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Dante Alighieri
Dante Alighieri
(Italian: [duˈrante deʎʎ aliˈɡjɛːri]), simply called Dante (Italian: [ˈdante], UK: /ˈdænti/, US: /ˈdɑːnteɪ/; c. 1265 – 1321), was a major Italian poet of the Late Middle Ages/Early Renaissance. His Divine Comedy, originally called Comedìa (modern Italian: Commedia) and later christened Divina by Boccaccio, is widely considered the most important poem of the Middle Ages and the greatest literary work in the Italian language.[1][2] In the late Middle Ages, most poetry was written in Latin, accessible only to the most educated readers. In De vulgari eloquentia
De vulgari eloquentia
(On Eloquence in the Vernacular), however, Dante defended use of the vernacular in literature. He would even write in the Tuscan dialect for works such as The New Life (1295) and the Divine Comedy; this highly unorthodox choice set a precedent that important later Italian writers such as Petrarch
Petrarch
and Boccaccio
Boccaccio
would follow. Dante was instrumental in establishing the literature of Italy, and his depictions of Hell, Purgatory, and Heaven
Heaven
provided inspiration for the larger body of Western art.[3][4] He is cited as an influence on John Milton, Geoffrey Chaucer
Geoffrey Chaucer
and Alfred Tennyson, among many others. In addition, the first use of the interlocking three-line rhyme scheme, or the terza rima, is attributed to him. In Italy, he is often referred to as il Sommo Poeta ("the Supreme Poet") and il Poeta; he, Petrarch, and Boccaccio
Boccaccio
are also called "the three fountains" or "the three crowns".

Contents

1 Life

1.1 Early life 1.2 Education and poetry 1.3 Florence
Florence
and politics 1.4 Exile and death

2 Legacy 3 Works 4 Notes 5 References 6 External links

Life[edit] Early life[edit] Dante was born in Florence, Republic of Florence, present-day Italy. The exact date of his birth is unknown, although it is generally believed to be around 1265. This can be deduced from autobiographic allusions in the Divine Comedy. Its first section, the Inferno, begins, "Nel mezzo del cammin di nostra vita" ("Midway upon the journey of our life"), implying that Dante was around 35 years old, since the average lifespan according to the Bible (Psalm 89:10, Vulgate) is 70 years; and since his imaginary travel to the nether world took place in 1300, he was most probably born around 1265. Some verses of the Paradiso section of the Divine Comedy
Divine Comedy
also provide a possible clue that he was born under the sign of Gemini: "As I revolved with the eternal twins, I saw revealed, from hills to river outlets, the threshing-floor that makes us so ferocious" (XXII 151–154). In 1265, the sun was in Gemini between approximately May 11 and June 11 (Julian calendar).[5] Giovanni Boccaccio
Boccaccio
described Dante's appearance and demeanor as follows: "the poet was of middle height, and in his later years he walked somewhat bent over, with a grave and gentle gait. He was clad always in most seemly attire, such as befitted his ripe years. His face was long, his nose aquiline, and his eyes big rather than small. His jaws were large, and his lower lip protruded. He had a brown complexion, his hair and beard were thick, black, and curly, and his countenance was always melancholy and thoughtful."[6]

Portrait of Dante, from a fresco in the Palazzo dei Giudici, Florence

Dante claimed that his family descended from the ancient Romans (Inferno, XV, 76), but the earliest relative he could mention by name was Cacciaguida
Cacciaguida
degli Elisei (Paradiso, XV, 135), born no earlier than about 1100. Dante's father, Alaghiero[7] or Alighiero di Bellincione, was a White Guelph who suffered no reprisals after the Ghibellines won the Battle of Montaperti
Battle of Montaperti
in the middle of the 13th century. This suggests that Alighiero or his family may have enjoyed some protective prestige and status, although some suggest that the politically inactive Alighiero was of such low standing that he was not considered worth exiling.[8] Dante's family was loyal to the Guelphs, a political alliance that supported the Papacy
Papacy
and which was involved in complex opposition to the Ghibellines, who were backed by the Holy Roman Emperor. The poet's mother was Bella, likely a member of the Abati family.[7] She died when Dante was not yet ten years old, and Alighiero soon married again, to Lapa di Chiarissimo Cialuffi. It is uncertain whether he really married her, since widowers were socially limited in such matters, but this woman definitely bore him two children, Dante's half-brother Francesco and half-sister Tana (Gaetana). When Dante was 12, he was promised in marriage to Gemma di Manetto Donati, daughter of Manetto Donati, member of the powerful Donati family.[7] Contracting marriages at this early age was quite common and involved a formal ceremony, including contracts signed before a notary. But by this time Dante had fallen in love with another, Beatrice Portinari (known also as Bice), whom he first met when he was only nine. Years after his marriage to Gemma he claims to have met Beatrice again; he wrote several sonnets to Beatrice but never mentioned Gemma in any of his poems. The exact date of his marriage is not known: the only certain information is that, before his exile in 1301, he had three children (Pietro, Jacopo and Antonia).[7]

