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c. 140 million Italian citizens: c. 60 million Italian ancestry: c. 80 million

Regions with significant populations

  Italy
Italy
       c. 55,000,000

 Brazil 30,000,000[1]

 Argentina 20,000,000[2]

 United States 17,250,211[3]

 Venezuela 1,736,766[4]

 Canada 1,587,970[5]

 France 1,530,563[2]

 Peru 1,400,000[6]

 Uruguay 1,055,220[2]

 Australia 1,000,006[7]

 Germany 861,000[8]

 Belgium 451,825[9]

 Chile 184,997[2]

 United Kingdom 130,000[10]

 Spain 124,013[11]

 Mexico 85,000[12]

 South Africa 77,400[2]

 Russia 53,649[13]

 Austria 29,287[14]

 Albania 19,000[15]

 Croatia 17,807[16]

 New Zealand 3,795[17]

 Czech Republic 3,503[18]

 Romania 3,203[19]

Languages

Italian and related dialects; Other languages

Religion

Christianity: Roman Catholicism (predominantly)[20]

Related ethnic groups

Other Romance peoples, Swiss people, Maltese people, Greek people

The Italians
Italians
(Italian: Italiani [itaˈljaːni]) are a nation and ethnic group native to Italy, who share a common culture, history, ancestry and language.[21][22][23][24] Legally, all Italian nationals are citizens of the Italian Republic, regardless of ancestry or nation of residence (though the principle of jus sanguinis is used extensively and arguably more favourably in the Italian nationality law) and may be distinguished from people of Italian descent without Italian citizenship and from ethnic Italians
Italians
living in territories adjacent to the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
without Italian citizenship.[25][26] The majority of Italian nationals are native speakers of Standard Italian, though many Italians
Italians
also speak other languages native to Italy
Italy
(often colloquially referred to as "Italian dialects").[27][23][28] In 2014, in addition to about 55 million Italians
Italians
in Italy
Italy
(91% of the Italian national population),[29] Italian-speaking autonomous groups are found in neighbouring nations: about half a million are in Switzerland
Switzerland
and a large population is in France,[30] and there are smaller groups in Slovenia
Slovenia
and Croatia, primarily in Istria
Istria
and Dalmatia. Because of the wide-ranging diaspora, about 5 million Italian citizens[31] and nearly 80 million people of full or partial Italian ancestry[32] live outside their own homeland, most notably in parts of Europe
Europe
bordering Italy, the Americas, Australia
Australia
and Zealandia. Italians
Italians
have greatly influenced and contributed to diverse fields, notably the arts and music, science and technology, fashion, cuisine, sports, jurisprudence, banking and business[33] both abroad and worldwide.[34] Italian people
Italian people
are generally known for their localism (both regionalist and municipalist)[35] and their attention to clothing and family values.[36]

Contents

1 Name 2 History

2.1 Roman era 2.2 The Middle Ages 2.3 Rise of the city-states and the Renaissance 2.4 The French Revolution
French Revolution
and Napoleon 2.5 The Kingdom of Italy 2.6 The Italian Republic

3 Culture 4 Philosophy 5 Literature 6 Law and justice 7 Science and technology 8 Mathematics 9 Architecture 10 Music 11 Cinema 12 Sport 13 Ethnogenesis

13.1 Ancient History 13.2 Indo-European 13.3 Pre-Roman 13.4 Roman 13.5 Between the two millenniums 13.6 Modern period

14 Italian diaspora 15 Autochthonous Italian communities outside Italy 16 See also 17 Notes 18 Bibliography

Name[edit] The term Italian is at least 3,000 years old and has a history that goes back to pre-Roman Italy. According to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin: Italia,[37] was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning "land of young cattle" (cf. Latin
Latin
vitulus "calf", Umbrian vitlo "calf").[38] The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes
Italic tribes
and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy
Italy
during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus
Dionysius of Halicarnassus
states this account together with the legend that Italy
Italy
was named after Italus,[39] mentioned also by Aristotle[40] and Thucydides.[41] History[edit] Main article: Population history of Italy Further information: History of Italy Roman era[edit] Main articles: Ancient peoples of Italy, Etruscan civilization, Magna Graecia, Cisalpine Gaul, and Ancient Rome

Expansion of the territory known as Italy
Italy
from the establishment of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
until Diocletian

The Etruscan civilization
Etruscan civilization
reached its peak about the 7th century BC, but by 509 BC, when the Romans overthrew their Etruscan monarchs, its control in Italy
Italy
was on the wane. By 350 BC, after a series of wars between Greeks
Greeks
and Etruscans, the Latins, with Rome
Rome
as their capital, gained the ascendancy by 272 BC, and they managed to unite the entire Italian peninsula.

Etruscan Civilization
Etruscan Civilization
fresco from the Tomb of the Leopards

This period of unification was followed by one of conquest in the Mediterranean, beginning with the First Punic War
First Punic War
against Carthage. In the course of the century-long struggle against Carthage, the Romans conquered Sicily, Sardinia
Sardinia
and Corsica. Finally, in 146 BC, at the conclusion of the Third Punic War, with Carthage
Carthage
completely destroyed and its inhabitants enslaved, Rome
Rome
became the dominant power in the Mediterranean. From its inception, Rome
Rome
was a republican city-state, but four famous civil conflicts destroyed the republic: Lucius Cornelius Sulla against Gaius Marius
Gaius Marius
and his son (88–82 BC), Julius Caesar against Pompey
Pompey
(49–45 BC), Marcus Junius Brutus
Marcus Junius Brutus
and Gaius Cassius Longinus against Mark Antony
Mark Antony
and Octavian (43 BC), and Mark Antony against Octavian. Octavian, the final victor (31 BC), was accorded the title of Augustus by the Senate and thereby became the first Roman emperor. Augustus created for the first time an administrative region called Italia with inhabitants called "Italicus populus", stretching from the Alps
Alps
to Sicily: for this reason historians like Emilio Gentile
Emilio Gentile
called him Father of Italians.[42] Under imperial rule, Rome
Rome
undertook many conquests that brought Roman law, Roman administration, and Pax Romana
Pax Romana
to an area extending from the Atlantic to the Rhine, to the British Isles, to the Iberian Peninsula and large parts of North Africa, and to the Middle East
Middle East
as far as the Euphrates. After two centuries of successful rule, in the 3rd century AD, Rome was threatened by internal discord and menaced by Germanic and Asian invaders, commonly called barbarians (from the Latin
Latin
word barbari, "foreigners"). Emperor Diocletian's administrative division of the empire into two parts in 285 provided only temporary relief; it became permanent in 395. In 313, Emperor Constantine accepted Christianity, and churches thereafter rose throughout the empire. However, he also moved his capital from Rome
Rome
to Constantinople, greatly reducing the importance of the former. The last Western emperor, Romulus Augustulus, was deposed in 476 by a Germanic foederati general in Italy, Odoacer. His defeat marked the end of the western part of the Roman Empire. During most of the period from the fall of Rome
Rome
until the Kingdom of Italy
Italy
was established in 1861, the peninsula was divided into several smaller states.

Scipio Africanus, Roman general best known for having defeated Hannibal.

Julius Caesar, member of the Populares, nephew of Gaius Marius, politician, writer, general, and Dictator, introduced the Julian Calendar. First of the Twelve Caesars.

Cicero, Roman orator and lawyer who served as consul and exposed the Second Catilinarian conspiracy. One of the greatest Latin
Latin
philosophers along with Lucretius
Lucretius
and Seneca.

Augustus, first Roman Emperor. His posthumous adoption by Julius Caesar elevated his plebeian gens Octavia to patrician status. The golden age of Rome, known as Pax Romana
Pax Romana
due to the relative peace established in the Mediterranean world, began with his reign.

Ovid, author of the Metamorphoses
Metamorphoses
and one of three main Augustan poets along with Virgil
Virgil
and Horace.

Germanicus, Roman general who avenged the disaster of the Teutoburg Forest by defeating Arminius
Arminius
and recovering two legionary eagles lost in the battle.

Tacitus, one of the major Latin
Latin
historians along with Livy
Livy
and Sallust.

Titus, member of the Flavian dynasty
Flavian dynasty
who captured Jerusalem and completed the Colosseum.

Trajan, Roman emperor who presided over the greatest expansion in Roman history. A man of Umbrian origins, he was born in Italica, a colony of Italian settlers in Hispania.

