerio was born at Capodistria, Istria, then in the Republic of Venice. He studied rhetoric at Padua, canon law at Florence (1387–89) and at Bologna
Bologna
(1389–90). He is noted for writing to Pope Innocent VII
Pope Innocent VII
and Pope Gregory XII. Hans Baron writes in The Crisis of the Early Italian Renaissance, 1966 edition, p.134. The catastrophe of 1405 ruined Vergerio's career as a humanist. (This refers to Padua
Padua
losing its independence in 1405) Later he became canon of Ravenna and took part in the Council of Constance in 1414
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Classical Antiquity
Classical antiquity
Classical antiquity
(also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world. It is the period in which Greek and Roman society flourished and wielded great influence throughout Europe, North Africa
North Africa
and Western Asia. Conventionally, it is taken to begin with the earliest-recorded Epic Greek poetry of Homer
Homer
(8th–7th century BC), and continues through the emergence of Christianity
Christianity
and the decline of the Roman Empire (5th century AD)
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Antiquarian
An antiquarian or antiquary (from the Latin: antiquarius, meaning pertaining to ancient times) is an aficionado or student of antiquities or things of the past. More specifically, the term is used for those who study history with particular attention to ancient artifacts, archaeological and historic sites, or historic archives and manuscripts
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Petrarch
Francesco Petrarca (Italian: [franˈtʃesko peˈtrarka]; July 20, 1304 – July 20, 1374), commonly anglicized as Petrarch (/ˈpiːtrɑːrk, ˈpɛ-/), was an Italian scholar and poet in Renaissance
Renaissance
Italy, who was one of the earliest humanists. His rediscovery of Cicero's letters is often credited with initiating the 14th-century Renaissance
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Niccolò De' Niccoli
Niccolò de' Niccoli
Niccolò de' Niccoli
(1364 – 22 January 1437) was an Italian Renaissance humanist. He was born and died in Florence, and was one of the chief figures in the company of learned men which gathered around the patronage of Cosimo de' Medici. Niccoli's chief services to classical literature consisted in his work as a copyist and collator of ancient manuscripts; he corrected the text, introduced divisions into chapters, and made tables of contents. His lack of critical faculty was compensated by his excellent taste; in Greek (of which he knew very little) he had the assistance of Ambrogio Traversari. Many of the most valuable manuscripts in the Laurentian library are by his hand, amongst them those of Lucretius and of twelve comedies of Plautus
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Epistulae Ad Familiares
Epistulae ad Familiares (Letters to Friends) is a collection of letters between Roman politician and orator Marcus Tullius Cicero
Cicero
and various public and private figures. The letters in this collection, together with Cicero's other letters, are considered the most reliable sources of information for the period leading up to the fall of the Roman Republic. Traditionally spanning 16 books, and featuring letters from 62 to 43 BCE, the collection was likely first published by Cicero's freedman and personal secretary Marcus Tullius Tiro sometime after Cicero's death in 43 BCE.[1][2] References[edit]^ Shackleton Bailey, D. R., ed. (July 2001). Letters to Friends. I. Harvard University Press. Retrieved 5 October 2015.  ^  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Cicero". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.)
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Roman Empire
Mediolanum
Mediolanum
(286–402, Western) Augusta Treverorum Sirmium Ravenna
Ravenna
(402–476, Western) Nicomedia
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Roman Republic
The Roman Republic
Republic
(Latin: Res publica Romana; Classical Latin: [ˈreːs ˈpuːb.lɪ.ka roːˈmaː.na]) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire. It was during this period that Rome's control expanded from the city's immediate surroundings to hegemony over the entire Mediterranean
Mediterranean
world. Roman government was headed by two consuls, elected annually by the citizens and advised by a senate composed of appointed magistrates. As Roman society was very hierarchical by modern standards, the evolution of the Roman government was heavily influenced by the struggle between the patricians, Rome's land-holding aristocracy, who traced their ancestry to the founding of Rome, and the plebeians, the far more numerous citizen-commoners
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Roman Catholic Church
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.29 billion members worldwide.[4] As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation.[5] Headed by the Bishop of Rome, known as the Pope, the church's doctrines are summarised in the Nicene Creed
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Boethius
Anicius Manlius Severinus Boëthius,[a] commonly called Boethius[b] (English: /boʊˈiːθiəs/; also Boetius /-ʃəs/; c. 480–524 AD), was a Roman senator, consul, magister officiorum, and philosopher of the early 6th century
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Dante
Dante Alighieri
Dante Alighieri
(Italian: [duˈrante deʎʎ aliˈɡjɛːri]), simply called Dante (Italian: [ˈdante], UK: /ˈdænti/, US: /ˈdɑːnteɪ/; c. 1265 – 1321), was a major Italian poet of the Late Middle Ages/Early Renaissance. His Divine Comedy, originally called Comedìa (modern Italian: Commedia) and later christened Divina by Boccaccio, is widely considered the most important poem of the Middle Ages and the greatest literary work in the Italian language.[1][2] In the late Middle Ages, most poetry was written in Latin, accessible only to the most educated readers. In De vulgari eloquentia
De vulgari eloquentia
(On Eloquence in the Vernacular), however, Dante defended use of the vernacular in literature
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Babylonian Captivity Of The Papacy
The Avignon
Avignon
Papacy was the period from 1309 to 1376 during which seven successive popes resided in Avignon
Avignon
(then in the Kingdom of Arles, part of the Holy Roman Empire, now in France) rather than in Rome.[1] The situation arose from the conflict between the papacy and the French crown, culminating in the death of Pope
Pope
Boniface VIII after his arrest and maltreatment by Philip IV of France. Following the further death of Pope
Pope
Benedict XI, Philip forced a deadlocked conclave to elect the French Clement V, as Pope
Pope
in 1305. Clement V declined to move to Rome, remaining in France, and in 1309, he moved his court to the papal enclave at Avignon, where it remained for the next 67 years
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Stephen Greenblatt
Stephen Jay Greenblatt (/ˈɡriːnˌblæt/; born November 7, 1943) is an American Shakespearean, literary historian, and author. He is John Cogan University Professor of the Humanities
Humanities
at Harvard University. He is the general editor of The Norton Shakespeare (2015) and the general editor and a contributor to The Norton Anthology of English Literature. Greenblatt is one of the founders of New Historicism, a set of critical practices that he often refers to as "cultural poetics"; his works have been influential since the early 1980s when he introduced the term. Greenblatt has written and edited numerous books and articles relevant to New Historicism, the study of culture, Renaissance
Renaissance
studies and Shakespeare studies and is considered to be an expert in these fields. He is also co-founder of the literary-cultural journal Representations, which often publishes articles by new historicists
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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