Dante in Verona, by Antonio Cotti

Dante fought with the Guelph cavalry at the Battle of Campaldino (June 11, 1289).[9] This victory brought about a reformation of the Florentine constitution. To take any part in public life, one had to enroll in one of the city's many commercial or artisan guilds, so Dante entered the Physicians' and Apothecaries' Guild. In the following years, his name is occasionally recorded as speaking or voting in the various councils of the republic. A substantial portion of minutes from such meetings in the years 1298–1300 was lost, however, so the true extent of Dante's participation in the city's councils is uncertain. Gemma bore Dante several children. Although several others subsequently claimed to be his offspring, it is likely that only Jacopo, Pietro, Giovanni, and Antonia were his actual children. Antonia later became a nun, taking the name Sister Beatrice. Education and poetry[edit]

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Not much is known about Dante's education; he presumably studied at home or in a chapter school attached to a church or monastery in Florence. It is known that he studied Tuscan poetry and that he admired the compositions of the Bolognese poet Guido Guinizelli—whom in Purgatorio
Purgatorio
XXVI he characterized as his "father"—at a time when the Sicilian school
Sicilian school
(Scuola poetica Siciliana), a cultural group from Sicily, was becoming known in Tuscany. His interests brought him to discover the Provençal poetry of the troubadours, such as Arnaut Daniel, and the Latin writers of classical antiquity, including Cicero, Ovid
Ovid
and especially Virgil.[10]

Statue of Dante at the Uffizi, Florence

Dante said he first met Beatrice Portinari, daughter of Folco Portinari, at age nine, and claimed to have fallen in love with her "at first sight", apparently without even talking with her.[11] He saw her frequently after age 18, often exchanging greetings in the street, but never knew her well. In effect, he set an example of so-called courtly love, a phenomenon developed in French and Provençal poetry of prior centuries. Dante's experience of such love was typical, but his expression of it was unique. It was in the name of this love that Dante left his imprint on the dolce stil novo (sweet new style, a term which Dante himself coined), and he would join other contemporary poets and writers in exploring never-before-emphasized aspects of love (Amore). Love for Beatrice (as Petrarch
Petrarch
would show for Laura somewhat differently) would be his reason for poetry and for living, together with political passions. In many of his poems, she is depicted as semi-divine, watching over him constantly and providing spiritual instruction, sometimes harshly. When Beatrice died in 1290, Dante sought refuge in Latin literature.[12] The Convivio chronicles his having read Boethius's De consolatione philosophiae and Cicero's De Amicitia. He then dedicated himself to philosophical studies at religious schools like the Dominican one in Santa Maria Novella. He took part in the disputes that the two principal mendicant orders ( Franciscan
Franciscan
and Dominican) publicly or indirectly held in Florence, the former explaining the doctrines of the mystics and of St. Bonaventure, the latter expounding on the theories of St. Thomas Aquinas.[13] At 18, Dante met Guido Cavalcanti, Lapo Gianni, Cino da Pistoia and soon after Brunetto Latini; together they became the leaders of the dolce stil novo. Brunetto later received special mention in the Divine Comedy
Comedy
(Inferno, XV, 28) for what he had taught Dante: Nor speaking less on that account I go With Ser Brunetto, and I ask who are his most known and most eminent companions.[14] Some fifty poetical commentaries by Dante are known (the so-called Rime, rhymes), others being included in the later Vita Nuova and Convivio. Other studies are reported, or deduced from Vita Nuova or the Comedy, regarding painting and music.