Marcus Aurelius, last of the five good emperors and philosopher. His death marked the end of the Pax Romana.

The Middle Ages[edit] Main article: Italy
Italy
in the Middle Ages Odoacer
Odoacer
ruled well for 13 years after gaining control of Italy
Italy
in 476. Then he was attacked and defeated by Theodoric, the king of another Germanic tribe, the Ostrogoths. Theodoric and Odoacer
Odoacer
ruled jointly until 493, when Theodoric murdered Odoacer. Theodoric continued to rule Italy
Italy
with an army of Ostrogoths
Ostrogoths
and a government that was mostly Italian. After the death of Theodoric in 526, the kingdom began to grow weak. By 553, emperor Justinian I
Justinian I
expelled the Ostrogoths. The old Roman Empire
Roman Empire
was mostly united again, even if at the price of the total destruction of the Italian peninsula (Rome—under Augustus
Augustus
the first "one million inhabitants" city in the world—was reduced to a small village of just one thousand inhabitants[citation needed]). But Byzantine rule in Italy
Italy
collapsed again by 572 as a result of invasions by another Germanic tribe, the Lombards, though some areas in the extreme south remained under Byzantine rule as the "theme of Lombardy". During the 5th and 6th centuries, the popes increased their influence in both religious and political matters in Italy. It was usually the popes who led attempts to protect Italy
Italy
from invasion or to soften foreign rule. For about 200 years the popes opposed attempts by the Lombards, who had captured most of Italy, to take over Rome
Rome
as well. The popes finally defeated the Lombards
Lombards
with the aid of two Frankish kings, Pepin the Short
Pepin the Short
and Charlemagne. Using land won for them by Pepin in 756, the popes established political rule in what were called the Papal States
Papal States
in central Italy. The Lombards
Lombards
remained a threat to papal power, however, until they were crushed by Charlemagne
Charlemagne
in 774. Charlemagne
Charlemagne
added the Kingdom of the Lombards
Lombards
to his vast realm. In recognition of Charlemagne's power, and to cement the church's alliance with him, Charlemagne
Charlemagne
was crowned emperor of the Romans by Pope
Pope
Leo III in 800.[43] After Charlemagne's death in 814, his son Louis the Pious
Louis the Pious
succeeded him. Louis divided the empire among his sons, who fought each other for territory. Such battles continued until Otto the Great, the king of Germany, was crowned emperor in 962. This marked the beginning of what later was called the Holy Roman Empire. Rise of the city-states and the Renaissance[edit] Main article: Italian city-states From the 11th century on, Italian cities began to grow rapidly in independence and importance. They became centres of political life, banking, and foreign trade. Some became wealthy, and many, including Florence, Rome, Genoa, Milan, Pisa, Siena
Siena
and Venice, grew into nearly independent city-states. Each had its own foreign policy and political life. They all resisted the efforts of noblemen and emperors to control them. During the 14th and 15th centuries, some Italian city-states
Italian city-states
ranked among the most important powers of Europe. Venice, in particular, had become a major maritime power, and the city-states as a group acted as a conduit for goods from the Byzantine and Islamic empires. In this capacity, they provided great impetus to the developing Renaissance, began in Florence
Florence
in the 14th century,[44] and led to an unparalleled flourishing of the arts, literature, music, and science. However, the city-states were often troubled by violent disagreements among their citizens. The most famous division was between the Guelphs and Ghibellines. The Guelphs supported supreme rule by the pope, and the Ghibellines favored the emperor. City-states often took sides and waged war against each other. During the Renaissance, Italy
Italy
became an even more attractive prize to foreign conquerors. After some city-states asked for outside help in settling disputes with their neighbors, King Charles VIII of France
France
marched into Italy
Italy
in 1494. Charles soon withdrew, but he had shown that the Italian peninsula could be conquered because they were not united[citation needed]. After the Italian Wars, Spain
Spain
emerged as the dominant force in the region. Venice, Milan, and other city-states retained at least some of their former greatness during this period, as did Savoy-Piedmont, protected by the Alps
Alps
and well defended by its vigorous rulers.

Marco Polo, Italian merchant traveler who introduced Europeans to Central Asia and China

Christopher Columbus, early European explorer of the New World.

Amerigo Vespucci, geographer and traveler from whose name the word America is derived.

The French Revolution
French Revolution
and Napoleon[edit] Main article: Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy

Laura Bassi, the first chairwoman of a university in a scientific field of studies.

The French Revolution
French Revolution
and Napoleon
Napoleon
influenced Italy
Italy
more deeply than they affected any other outside country of Europe. The French Revolution began in 1789 and immediately found supporters among the Italian people. The local Italian rulers, sensing danger in their own country, drew closer to the European kings who opposed France. After the French king was overthrown and France
France
became a republic, secret clubs favouring an Italian republic were formed throughout Italy. The armies of the French Republic began to move across Europe. In 1796, Napoleon Bonaparte
Napoleon Bonaparte
led a French army into northern Italy
Italy
and drove out the Austrian rulers. Once again, Italy
Italy
was the scene of battle between the Habsburgs and the French. Wherever France
France
conquered, Italian republics were set up, with constitutions and legal reforms. Napoleon made himself emperor in 1804, and part of northern and central Italy was unified under the name of the Kingdom of Italy, with Napoleon
Napoleon
as king. The rest of northern and central Italy
Italy
was annexed by France. Only Sicily
Sicily
and the island of Sardinia, which had been ceded to the House of Savoy
Savoy
in 1720 and had been under their rule ever since, remained free of French control. French domination lasted less than 20 years, and it differed from previous foreign control of the Italian peninsula. In spite of heavy taxation and frequent harshness, the French introduced representative assemblies and new laws that were the same for all parts of the country. For the first time since the days of ancient Rome, Italians of different regions used the same money and served in the same army. Many Italians
Italians
began to see the possibility of a united Italy
Italy
free of foreign control. The Kingdom of Italy[edit] Main article: Kingdom of Italy

The Expedition of the Thousand.

After the Battle of Waterloo, the reaction set in with the Congress of Vienna allowed the restoration of many of the old rulers and systems under Austrian domination. The concept of nationalism continued strong, however, and sporadic outbreaks led by such inveterate reformers as Giuseppe Mazzini
Giuseppe Mazzini
occurred in several parts of the peninsula down to 1848–49. This Risorgimento movement was brought to a successful conclusion under the able guidance of Camillo Benso, conte di Cavour, prime minister of Piedmont. Cavour managed to unite most of Italy
Italy
under the headship of Victor Emmanuel II of the house of Savoy, and on 17 March 1861, the Kingdom of Italy
Italy
was proclaimed with Victor Emmanuel II
Victor Emmanuel II
as king. Giuseppe Garibaldi, the popular republican hero of Italy, contributed much to this achievement and to the subsequent incorporation of the Papal States under the Italian monarch. Italian troops occupied Rome
Rome
in 1870, and in July 1871, this formally became the capital of the kingdom. Pope
Pope
Pius IX, a longtime rival of Italian kings, considered himself a "prisoner" of the Vatican and refused to cooperate with the royal administration. Only in 1929 the Roman Pope
Pope
accepted the unified Italy
Italy
with Rome
Rome
as capital. In the decades following unification, Italy
Italy
started to create colonies in Africa, and under Benito Mussolini's fascism conquered Ethiopia founding in 1936 the Italian Empire. World War I
World War I
completed the process of Italian unification, with the annexation of Trieste, Istria, Trentino-Alto Adige
Trentino-Alto Adige
and Zara. The Italians
Italians
grew to 45 millions in 1940 and the land, whose economy had been until that time based upon agriculture, started its industrial development, mainly in northern Italy. But World War II
World War II
soon destroyed Italy
Italy
and its colonial power. The Italian Republic[edit] Main article: History of the Italian Republic Between 1945 and 1948, the outlines of a new Italy
Italy
began to appear. Victor Emmanuel III
Victor Emmanuel III
gave up the throne on 9 May 1946, and his son, Umberto II, became king. On 2 June Italy
Italy
held its first free election after 20 years of Fascist rule (the so-called Ventennio). Italians chose a republic to replace the monarchy, which had been closely associated with Fascism. They elected a Constituent Assembly to prepare a new democratic constitution. The Assembly approved the constitution in 1947, which came into force since 1 January 1948. Culture[edit] Main article: Culture of Italy

The Pantheon and the Fontana del Pantheon. Roman relics and Roman culture are important national symbols in Italy.