Illustration for Purgatory
Purgatory
(Purgatorio) by Paul Gustave Louis Christophe Doré

Illustration for Paradiso (of The Divine Comedy) by Paul Gustave Louis Christophe Doré

Illustration for Paradiso (of The Divine Comedy) by Paul Gustave Louis Christophe Doré

Florence
Florence
and politics[edit]

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Further information: Guelphs and Ghibellines Dante, like most Florentines of his day, was embroiled in the Guelph–Ghibelline conflict. He fought in the Battle of Campaldino (June 11, 1289), with the Florentine Guelphs against Arezzo Ghibellines;[9][15] then in 1294 he was among the escorts of Charles Martel of Anjou (grandson of Charles I of Naples, more commonly called Charles of Anjou) while he was in Florence. To further his political career, he became a pharmacist. He did not intend to practice as one, but a law issued in 1295 required nobles aspiring to public office to be enrolled in one of the Corporazioni delle Arti e dei Mestieri, so Dante obtained admission to the Apothecaries' Guild. This profession was not inappropriate since at that time books were sold from apothecaries' shops. As a politician, he accomplished little but held various offices over some years in a city rife with political unrest.

Dante Alighieri, detail from Luca Signorelli's fresco, Chapel of San Brizio, Orvieto Cathedral

After defeating the Ghibellines, the Guelphs divided into two factions: the White Guelphs (Guelfi Bianchi)—Dante's party, led by Vieri dei Cerchi—and the Black Guelphs (Guelfi Neri), led by Corso Donati. Although the split was along family lines at first, ideological differences arose based on opposing views of the papal role in Florentine affairs, with the Blacks supporting the Pope and the Whites wanting more freedom from Rome. The Whites took power first and expelled the Blacks. In response, Pope Boniface VIII
Pope Boniface VIII
planned a military occupation of Florence. In 1301, Charles of Valois, brother of King Philip IV of France, was expected to visit Florence
Florence
because the Pope had appointed him peacemaker for Tuscany. But the city's government had treated the Pope's ambassadors badly a few weeks before, seeking independence from papal influence. It was believed that Charles had received other unofficial instructions, so the council sent a delegation to Rome to ascertain the Pope's intentions. Dante was one of the delegates. Exile and death[edit] Pope Boniface quickly dismissed the other delegates and asked Dante alone to remain in Rome. At the same time (November 1, 1301), Charles of Valois entered Florence
Florence
with the Black Guelphs, who in the next six days destroyed much of the city and killed many of their enemies. A new Black Guelph government was installed, and Cante de' Gabrielli da Gubbio
Gubbio
was appointed podestà of the city. In March 1302, Dante, a White Guelph by affiliation, along with the Gherardini family, was condemned to exile for two years and ordered to pay a large fine.[16] Dante was accused of corruption and financial wrongdoing by the Black Guelphs for the time that Dante was serving as city prior (Florence's highest position) for two months in 1300.[17] The poet was still in Rome in 1302 where the Pope, who had backed the Black Guelphs, had "suggested" that Dante stay. Florence
Florence
under the Black Guelphs therefore considered Dante an absconder.[18] Dante did not pay the fine, in part because he believed he was not guilty and in part because all his assets in Florence
Florence
had been seized by the Black Guelphs. He was condemned to perpetual exile; if he returned to Florence
Florence
without paying the fine, he could have been burned at the stake. (In June 2008, nearly seven centuries after his death, the city council of Florence
Florence
passed a motion rescinding Dante's sentence.)[19]

A recreated death mask of Dante Alighieri
Dante Alighieri
in Palazzo Vecchio, Florence

Dante's tomb exterior and interior in Ravenna, built in 1780

He took part in several attempts by the White Guelphs to regain power, but these failed due to treachery. Dante, bitter at the treatment he received from his enemies, also grew disgusted with the infighting and ineffectiveness of his erstwhile allies and vowed to become a party of one. He went to Verona
Verona
as a guest of Bartolomeo I della Scala, then moved to Sarzana
Sarzana
in Liguria. Later he is supposed to have lived in Lucca
Lucca
with a woman called Gentucca, who made his stay comfortable (and was later gratefully mentioned in Purgatorio, XXIV, 37). Some speculative sources claim he visited Paris between 1308 and 1310, and other sources even less trustworthy took him to Oxford: these claims, first occurring in Boccaccio's book on Dante several decades after his death, seem inspired by readers who were impressed with the poet's wide learning and erudition. Evidently, Dante's command of philosophy and his literary interests deepened in exile and when he was no longer busy with the day-to-day business of Florentine domestic politics, and this is evidenced in his prose writings in this period, but there is no real evidence that he ever left Italy. Dante's Immensa Dei dilectione testante to Henry VII of Luxembourg
Luxembourg
confirms his residence "beneath the springs of Arno, near Tuscany" in March 1311. In 1310, Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
Henry VII of Luxembourg
Luxembourg
marched into Italy at the head of 5,000 troops. Dante saw in him a new Charlemagne
Charlemagne
who would restore the office of the Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
to its former glory and also retake Florence
Florence
from the Black Guelphs. He wrote to Henry and several Italian princes, demanding that they destroy the Black Guelphs. Mixing religion and private concerns in his writings, he invoked the worst anger of God against his city and suggested several particular targets that were also his personal enemies. It was during this time that he wrote De Monarchia, proposing a universal monarchy under Henry VII.

Statue of Dante in the Piazza Santa Croce
Piazza Santa Croce
in Florence, Enrico Pazzi, 1865

At some point during his exile, he conceived of the Comedy, but the date is uncertain. The work is much more assured and on a larger scale than anything he had produced in Florence; it is likely he would have undertaken such a work only after he realized his political ambitions, which had been central to him up to his banishment, had been halted for some time, possibly forever. It is also noticeable that Beatrice has returned to his imagination with renewed force and with a wider meaning than in the Vita Nuova; in Convivio (written c.1304–07) he had declared that the memory of this youthful romance belonged to the past. An early outside indication that the poem was underway is a notice by Francesco da Barberino, tucked into his Documenti d'Amore (Lessons of Love), written probably in 1314 or early 1315. Speaking of Virgil, Francesco notes in appreciative words that Dante followed the Roman classic in a poem called "Comedy" and that the setting of this poem (or part of it) was the underworld; i.e., hell.[20] The brief note gives no incontestable indication that he himself had seen or read even the Inferno or that this part had been published at the time, but it indicates composition was well underway and that the sketching of the poem might have begun some years before. (It has been suggested that a knowledge of Dante's work also underlies some of the illuminations in Francesco da Barberino's earlier Officiolum [c. 1305–08], a manuscript that came to light only in 2003.[21]) We know that the Inferno had been published by 1317; this is established by quoted lines interspersed in the margins of contemporary dated records from Bologna, but there is no certainty as to whether the three parts of the poem were each published in full or, rather, a few cantos at a time. Paradiso seems to have been published posthumously. In Florence, Baldo d'Aguglione pardoned most of the White Guelphs in exile and allowed them to return. However, Dante had gone too far in his violent letters to Arrigo (Henry VII) and his sentence was not revoked. In 1312 Henry assaulted Florence
Florence
and defeated the Black Guelphs, but there is no evidence that Dante was involved. Some say he refused to participate in the assault on his city by a foreigner; others suggest that he had become unpopular with the White Guelphs, too, and that any trace of his passage had carefully been removed. Henry VII died (from a fever) in 1313, and with him any hope for Dante to see Florence again. He returned to Verona, where Cangrande I della Scala
Cangrande I della Scala
allowed him to live in certain security and, presumably, in a fair degree of prosperity. Cangrande was admitted to Dante's Paradise (Paradiso, XVII, 76). During the period of his exile Dante corresponded with Dominican theologian Fr. Nicholas Brunacci OP [1240–1322] who had been a student of Thomas Aquinas
Thomas Aquinas
at the Santa Sabina studium in Rome, and later at Paris.[22][23] and of Albert the Great
Albert the Great
at the Cologne studium.[24] Brunacci became lector at the Santa Sabina studium, forerunner of the Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas, and later served in the papal curia.[25] In 1315, Florence
Florence
was forced by Uguccione della Faggiuola
Uguccione della Faggiuola
(the military officer controlling the town) to grant an amnesty to those in exile, including Dante. But for this, Florence
Florence
required public penance in addition to a heavy fine. Dante refused, preferring to remain in exile. When Uguccione defeated Florence, Dante's death sentence was commuted to house arrest on condition that he go to Florence
Florence
to swear he would never enter the town again. He refused to go, and his death sentence was confirmed and extended to his sons. He still hoped late in life that he might be invited back to Florence
Florence
on honorable terms. For Dante, exile was nearly a form of death, stripping him of much of his identity and his heritage. He addressed the pain of exile in Paradiso, XVII (55–60), where Cacciaguida, his great-great-grandfather, warns him what to expect:

Mural of Dante in the Uffizi
Uffizi
Gallery, by Andrea del Castagno, c. 1450

... Tu lascerai ogne cosa diletta più caramente; e questo è quello strale che l'arco de lo essilio pria saetta. Tu proverai sì come sa di sale lo pane altrui, e come è duro calle lo scendere e 'l salir per l'altrui scale ...

... You shall leave everything you love most: this is the arrow that the bow of exile shoots first. You are to know the bitter taste of others' bread, how salty it is, and know how hard a path it is for one who goes ascending and descending others' stairs ...

As for the hope of returning to Florence, he describes it as if he had already accepted its impossibility (in Paradiso, XXV, 1–9):

Se mai continga che 'l poema sacro al quale ha posto mano e cielo e terra, sì che m'ha fatto per molti anni macro, vinca la crudeltà che fuor mi serra del bello ovile ov'io dormi' agnello, nimico ai lupi che li danno guerra; con altra voce omai, con altro vello ritornerò poeta, e in sul fonte del mio battesmo prenderò 'l cappello ...

If it ever comes to pass that the sacred poem to which both heaven and earth have set their hand so as to have made me lean for many years should overcome the cruelty that bars me from the fair sheepfold where I slept as a lamb, an enemy to the wolves that make war on it, with another voice now and other fleece I shall return a poet and at the font of my baptism take the laurel crown ...

Alighieri accepted Prince Guido Novello da Polenta's invitation to Ravenna
Ravenna
in 1318. He finished Paradiso, and died in 1321 (aged 56) while returning to Ravenna
Ravenna
from a diplomatic mission to Venice, possibly of malaria contracted there. He was buried in Ravenna
Ravenna
at the Church of San Pier Maggiore (later called San Francesco). Bernardo Bembo, praetor of Venice, erected a tomb for him in 1483.

Cenotaph
Cenotaph
in Basilica of Santa Croce, Florence

On the grave, some verses of Bernardo Canaccio, a friend of Dante, dedicated to Florence:

parvi Florentia mater amoris

Florence, mother of little love

Legacy[edit] See also: Tomb of Dante The first formal biography of Dante was the Vita di Dante (also known as Trattatello in laude di Dante), written after 1348 by Giovanni Boccaccio;[26] Although several statements and episodes of it have been deemed unreliable on the basis of modern research, an earlier account of Dante's life and works had been included in the Nuova Cronica of the Florentine chronicler Giovanni Villani.[27] Florence
Florence
eventually came to regret Dante's exile, and the city made repeated requests for the return of his remains. The custodians of the body in Ravenna
Ravenna
refused, at one point going so far as to conceal the bones in a false wall of the monastery. Nonetheless, a tomb was built for him in Florence
Florence
in 1829, in the Basilica of Santa Croce. That tomb has been empty ever since, with Dante's body remaining in Ravenna, far from the land he had loved so dearly. The front of his tomb in Florence
Florence
reads Onorate l'altissimo poeta—which roughly translates as "Honor the most exalted poet". The phrase is a quote from the fourth canto of the Inferno, depicting Virgil's welcome as he returns among the great ancient poets spending eternity in limbo. The ensuing line, L'ombra sua torna, ch'era dipartita ("his spirit, which had left us, returns"), is poignantly absent from the empty tomb. Italy's first dreadnought battleship was completed in 1913 and named Dante Alighieri
Dante Alighieri
in honor of him. On April 30, 1921, in honor of the 600th anniversary of Dante's death, Pope Benedict XV
Benedict XV
promulgated an encyclical named In praeclara summorum, calling him one "of the many celebrated geniuses of whom the Catholic faith can boast" and the "pride and glory of humanity".[28] In 2007, a reconstruction of Dante's face was undertaken in a collaborative project. Artists from Pisa University and engineers at the University of Bologna
Bologna
at Forlì
Forlì
constructed the model, portraying Dante's features as somewhat different from what was once thought.[29][30] In 2008, the Municipality of Florence
Florence
officially apologized for expelling Dante 700 years earlier.[31] A celebration was held in 2015 for the 750th anniversary of his birth.[32][33] Works[edit] See also: Category:Works by Dante Alighieri