Italian women dance the tarantella, 1846

From the Magna Graecia
Magna Graecia
period to the 17th century, the inhabitants of the Italian peninsula were at the forefront of Western culture, being the fulcrum and origin of Magna Graecia, Ancient Rome, the Roman Catholic Church, Humanism, the Renaissance, Baroque, the Counter-Reformation
Counter-Reformation
and Neoclassicism. Italy
Italy
also became a seat of great formal learning in 1088 with the establishment of the University of Bologna, the first university in the Western World.[45] Many other Italian universities soon followed. For example, the Schola Medica Salernitana, in southern Italy, was the first medical school in Europe.[46] These great centres of learning presaged the Rinascimento: the European Renaissance
Renaissance
began in Italy
Italy
and was fueled throughout Europe
Europe
by Italian painters, sculptors, architects, scientists, literature masters and music composers. Italy continued its leading cultural role through the Baroque
Baroque
period and into the Romantic period, when its dominance in painting and sculpture diminished but the Italians
Italians
re-established a strong presence in music. Italian explorers and navigators in the 15th and 16th centuries left a perennial mark on human history with the modern "discovery of America", due to Christopher Columbus. In addition, the name of the American continents derives from the geographer Amerigo Vespucci's first name. Also noted, is explorer Marco Polo
Marco Polo
who travelled extensively throughout the eastern world recording his travels. Due to comparatively late national unification, and the historical autonomy of the regions that comprise the Italian peninsula, many traditions and customs of the Italians
Italians
can be identified by their regions of origin. Despite the political and social isolation of these regions, Italy's contributions to the cultural and historical heritage of the Western world remain immense. Famous elements of Italian culture are its opera and music, its iconic gastronomy and food, which are commonly regarded as amongst the most popular in the world,[47] its cinema (with filmmakers such as Federico Fellini, Michelangelo Antonioni, Mario Monicelli, Sergio Leone, Alberto Sordi, etc.), its collections of priceless works of art and its fashion ( Milan
Milan
and Florence
Florence
are regarded as some of the few fashion capitals of the world). Philosophy[edit] Main article: Italian philosophy

Giordano Bruno, one of the major figures of the early western world as well as one of the least understood.

Over the ages Italian literature
Italian literature
had a vast influence on Western philosophy, beginning with the Greeks
Greeks
and Romans, and going onto Renaissance, The Enlightenment and modern philosophy. Italian Medieval philosophy was mainly Christian, and included several important philosophers and theologians such as St Thomas Aquinas. Aquinas was the student of Albert the Great, a brilliant Dominican experimentalist, much like the Franciscan, Roger Bacon
Roger Bacon
of Oxford
Oxford
in the 13th century. Aquinas reintroduced Aristotelian philosophy to Christianity. He believed that there was no contradiction between faith and secular reason. He believed that Aristotle
Aristotle
had achieved the pinnacle in the human striving for truth and thus adopted Aristotle's philosophy as a framework in constructing his theological and philosophical outlook. He was a professor at the prestigious University of Paris.

Niccolò Machiavelli, the founder of modern political science and ethics.

Italy
Italy
was also affected by the Enlightenment, a movement which was a consequence of the Renaissance
Renaissance
and changed the road of Italian philosophy.[48] Followers of the group often met to discuss in private salons and coffeehouses, notably in the cities of Milan, Rome
Rome
and Venice. Cities with important universities such as Padua, Bologna
Bologna
and Naples, however, also remained great centres of scholarship and the intellect, with several philosophers such as Giambattista Vico (1668–1744) (who is widely regarded as being the founder of modern Italian philosophy)[49] and Antonio Genovesi.[48] Italian society also dramatically changed during the Enlightenment, with rulers such as Leopold II of Tuscany
Leopold II of Tuscany
abolishing the death penalty. The church's power was significantly reduced, and it was a period of great thought and invention, with scientists such as Alessandro Volta
Alessandro Volta
and Luigi Galvani discovering new things and greatly contributing to Western science.[48] Cesare Beccaria
Cesare Beccaria
was also one of the greatest Italian Enlightenment writers and now considered one of the fathers of classical criminal theory as well as modern penology.[50] Beccaria is famous for his masterpiece On Crimes and Punishments
On Crimes and Punishments
(1764), a treatise (later translated into 22 languages) that served as one of the earliest prominent condemnations of torture and the death penalty and thus a landmark work in anti-death penalty philosophy.[48] Some of the most prominent philosophies and ideologies in Italy
Italy
during the late 19th and 20th centuries include anarchism, communism, socialism, futurism, fascism, and Christian democracy. Both futurism and fascism (in its original form, now often distinguished as Italian fascism) were developed in Italy
Italy
at this time. From the 1920s to the 1940s, Italian Fascism
Fascism
was the official philosophy and ideology of the Italian government led by Benito Mussolini. Giovanni Gentile
Giovanni Gentile
was one of the most significant 20th-century Idealist/Fascist philosophers. Meanwhile, anarchism, communism, and socialism, though not originating in Italy, took significant hold in Italy
Italy
during the early 20th century, with the country producing numerous significant Italian anarchists, socialists, and communists. In addition, anarcho-communism first fully formed into its modern strain within the Italian section of the First International.[51] Antonio Gramsci
Antonio Gramsci
remains an important philosopher within Marxist
Marxist
and communist theory, credited with creating the theory of cultural hegemony. Literature[edit] Main article: Italian literature Italian literature
Italian literature
may be unearthed back to the Middle Ages, with the most significant poets of the period being Dante Alighieri, Petrarch, and Giovanni Boccaccio. During the Renaissance, humanists such as Leonardo Bruni, Coluccio Salutati
Coluccio Salutati
and Niccolò Machiavelli
Niccolò Machiavelli
were great collectors of antique manuscripts. Many worked for the organized Church and were in holy orders (like Petrarch), while others were lawyers and chancellors of Italian cities, like Petrarch's disciple, Salutati, the Chancellor of Florence, and thus had access to book copying workshops. One of the most remarkable poets of the early 19 and 20th century writers was Giacomo Leopardi, who is widely acknowledged to be one of the most radical and challenging thinkers of the 19th century.[52][53] Italo Svevo, the author of La coscienza di Zeno (1923), and Luigi Pirandello
Luigi Pirandello
(winner of the 1934 Nobel Prize in Literature), who explored the shifting nature of reality in his prose fiction and such plays as Sei personaggi in cerca d'autore (Six Characters in Search of an Author, 1921). Federigo Tozzi and Giuseppe Ungaretti were well-known novelists, critically appreciated only in recent years, and regarded one of the forerunners of existentialism in the European novel.

Dante Alighieri

Francesco Petrarch

Giovanni Boccaccio

Pietro Bembo

Torquato Tasso

Ugo Foscolo

Alessandro Manzoni

Giacomo Leopardi

Giosuè Carducci

Giovanni Pascoli

Gabriele D'Annunzio

Luigi Pirandello

Grazia Deledda

Eugenio Montale

Giuseppe Ungaretti

Salvatore Quasimodo

Italo Calvino

Dario Fo

Umberto Eco

Law and justice[edit] Since the Roman Empire, most western contributions to Western legal culture was the emergence of a class of Roman jurists. During the Middle Ages, St. Thomas Aquinas, the most influential western scholar of the period, integrated the theory of natural law with the notion of an eternal and biblical law.[54] During the Renaissance, Prof. Alberico Gentili, the founder of the science of international law, authored the first treatise on public international law and separated secular law from canon law and Roman Catholic theology. Enlightenment's greatest legal theorists, Cesare Beccaria, Giambattista Vico
Giambattista Vico
and Francesco Mario Pagano, are well remembered for their legal works, particularly on criminal law. Francesco Carrara, an advocate of abolition of the death penalty, was one of the foremost European criminal lawyers of the 19th century. During the last periods, numerous Italians
Italians
have been recognised as the prominent prosecutor magistrates.