Divina Commedia (1472)

The Divine Comedy
Divine Comedy
describes Dante's journey through Hell
Hell
(Inferno), Purgatory
Purgatory
(Purgatorio), and Paradise (Paradiso); he is first guided by the Roman poet Virgil
Virgil
and then by Beatrice, the subject of his love (and of another of his works, La Vita Nuova). While the vision of Hell, the Inferno, is vivid for most modern readers, the theological niceties presented in the other books require a certain amount of patience and knowledge to appreciate. Purgatorio
Purgatorio
is arguably the most lyrical of the three, referencing more contemporary poets and artists than Inferno; Paradiso is the most heavily theological, and the one in which, many scholars have argued, the Divine Comedy's most beautiful and mystic passages appear (e.g., when Dante looks into the face of God: "all'alta fantasia qui mancò possa"—"at this high moment, ability failed my capacity to describe," Paradiso, XXXIII, 142).

Dante, poised between the mountain of purgatory and the city of Florence, displays the incipit Nel mezzo del cammin di nostra vita in a detail of Domenico di Michelino's painting, Florence, 1465.

With its seriousness of purpose, its literary stature and the range—both stylistic and thematic—of its content, the Comedy
Comedy
soon became a cornerstone in the evolution of Italian as an established literary language. Dante was more aware than most early Italian writers of the variety of Italian dialects and of the need to create a literature and a unified literary language beyond the limits of Latin writing at the time; in that sense, he is a forerunner of the Renaissance, with its effort to create vernacular literature in competition with earlier classical writers. Dante's in-depth knowledge (within the limits of his time) of Roman antiquity, and his evident admiration for some aspects of pagan Rome, also point forward to the 15th century. Ironically, while he was widely honored in the centuries after his death, the Comedy
Comedy
slipped out of fashion among men of letters: too medieval, too rough and tragic, and not stylistically refined in the respects that the high and late Renaissance came to demand of literature. He wrote the Comedy
Comedy
in a language he called "Italian", in some sense an amalgamated literary language mostly based on the regional dialect of Tuscany, but with some elements of Latin and other regional dialects.[34] He deliberately aimed to reach a readership throughout Italy including laymen, clergymen and other poets. By creating a poem of epic structure and philosophic purpose, he established that the Italian language
Italian language
was suitable for the highest sort of expression. In French, Italian is sometimes nicknamed la langue de Dante. Publishing in the vernacular language marked Dante as one of the first in Roman Catholic Western Europe
Western Europe
(among others such as Geoffrey Chaucer
Geoffrey Chaucer
and Giovanni Boccaccio) to break free from standards of publishing in only Latin (the language of liturgy, history and scholarship in general, but often also of lyric poetry). This break set a precedent and allowed more literature to be published for a wider audience, setting the stage for greater levels of literacy in the future. However, unlike Boccaccio, Milton or Ariosto, Dante did not really become an author read all over Europe until the Romantic era. To the Romantics, Dante, like Homer
Homer
and Shakespeare, was a prime example of the "original genius" who sets his own rules, creates persons of overpowering stature and depth, and goes far beyond any imitation of the patterns of earlier masters; and who, in turn, cannot truly be imitated. Throughout the 19th century, Dante's reputation grew and solidified; and by 1865, the 600th anniversary of his birth, he had become established as one of the greatest literary icons of the Western world.