Lorenzo de Medici

Thomas Aquinas

Alberico Gentili

Cesare Beccaria

Giambattista Vico

Francesco Mario Pagano

Francesco Carrara

Enrico De Nicola

Cesare Terranova

Antonio Cassese

Paolo Borsellino

Science and technology[edit] Main articles: Science and technology in Italy
Italy
and List of Italian inventions Italians
Italians
have been the central figures of countless inventions and discoveries and they made many predominant contributions to various fields. During the Renaissance, Italian polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519), Michelangelo
Michelangelo
(1475–1564) and Leon Battista Alberti (1404–72) made important contributions to a variety of fields, including biology, architecture, and engineering. Galileo Galilei (1564–1642), a physicist, mathematician and astronomer, played a major role in the Scientific Revolution. His achievements include the invention of the thermometer and key improvements to the telescope and consequent astronomical observations, and ultimately the triumph of Copernicanism over the Ptolemaic model. Other astronomers such as Giovanni Domenico Cassini
Giovanni Domenico Cassini
(1625–1712) and Giovanni Schiaparelli (1835–1910) made many important discoveries about the Solar System. Physicist Enrico Fermi
Enrico Fermi
(1901–54), a Nobel prize laureate, led the team in Chicago that built the first nuclear reactor and is also noted for his many other contributions to physics, including the co-development of the quantum theory. He and a number of Italian physicists were forced to leave Italy
Italy
in the 1930s by Fascist laws against Jews, including Emilio G. Segrè
Emilio G. Segrè
(1905–89) (who discovered the elements technetium and astatine, and the antiproton),[55] and Bruno Rossi
Bruno Rossi
(1905–93), a pioneer in Cosmic Rays and X-ray astronomy. Other prominent physicists and scientists include: Amedeo Avogadro
Amedeo Avogadro
(most noted for his contributions to molecular theory, in particular Avogadro's law and the Avogadro constant), Evangelista Torricelli
Evangelista Torricelli
(inventor of the barometer), Alessandro Volta
Alessandro Volta
(inventor of the electric battery), Guglielmo Marconi (inventor of radio), Antonio Meucci
Antonio Meucci
(known for developing a voice-communication apparatus, often credited as the inventor of the first telephone before even Alexander Graham Bell),[56][57] Galileo Ferraris (one of the pioneers of AC power system, invented the first induction motor), Ettore Majorana
Ettore Majorana
(who discovered the Majorana fermions), and Carlo Rubbia
Carlo Rubbia
(1984 Nobel Prize in Physics for work leading to the discovery of the W and Z particles
W and Z particles
at CERN). In biology, Francesco Redi
Francesco Redi
was the first to challenge the theory of spontaneous generation by demonstrating that maggots come from eggs of flies and he described 180 parasites in detail; Marcello Malpighi founded microscopic anatomy; Lazzaro Spallanzani
Lazzaro Spallanzani
conducted important research in bodily functions, animal reproduction, and cellular theory; Camillo Golgi, whose many achievements include the discovery of the Golgi complex, paved the way to the acceptance of the Neuron doctrine; Rita Levi-Montalcini
Rita Levi-Montalcini
discovered the nerve growth factor (awarded 1986 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine); Angelo Ruffini first described the Ruffini endings
Ruffini endings
and was known for his work in histology and embryology; Filippo Pacini
Filippo Pacini
discovered the Pacinian corpuscles and was the first to isolate the cholera bacillus Vibrio cholerae in 1854, before Robert Koch's more widely accepted discoveries 30 years later. In chemistry, Giulio Natta
Giulio Natta
received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1963 for his work on high polymers. Giuseppe Occhialini
Giuseppe Occhialini
received the Wolf Prize in Physics
Wolf Prize in Physics
for the discovery of the pion or pi-meson decay in 1947.

Leonardo da Vinci, a father of paleontology and architecture, has been the most influential polymath

Galileo Galilei, the father of science and modern physics, one of the key figures in astronomy, pioneered the thermometer and made significant works in other fields of science

Elena Cornaro Piscopia, the first woman to obtain a doctoral degree.

Evangelista Torricelli, the inventor of barometer, made various advances in optics and work on the method of indivisibles

Luigi Galvani, one of the pioneers of bioelectricity, discovered that the muscles of dead frogs legs twitched when struck by an electrical spark

Alessandro Volta, the inventor of the electrical battery and discover of methane, did substantial work with electric currents

Francesco Redi, the father of modern parasitology, founded the experimental biology and demonstrated that maggots come from eggs of flies

Marcello Malpighi, called father of microscopical anatomy, histology, physiology and embryology, was the first person to see capillaries in animals and discovered the link between arteries and veins

Lazzaro Spallanzani
Lazzaro Spallanzani
was the first to perform in vitro fertilization, with frogs, and an artificial insemination, using a dog and made various substantial contributions to the experimental study of bodily functions, animal reproduction, and animal echolocation.

Amedeo Avogadro, made important works to molecular theory and invented Avogadro's law and Avogadro constant

Pacinotti, inventor of the dynamo

Enrico Fermi, the inventor of the Chicago Pile-1
Chicago Pile-1
and one of the builders of the Atomic Bomb

Emilio Gino Segrè, one of the discoverers of technetium, astatine, antiproton and a key figure in the creation of the Nuclear Weapon

Antonio Meucci, inventor of the first telephone

Guglielmo Marconi, inventor of the radio

Bruno Rossi, pioneered X-ray astronomy
X-ray astronomy
and space plasma physics and highly contributed to particle physics and cosmic rays

Rita Levi-Montalcini, the oldest Nobel laureate ever to have lived, discovered the Nerve growth factor

Ettore Majorana, the discoverer of the Majorana fermions

Mathematics[edit] During the Middle Ages, Leonardo Fibonacci, the greatest Western mathematician of the Middle Ages, introduced the Hindu–Arabic numeral system to the Western World and he also introduced the sequence of Fibonacci numbers which he used as an example in Liber Abaci. Gerolamo Cardano, introduced the probability and established the binomial coefficients and binomial theorem and he also invented some essential onjects. During the Renaissance, Luca Pacioli established accounting to the world, published the first work on Double-entry bookkeeping system. Galileo Galilei
Galileo Galilei
made several significant advances in mathematics. Bonaventura Cavalieri's works anticipated integral calculus and popularized logarithms in Italy. Jacopo Riccati, who was also a jurist, invented the Riccati equation. Maria Gaetana Agnesi, the first woman to write a mathematics handbook, become the first woman Mathematics Professor at a University. Gian Francesco Malfatti, posed the problem of carving three circular columns out of a triangular block of marble, using as much of the marble as possible, and conjectured that three mutually-tangent circles inscribed within the triangle would provide the optimal solution, which are now known as Malfatti circles. Joseph-Louis Lagrange, who was one of the most influential mathematician of his time, made essential works to analysis, number theory, and both classical and celestial mechanics. Gregorio Ricci-Curbastro invented the Tensor calculus and made meaningful works on algebra, infinitesimal analysis, and papers on the theory of real numbers.[58] Giuseppe Peano, founded the mathematical logic, the set theory, and alongside John Venn
John Venn
drew the first Venn diagram. Gregorio Ricci-Curbastro is well known for his invention on absolute differential calculus (tensor calculus), further developed by Tullio Levi-Civita, and its applications to the theory of relativity. Beniamino Segre is one of the main contributor of algebraic geometry and one of the founders of finite geometry. Paolo Ruffini
Paolo Ruffini
is credited for his innovative work in mathematics, creating "Ruffini's rule" and co-creating the Abel–Ruffini theorem. Ennio de Giorgi, a Wolf Prize in Mathematics recipient in 1990, solved Bernstein's problem about minimal surfaces and the 19th Hilbert problem on the regularity of solutions of Elliptic partial differential equations.

Gerolamo Cardano

Luca Pacioli

Bonaventura Cavalieri

Jacopo Francesco Riccati

Maria Gaetana Agnesi

Gian Francesco Malfatti

Joseph-Louis Lagrange

Gregorio Ricci-Curbastro

Giuseppe Peano

Tullio Levi-Civita

Beniamino Segre

Architecture[edit] Main article: Architecture of Italy As Italy
Italy
is home to the greatest number of UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Sites (51) to date and it is home to half the world's great art treasures,[59] Italians
Italians
are known for their significant architectural achievements,[60] such as the construction of arches, domes and similar structures during ancient Rome, the founding of the Renaissance
Renaissance
architectural movement in the late-14th to 16th centuries, and being the homeland of Palladianism, a style of construction which inspired movements such as that of Neoclassical architecture, and influenced the designs which noblemen built their country houses all over the world, notably in the UK, Australia
Australia
and the US during the late 17th to early 20th centuries. Several of the finest works in Western architecture, such as the Colosseum, the Milan
Milan
Cathedral and Florence
Florence
cathedral, the Leaning Tower of Pisa
Pisa
and the building designs of Venice
Venice
are found in Italy. Italian architecture has also widely influenced the architecture of the world. British architect Inigo Jones, inspired by the designs of Italian buildings and cities, brought back the ideas of Italian Renaissance
Renaissance
architecture to 17th-century England, being inspired by Andrea Palladio.[61] Additionally, Italianate architecture, popular abroad since the 19th century, was used to describe foreign architecture which was built in an Italian style, especially modelled on Renaissance
Renaissance
architecture.

Giotto

Filippo Brunelleschi

Leon Battista Alberti

Michelangelo

Raphael

Giulio Romano

Pietro da Cortona

Gian Lorenzo Bernini

Andrea Palladio

Giovanni Battista Piranesi

Luigi Vanvitelli

Giuseppe Jappelli

Ernesto Basile

Antonio Sant'Elia

Marcello Piacentini

Pier Luigi Nervi

Gio Ponti

Carlo Scarpa

Giancarlo De Carlo

Gae Aulenti

Manfredi Nicoletti

Paolo Portoghesi

Renzo Piano

Pier Carlo Bontempi

Music[edit] Main article: Music of Italy

History's most successful tenors, Enrico Caruso
Enrico Caruso
(above) and Luciano Pavarotti (below)

Bartolomeo Cristofori, the inventor of the piano

From folk music to classical, music has always played an important role in Italian culture. Instruments associated with classical music, including the piano and violin, were invented in Italy, and many of the prevailing classical music forms, such as the symphony, concerto, and sonata, can trace their roots back to innovations of 16th- and 17th-century Italian music. Italians
Italians
invented many of the musical instruments, including the piano and violin. Most notable Italians
Italians
composers include the Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina, Claudio Monteverdi, the Baroque
Baroque
composers Scarlatti, Corelli and Vivaldi, the Classical composers Paganini and Rossini, and the Romantic composers Verdi
Verdi
and Puccini, whose operas, including La bohème, Tosca, Madama Butterfly, and Turandot, are among the most frequently worldwide performed in the standard repertoire.[62][63] Modern Italian composers such as Berio and Nono proved significant in the development of experimental and electronic music. While the classical music tradition still holds strong in Italy, as evidenced by the fame of its innumerable opera houses, such as La Scala
La Scala
of Milan and San Carlo of Naples, and performers such as the pianist Maurizio Pollini and the late tenor Luciano Pavarotti, Italians
Italians
have been no less appreciative of their thriving contemporary music scene. Italians
Italians
are amply known as the mothers of opera.[64] Italian opera was believed to have been founded in the early 17th century, in Italian cities such as Mantua
Mantua
and Venice.[64] Later, works and pieces composed by native Italian composers of the 19th and early 20th centuries, such as Rossini, Bellini, Donizetti, Verdi
Verdi
and Puccini, are among the most famous operas ever written and today are performed in opera houses across the world. La Scala
La Scala
operahouse in Milan
Milan
is also renowned as one of the best in the world. Famous Italian opera
Italian opera
singers include Enrico Caruso
Enrico Caruso
and Alessandro Bonci. Introduced in the early 1920s, jazz took a particularly strong foothold on Italians, and remained popular despite the xenophobic cultural policies of the Fascist regime. Today, the most notable centres of jazz music in Italy
Italy
include Milan, Rome, and Sicily. Later, Italy
Italy
was at the forefront of the progressive rock movement of the 1970s, with bands like PFM and Goblin. Italy
Italy
was also an important country in the development of disco and electronic music, with Italo disco, known for its futuristic sound and prominent usage of synthesizers and drum machines, being one of the earliest electronic dance genres, as well as European forms of disco aside from Euro disco (which later went on to influence several genres such as Eurodance and Nu-disco). Producers and songwriters such as Giorgio Moroder, who won three Academy Awards for his music, were highly influential in the development of EDM (electronic dance music). Today, Italian pop music is represented annually with the Sanremo Music Festival, which served as inspiration for the Eurovision
Eurovision
song contest, and the Festival of Two Worlds in Spoleto. Singers such as pop diva Mina, classical crossover artist Andrea Bocelli, Grammy
Grammy
winner Laura Pausini, and European chart-topper Eros Ramazzotti
Eros Ramazzotti
have attained international acclaim.

Francesca Caccini

Antonio Caldara

Antonio Vivaldi

Domenico Cimarosa

Giuseppe Tartini

Niccolò Paganini

Gioachino Rossini

Giuseppe Verdi

Arturo Toscanini

Claudio Abbado

Adriano Celentano

Giorgio Moroder

Laura Pausini

Andrea Bocelli

Eros Ramazzotti

Cinema[edit] Main articles: Cinema of Italy
Italy
and List of Italian actors

Some of the most influential people in cinema.

Since the development of the Italian film
Italian film
industry in the early 1900s, Italian filmmakers and performers have, at times, experienced both domestic and international success, and have influenced film movements throughout the world. Following the Fascist era, characterized by the Telefoni Bianchi genre, they got international critical acclaim through the Neorealist genre, and starting from the 1960s through the Commedia all'italiana genre as well as through a number of auteurs such as Federico Fellini, Luchino Visconti, Michelangelo Antonioni
Michelangelo Antonioni
and Pier Paolo Pasolini.[65] Since the early 1960s they also popularized a large number of genres and subgenres, such as Peplum, Macaroni Combat, Giallo, Spaghetti Western, Musicarello, Poliziotteschi and Commedia sexy all'italiana.[65] So far, Italy
Italy
has won 14 Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Film, the most of any country, and 12 Palme d'Or, the second-most of any country.

Sport[edit] Main article: Sport in Italy

Motorcycle racer Giacomo Agostini

Gianluigi Buffon, the highest-priced goalkeeper and the most capped player for the Italian national team

Italians
Italians
have a long tradition in sport. In numerous sports, both individual and team, Italy
Italy
has been very successful. Association football is the most popular sport in Italy. Italy
Italy
is one of the most successful national teams in association football having four FIFA World Cups, one UEFA European Championship and one Olympic tournament. Amongst the players who won the FIFA World Cup
FIFA World Cup
there are Giuseppe Meazza, Silvio Piola
Silvio Piola
(to date the highest goalscorer in Italian first league history), Dino Zoff, Paolo Rossi, Marco Tardelli, Bruno Conti, Gianluigi Buffon, Fabio Cannavaro, Alessandro Del Piero, Andrea Pirlo
Andrea Pirlo
and Francesco Totti. Amongst those who did not win the World Cup but laureated as European champions are Gianni Rivera, Luigi Riva (to date Italy's leading scorer of all time), Sandro Salvadore, Giacomo Bulgarelli, Pietro Anastasi
Pietro Anastasi
and Giacinto Facchetti. Other prominent players who achieved success at club level are Giampiero Boniperti, Romeo Benetti, Roberto Boninsegna, Roberto Bettega, Roberto Baggio and Paolo Maldini. Of the above-mentioned, the goalkeeper Dino Zoff, who served in the National team from 1968 to 1983, is to date the only Italian player to have won both the European championship (in 1968) and the FIFA World Cup
FIFA World Cup
(in 1982), apart from being the oldest winner ever of the World Cup. At club level, to date Italy
Italy
has won a total of 12 European Cup / Champions' Leagues, 9 UEFA Cups / UEFA Europa League and 7 UEFA Cup Winners' Cup. Motorcycle racers such as Giacomo Agostini
Giacomo Agostini
and Valentino Rossi
Valentino Rossi
are recognized as some of the greatest sportstars of all time. Federica Pellegrini, one of the few female swimmers to have set world records in more than one event has been one of the world's most successful swimmers. Italian athletes have won 549 medals at the Summer Olympic Games, and another 114 medals at the Winter Olympic Games. Jessica Rossi scored a Shooting sport
Shooting sport
world record of 75 in the qualification and a world record of 99. As for Olympic games, 663 Italians
Italians
won medals, particularly in Swordsmanship, which makes them the 6th most successful ethnic group in Olympic history. There are more than 2,000,000 Italian skiers in the world, most of them in the north and in the centre.[clarification needed] Italian skiers received good results in the Winter Olympic Games, World Cup, and World Championships. Italians
Italians
are the second of the most who have won the World Cycling Championship more than any other country after Belgium. The Giro d'Italia is a world-famous long-distance cycling race held every May, and constitutes one of the three Grand Tours, along with the Tour de France
France
and the Vuelta a España, each of which last approximately three weeks. Tennis
Tennis
has a significant following near courts and on television. Italian professional tennis players are almost always in the top 100 world ranking of male and female players. Beach tennis with paddle racquet was invented by Italians, and is practised by many people across the country. Volleyball
Volleyball
is played by a lot of amateur players and professional players compete in the Italian Volleyball League, regarded as the best and most difficult volleyball league in the world. The male and female national teams are often in the top 4 ranking of teams in the world. Athletics is a popular sport for Italians, as the Italian World and Olympic champions are very celebrated people. In wrestling, one of the most remarkable wrestlers is Bruno Sammartino, who held the record of the WWWF (World) Heavyweight Championship for over 11 years across two reigns, the first of which is the longest single reign in the promotion's history. Rugby union
Rugby union
was imported from France
France
in the 1910s and has been regularly played since the 1920s; the National team has progressed slowly but significantly during the decades and thanks to the good results achieved in the second half of the 1990s, when they managed to beat historical teams like Scotland, Ireland and eventually France, Italy
Italy
gained the admission to the Five Nation Championship, later renamed Six Nations; Italy
Italy
has taken part to the Rugby World Cup
Rugby World Cup
since its inauguration in 1987 and never missed an edition though to date has never gone past the group stage. Ethnogenesis[edit] Further information: Genetic history of Europe
Europe
and Genetic history of Italy Due to historic demographic shifts in the Italian peninsula throughout history, modern Italians
Italians
have mixed origins of other European groups. This includes pre-Indo-European (such as the Etruscans
Etruscans
and the Ligures)[66] and pre-Roman peoples (such as the Celts), as well as Italic people
Italic people
(such as the Latino-Faliscans, the Osco-Umbrians, the Sicels, and the Veneti), as well significantly from non- Latin
Latin
Greeks. Most Italians
Italians
originate from these two primary elements, and all share a common Latin
Latin
heritage and history. Ancient History[edit] The Italians
Italians
are a Southwestern European population, with origins predominantly from Southern and Western Europe. The earliest modern humans inhabiting Italy
Italy
are believed to have been Paleolithic
Paleolithic
peoples that may have arrived in the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
as early as 35,000 to 40,000 years ago. Italy
Italy
is believed to have been a major Ice-age refuge from which Paleolithic
Paleolithic
humans later colonized Europe. Migrations from what is now Italy
Italy
during the Paleolithic
Paleolithic
and Mesolithic
Mesolithic
link modern Italians
Italians
to the populations of much of Western Europe
Europe
and particularly the British Isles
British Isles
and Atlantic Europe. The Neolithic
Neolithic
colonization of Europe
Europe
from Western Asia
Western Asia
and the Middle East beginning around 10,000 years ago reached Italy, as most of the rest of the continent although, according to the demic diffusion model, its impact was most in the southern and eastern regions of the European continent.[67] Indo-European[edit] Starting in the 4th millennium BC as well as in the Bronze Age, the first wave of migrations into Italy
Italy
of speakers of Indo-European languages occurred, with the appearance of the Remedello, the Rinaldone and the Gaudo cultures. These were later (from the 18th century BC) followed by others that can be identified as Italo-Celts, with the appearance of the Proto-Celtic Canegrate culture[68] and Proto-Italic Terramare culture,[69] both deriving from the Proto- Italo-Celtic
Italo-Celtic
Tumulus and Unetice cultures. Later Celtic La Tène and Hallstatt cultures have been documented in Italy
Italy
as far south as Umbria[70][71] and Latium,[72] inhabited by the Rutuli and the Umbri, closely related to the Ligures.[73] Italics occupied Southern and Central Italy: the "West Italic" group (including the Latins) were the first wave. They had cremation burials and possessed advanced metallurgical techniques. Major tribes included: Latins
Latins
and Falisci
Falisci
in Lazio, Oenotrians and Italii in Calabria, Ausones, Aurunci
Aurunci
and Opici in Campania
Campania
and perhaps Sicels
Sicels
in Sicily. They were followed, and largely displaced by East Italic (Osco-Umbrians) group.[74] Pre-Roman[edit]

Fresco of dancing Peucetian women in the Tomb of the Dancers
Tomb of the Dancers
in Ruvo di Puglia, 4th–5th century BC

By the beginning of the Iron Age the Etruscans
Etruscans
emerged as the dominant civilization on the Italian peninsula. The Etruscans, whose primary home was in Etruria
Etruria
(modern Tuscany), inhabited a large part of central and northern Italy
Italy
extending as far north as the Po Valley
Po Valley
and as far south as Capua.[75] Traditionally the Etruscans
Etruscans
were said to have migrated to Italy
Italy
from Anatolia, but modern archaeological and genetic research suggests descent from the indigenous Villanovan culture of Italy.[76][77][78] The Ligures
Ligures
are said to have been one of the oldest populations in Italy
Italy
and Western Europe,[79] possibly of Pre-Indo-European origin.[80] According to Strabo
Strabo
they were not Celts, but later became influenced by the Celtic culture of their neighbours, and thus are sometimes referred to as Celticized Ligurians or Celto-Ligurians.[81] Their language had affinities with both Italic ( Latin
Latin
and the Osco-Umbrian languages) and Celtic (Gaulish). They primarily inhabited the regions of Liguria, Piedmont, northern Tuscany, western Lombardy, western Emilia-Romagna
Emilia-Romagna
and northern Sardinia, but are believed to have once occupied an even larger portion of ancient Italy
Italy
as far south as Sicily.[82][83] They were also settled in Corsica
Corsica
and in the Provence region along the southern coast of modern France. During the Iron Age, prior to Roman rule, the peoples living in the area of modern Italy
Italy
and the islands were:

Etruscans
Etruscans
(Camunni, Lepontii, Raeti); Ligures
Ligures
(Apuani, Bagienni, Briniates, Corsi, Friniates, Garuli, Hercates, Ilvates, Insubres, Orobii, Laevi, Lapicini, Marici, Statielli, Taurini); Italics (Latins, Falisci, Marsi, Umbri, Volsci, Marrucini, Osci, Aurunci, Ausones, Campanians, Paeligni, Sabines, Bruttii, Frentani, Lucani, Samnites, Pentri, Caraceni, Caudini, Hirpini, Aequi, Fidenates, Hernici, Picentes, Vestini, Morgeti, Sicels, Veneti); Gauls
Gauls
(Ausones, Boii, Carni, Cenomani, Graioceli, Lingones, Segusini, Senones, Salassi, Vertamocorii); Greeks
Greeks
of Magna Graecia, in southern Italy; Sardinians
Sardinians
(Nuragic tribes);

The bulk of today Italy
Italy
was inhabited by Italic tribes
Italic tribes
who occupied the modern regions of Lazio, Umbria, Marche, Abruzzo, Molise, Campania, Basilicata, Calabria, Apulia
Apulia
and Sicily. Sicily, in addition to having an Italic population in the Sicels, also was inhabited by the Sicani
Sicani
and the Elymians, of uncertain origin. The Veneti, most often regarded as an Italic tribe,[84] chiefly inhabited the Veneto, but extended as far east as Friuli-Venezia Giulia
Friuli-Venezia Giulia
and Istria, and had colonies as far south as Lazio.[85][86] Beginning in the 8th century BC, Greeks
Greeks
arrived in Italy
Italy
and founded cities along the coast of southern Italy
Italy
and eastern Sicily, which became known as Magna Graecia
Magna Graecia
("Greater Greece"). The Greeks
Greeks
were frequently at war with the native Italic tribes, but nonetheless managed to Hellenize and assimilate a good portion of the indigenous population located along eastern Sicily
Sicily
and the Southern coasts of the Italian mainland.[87][88] According to Beloch the number of Greek citizens in south Italy
Italy
at its greatest extent reached only 80,000–90,000, while the local people subjected by the Greeks
Greeks
were between 400,000–600,000.[89][90] By the 4th and 3rd century BC, Greek power in Italy
Italy
was challenged and began to decline, and many Greeks
Greeks
were pushed out of peninsular Italy
Italy
by the native Oscan, Brutti and Lucani
Lucani
tribes.[91] The Gauls
Gauls
crossed the Alps
Alps
and invaded northern Italy
Italy
in the 4th and 3rd centuries BC, settling in the area that became known as Cisalpine Gaul ("Gaul on this side of the Alps"). Although named after the Gauls, the region was mostly inhabited by indigenous tribes, namely the Ligures, Etruscans, Veneti and Euganei. Estimates by Beloch and Brunt suggest that in the 3rd century BC the Gaulish settlers of north Italy
Italy
numbered between 130,000–140,000 out of a total population of about 1.4 million.[90][92][92] According to Pliny and Livy, after the invasion of the Gauls, some of the Etruscans
Etruscans
living in the Po Valley sought refuge in the Alps
Alps
and became known as the Raeti.[93][94] The Raeti
Raeti
inhabited the region of Trentino-Alto Adige, as well as eastern Switzerland
Switzerland
and Tyrol in western Austria. The Ladins of north-eastern Italy
Italy
and the Romansh people
Romansh people
of Switzerland
Switzerland
are said to be descended from the Raeti.[95] Roman[edit] Main article: Colonia (Roman)

Map of roman coloniae during the second century in Italy

The Romans—who according to legend originally consisted of three ancient tribes: Latins, Sabines
Sabines
and Etruscans[96]—would go on to conquer the whole Italian peninsula. During the Roman period hundreds of cities and colonies were established throughout Italy, including Florence, Turin, Como, Pavia, Padua, Verona, Vicenza, Trieste
Trieste
and many others. Initially many of these cities were colonized by Latins, but later also included colonists belonging to the other Italic tribes
Italic tribes
who had become Latinized and joined to Rome. After the Roman conquest of Italy
Italy
"the whole of Italy
Italy
had become Latinized".[97] After the Roman conquest of Cisalpine Gaul
Cisalpine Gaul
and the widespread confiscations of Gallic territory, much of the Gaulish population was killed or expelled.[98][99] Many colonies were established by the Romans in the former Gallic territory of Cisalpine Gaul, which was then settled by Roman and Italic people. These colonies included Bologna, Modena, Reggio Emilia, Parma, Piacenza, Cremona
Cremona
and Forlì. According to Strabo:

"The greater part of the country used to be occupied by the Boii, Ligures, Senones, and Gaesatae; but since the Boii
Boii
have been driven out, and since both the Gaesatae and the Senones
Senones
have been annihilated, only the Ligurian tribes and the Roman colonies are left."[99]

The Boii, the most powerful and numerous of the Gallic tribes, were expelled by the Romans after 191 BC and settled in Bohemia.[100] Population movement and exchange among people from different regions was not uncommon during the Roman period. Latin
Latin
colonies were founded at Ariminum in 268 and at Firmum in 264,[101] while large numbers of Picentes, who previously inhabited the region, were moved to Paestum and settled along the river Silarus in Campania. Between 180–179 BC, 47,000 Ligures
Ligures
belonging to the Apuani
Apuani
tribe were removed from their home along the modern Ligurian-Tuscan border and deported to Samnium, an area corresponding to inland Campania, while Latin
Latin
colonies were established in their place at Pisa, Lucca
Lucca
and Luni.[102] Such population movements contributed to the rapid Romanization and Latinization of Italy.[103] Between the two millenniums[edit]

Lombard (Northern Italian) colonies of Sicily: in light blue: the cities where Gallo-Italic language is spoken today. In dark blue: the cities where there is a good influence of the Gallo-Italic language. In purple: ancient Gallo-Italic colonies, the influence in these cities is variable, also some districts of Messina
Messina
were colonized.

A large Germanic confederation of Scirii, Heruli, Turcilingi
Turcilingi
and Rugians, led by Odoacer, invaded and settled Italy
Italy
in 476.[104] They were preceded by 120,000 Alemanni, including 30,000 warriors with their families, who settled in the Po Valley
Po Valley
in 371,[105] and by 100,000 Burgundians
Burgundians
who settled between North Western Italy
Italy
and Southern France
France
in 443.[106] The Germanic tribe of the Ostrogoths
Ostrogoths
led by Theoderic the Great
Theoderic the Great
conquered Italy
Italy
and presented themselves as upholders of Latin
Latin
culture, mixing Roman culture together with Gothic culture, in order to legitimize their rule amongst Roman subjects who had a long-held belief in the superiority of Roman culture over foreign "barbarian" Germanic culture.[107] The number of Goths under Theodoric has been variously estimated between 200,000 and 250,000.[108] Since Italy
Italy
had a population of several million, the Goths did not constitute a significant addition to the local population.[109] At the height of their power, there were about 200,000 Ostrogoths
Ostrogoths
in a population of 6 or 7 million.[106][110] Before them, Radagaisus
Radagaisus
led between 200,000 and 400,000 Goths in Italy
Italy
in 406 perhaps too high as ancient sources routinely inflated the numbers of tribal invaders.[111] After the Gothic War, which devastated the local population, the Ostrogoths
Ostrogoths
were defeated. But in the sixth century, another Germanic tribe known as the Longobards invaded Italy, which in the meantime had been reconquered by the East Roman or Byzantine Empire. The Longobards were a small minority compared to the roughly four million people in Italy
Italy
at the time.[112] They were no more than 500,000 settlers – 10-15% of the total population.[112][113] They were later followed by the Bavarians
Bavarians
and the Franks, who conquered and ruled most of Italy. Numerous groups of Slavs
Slavs
and Bulgars, pushed by the Khazars, settled in the Italian peninsula between the 7th and the 8th centuries.[114][115][116] Following Roman rule, Sicily
Sicily
and Sardinia
Sardinia
were conquered by the Vandals, then by the Ostrogoths, and finally by the Byzantines. At one point, while Sardinia
Sardinia
grew increasingly autonomous from Byzantine rule to the point of organizing itself into four sovereign Kingdoms or "Judgedoms" (Judicati) that would last until the Aragonese conquest in the 15th century. In 687, Sicily
Sicily
became the Byzantine Theme of Sicily, during the course of the Arab-Byzantine wars Sicily
Sicily
gradually came became the Emirate of Sicily
Sicily
(831–1072). Later a series of conflicts with the Normans; would bring about the establishment of the County of Sicily, and eventually the Kingdom of Sicily, the Lombards
Lombards
of Sicily (not to be confused with the Longobards), coming from the Northern Italy, settled in the central and eastern part of Sicily. After the marriage between the Norman Roger I of Sicily
Sicily
with Adelaide del Vasto, descendant of Aleramici
Aleramici
family, many Northern Italian colonisers (known collectively as Lombards) left their homeland, in the Aleramici's possessions in Piedmont
Piedmont
and Liguria
Liguria
(then known as Lombardy), to settle on the island of Sicily.[117][117][118] Before them, other Lombards
Lombards
arrived in Sicily, with an expedition departed in 1038, led by the Byzantine commander George Maniakes,[119] which for a very short time managed to snatch Messina
Messina
and Syracuse from the Arabs. The Lombards
Lombards
who arrived with the Byzantines settled in Maniace, Randazzo
Randazzo
and Troina, while a group of Genoese and other Lombards
Lombards
from Liguria
Liguria
settled in Caltagirone.[120]

Map of Tuscan settlements in Sicily.

During the subsequent Swabian rule under the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II, who spent most of his life as king of Sicily
Sicily
in his court in Palermo, the Islamic element was progressively eradicated until the massive deportation of the last Muslims of Sicily.[121] As a result of Arab expulsion, many towns across Sicily
Sicily
were left depopulated. By the 12th century, Swabian kings granted immigrants from northern Italy
Italy
(particularly Piedmont, Lombardy
Lombardy
and Liguria), Latium
Latium
and Tuscany
Tuscany
in central Italy, and French regions of Normandy, Provence
Provence
and Brittany
Brittany
(all collectively known as Lombards.)[122][123] settlement into Sicily, re-establishing the Latin
Latin
element into the island, a legacy which can be seen in the many Gallo-Italic dialects and towns found in the interior and western parts of Sicily, brought by these settlers.[124] It is believed that the Lombard immigrants in Sicily
Sicily
over a couple of centuries were a total of about 200,000, a quite significant.[125][126][127] An estimated 20,000 Swabians
Swabians
and 40,000 Normans
Normans
settled in the southern half of Italy
Italy
during this period.[128] Additional Tuscan migrants settled in Sicily
Sicily
after the Florentine conquest of Pisa
Pisa
in 1406.[129] Some of the expelled Muslims were deported to Lucera
Lucera
(Lugêrah, as it was known in Arabic). Their numbers eventually reached between 15,000 and 20,000,[130] leading Lucera
Lucera
to be called Lucaera Saracenorum because it represented the last stronghold of Islamic presence in Italy. The colony thrived for 75 years until it was sacked in 1300 by Christian forces under the command of the Angevin Charles II of Naples. The city's Muslim inhabitants were exiled or sold into slavery,[131] with many finding asylum in Albania
Albania
across the Adriatic Sea.[132] After the expulsions of Muslims in Lucera, Charles II replaced Lucera's Saracens with Christians, chiefly Burgundian and Provençal soldiers and farmers,[133] following an initial settlement of 140 Provençal families in 1273.[134] A remnant of the descendants of these Provençal colonists, still speaking a Franco-Provençal dialect, has survived till the present day in the villages of Faeto and Celle di San Vito. Modern period[edit]

The founding fathers of Italy
Italy
and Young Europe, Giuseppe Garibaldi (left) and Giuseppe Mazzini
Giuseppe Mazzini
(right)

Substantial migrations of Lombards
Lombards
to Naples, Rome
Rome
and Palermo, continued in the 16th and 17th centuries, driven by the constant overcrowding in the north.[135][136] Beside that, minor but significant settlements of Slavs
Slavs
(the so-called Schiavoni) and Arbereshe in Italy
Italy
have been recorded. The geographical and cultural proximity with Southern Italy
Italy
pushed Albanians to cross the Strait of Otranto, especially after Skanderbeg's death and the conquest of the Balkans
Balkans
by the Ottomans. In defense of the Christian religion and in search of soldiers loyal to the Spanish crown, Alfonso V of Aragon, also king of Naples, invited Arbereshe soldiers to move to Italy
Italy
with their families. In return the king guaranteed to Albanians lots of land and a favourable taxation. Arbereshe and Schiavoni were used to repopulate abandoned villages or villages whose population had died in earthquakes, plagues and other catastrophes. Albanian soldiers were also used to quell rebellions in Calabria. Major Slavic colonies were in Friuli,[137] Veneto, Marche, Sicily[138] and throughout the Kingdom of Naples
Naples
(including Apulia, Molise, Abruzzo, Calabria, Terra di Lavoro
Terra di Lavoro
and Campania).[139] According to a consolidated tradition of historical studies, there are eight waves of immigration of Albanians in Italy, to which must be added: the movements within the territory of southern Italy
Italy
and the latest migration (the ninth) in recent years.[140] A remnant of the descendants of these Albanian colonists, still speaking an Albanian language, has survived till the present day in many areas of Italy. Their numbers are between 80,000[141] and 260,000 people.[142][143] In this period, large groups of ethnic Bavarians
Bavarians
and Swabians
Swabians
settled in the northern half of the country. Most of them were quickly assimilated in the native population. Nevertheless, in 1882, 100,000 German speakers were still living in the Po valley.[144] Italian diaspora[edit] Main articles: Italian diaspora
Italian diaspora
and Oriundo

Napoleon, the most notable Italo-French personality, and Pope
Pope
Francis, Argentine of Italian ancestry.[145]

Italian migration outside Italy
Italy
took place, in different migrating cycles, for centuries.[146] A diaspora in high numbers took place after its unification in 1861 and continued through 1914 with the emergence of the First World War. This rapid outflow and migration of Italian people
Italian people
across the globe can be attributed to factors such as the internal economic slump that emerged alongside its unification, family and the industrial boom that occurred in the world surrounding Italy.[147][148] Italy
Italy
after its unification did not seek nationalism but instead sought work.[147] Sadly, a unified state did not automatically constitute a sound economy. The global economic expansion, ranging from Britain's Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
in the late 18th and through mid 19th century, to the use of slave labor in the Americas
Americas
did not hit Italy
Italy
until much later (with the exception of the "industrial triangle" between Milan, Genoa
Genoa
and Turin)[147] This lag resulted in a deficit of work available in Italy
Italy
and the need to look for work elsewhere.The mass industrialization and urbanization globally resulted in higher labor mobility and the need for Italians
Italians
to stay anchored to the land for economic support declined.[148] Moreover, better opportunities for work were not the only incentive to move; family played a major role and the dispersion of Italians globally. Italians
Italians
were more likely to migrate to countries where they had family established beforehand.[148] These ties are shown to be stronger in many cases than the monetary incentive for migration, taking into account a familial base and possibly an Italian migrant community, greater connections to find opportunities for work, housing etc.[148] Thus, thousands of Italian men and women left Italy
Italy
and dispersed around the world and this trend only increased as World War I approached. Notably, it was not as if Italians
Italians
had never migrated before, internal migration between North and Southern Italy
Italy
before unification was common. Northern Italy
Italy
caught on to the global industrialization sooner than Southern Italy, therefore it was considered more modern technologically, and tended to be inhabited by the bourgeoisie.[149] Alternatively, rural and agro-intensive Southern Italy
Italy
was seen as economically backward and was mainly populated by lower class peasantry.[149] Given these disparities, prior to unification (and arguably after) the two sections of Italy, North and South were essentially seen by Italians
Italians
and other nations as separate countries. So, migrating from one part of Italy
Italy
to next could be seen as though they were indeed migrating to another country or even continent.[149] Furthermore, large-scale migrations phenomena did not recede until the late 1920s, well into the Fascist regime, and one last wave can be observed after the end of the Second World War. Over 80 million people of full or part Italian descent live outside Europe, with nearly 40 million living in South America
South America
(primarily Brazil, Argentina, Venezuela
Venezuela
and Uruguay), about 19 million living in North America ( United States
United States
and Canada) and 1 million in Oceania ( Australia
Australia
and New Zealand). Others live in other parts of Europe (primarily The United Kingdom, Germany, France
France
and Switzerland). Most Italian citizens living abroad live in other nations of the European Union. Autochthonous Italian communities outside Italy[edit] Main articles: Istrian Italians, Dalmatian Italians, Swiss Italian, Italians
Italians
of Crimea, Corsican people, and Maltese Italians In both the Slovenian and Croatian portions of Istria, in Dalmatia
Dalmatia
as well as in the city of Rijeka, Italian refers to autochthonous speakers of Italian and various Italo-Dalmatian languages, natives in the region since before the inception of the Venetian Republic. In the aftermath of the Istrian exodus
Istrian exodus
following the Second World War, most Italian-speakers are today predominantly located in the west and south of Istria, and number about 30,000.[150] The number of inhabitants with Italian ancestry is likely much greater but undeterminable. In the first Austrian census carried out in 1870 the number of Italian Dalmatians varied between 40,000 and 50,000 amongst the about 250,000 inhabitants of Dalmatia, or 20% of the total Dalmatian population.[151] In the French County of Nice, autochthonous speakers of regional languages of Italy
Italy
(Ligurian and Piedmontese), are natives in the region since before annexation to France
France
in 1860. The number of inhabitants with Italian ancestry is generally indeterminable, and the use of French language
French language
is now ubiquitous. In addition, Corsica
Corsica
was a part of the Republic of Genoa
Genoa
until 1768 and most of the islanders still have a certain level of proficiency of Corsican, a language of the Italo-Dalmatian family closely related to Tuscan. The Italian language ceased to have official status in Corsica
Corsica
in 1859[152] when it was supplanted by French and a process of de-Italianization was started by the French government in Corsica
Corsica
(and in 1861 the Nizzardo area). A similar process happened in Malta, where the Maltese Italians
Maltese Italians
have practically disappeared in the last two centuries after Britain took control of the island during Napoleon
Napoleon
times. Swiss Italian
Swiss Italian
is spoken as natively by about 350,000 people in the canton of Ticino
Ticino
and in the southern part of Graubünden (Canton Grigioni). Swiss-Italian also refers to the Italian speaking population in this region (southern Switzerland) close to the border with Italy. Swiss Italian
Swiss Italian
dialects are spoken in emigrant communities around the world, including in Australia. See also[edit]

List of Italians List of Sardinians List of Sicilians Sicilians

Notes[edit]

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colony of Ariminum .... the annexation of the whole Picentine land save for … Ancona and … Asculum; the transportation of large numbers of Picentes
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