Dante Alighieri, attributed to Giotto, in the chapel of the Bargello palace in Florence. This oldest picture of Dante was painted just prior to his exile and has since been heavily restored.

New readers often wonder how such a serious work may be called a "comedy". In the classical sense the word comedy refers to works which reflect belief in an ordered universe, in which events tend toward not only a happy or amusing ending but one influenced by a Providential will that orders all things to an ultimate good. By this meaning of the word, as Dante himself wrote in a letter to Cangrande I della Scala, the progression of the pilgrimage from Hell
Hell
to Paradise is the paradigmatic expression of comedy, since the work begins with the pilgrim's moral confusion and ends with the vision of God.

Statue of Dante Alighieri
Dante Alighieri
in Verona

Dante's other works include Convivio ("The Banquet"),[35] a collection of his longest poems with an (unfinished) allegorical commentary; Monarchia,[36] a summary treatise of political philosophy in Latin which was condemned and burned after Dante's death[37][38] by the Papal Legate Bertrando del Poggetto, which argues for the necessity of a universal or global monarchy in order to establish universal peace in this life, and this monarchy's relationship to the Roman Catholic Church as guide to eternal peace; De vulgari eloquentia
De vulgari eloquentia
("On the Eloquence of Vernacular"),[39] on vernacular literature, partly inspired by the Razos de trobar of Raimon Vidal de Bezaudun; and La Vita Nuova ("The New Life"),[40] the story of his love for Beatrice Portinari, who also served as the ultimate symbol of salvation in the Comedy. The Vita Nuova contains many of Dante's love poems in Tuscan, which was not unprecedented; the vernacular had been regularly used for lyric works before, during all the thirteenth century. However, Dante's commentary on his own work is also in the vernacular—both in the Vita Nuova and in the Convivio—instead of the Latin that was almost universally used. References to Divina Commedia are in the format (book, canto, verse), e.g., (Inferno, XV, 76).

Notes[edit]

^ Bloom, Harold (1994). The Western Canon.  ^ Shaw, Prue (2014). Reading Dante: From Here to Eternity. New York: Liveright Publishign Corporation. pp. Introduction. ISBN 9780871407429.  ^ Haller, Elizabeth K. (2012). "Dante Alighieri". In Matheson, Lister M. Icons of the Middle Ages: Rulers, Writers, Rebels, and Saints. 1. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood. p. 244. ISBN 978-0-313-34080-2.  ^ A., Murray, Charles (2003). Human accomplishment : the pursuit of excellence in the arts and sciences, 800 B.C. to 1950 (1st ed.). New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 9780060192471. OCLC 52047270.  ^ His birth date is listed as "probably in the end of May" by Robert Hollander in "Dante" in Dictionary of the Middle Ages, volume 4. According to Boccaccio, the poet himself said he was born in May. See "Alighieri, Dante" in the Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani. ^ Holbrook, Richard. "Portraits of Dante from Giotto to Raffael: a critical study, with a concise iconography". 1911. London : P. L. Warner; Boston, New York, Houghton Mifflin company. Page 16. ^ a b c d Chimenz, S.A. Alighieri, Dante. Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani (in Italian). Enciclopedia Italiana. Retrieved 2016-03-07.  ^ Santagata, Marco (2012). Dante: Il romanzo della sua vita. Milan: Mondadori. p. 21. ISBN 978-8804620266.  ^ a b Davenport, John (2005). Dante: Poet, Author, and Proud Florentine. Infobase Publishing. p. 53. ISBN 978-1-4381-0415-7. Retrieved 2016-03-07.  ^ Alighieri, Dante (2007-10-29). "Dante Alighieri". Dante Alighieri. Retrieved 2017-08-23.  ^ Dante Alighieri
Dante Alighieri
(2013). Delphi Complete Works of Dante Alighieri. 6 (Illustrated ed.). Delphi Classics. ISBN 9781909496194.  ^ Alleen Pace Nilsen, Don L. F. Nilsen (2007). Names and Naming in Young Adult Literature. 27. Scarecrow Press. p. 133. ISBN 9780810866850.  ^ Dante Alighieri
Dante Alighieri
(1904). Philip Henry Wicksteed, Herman Oelsner, ed. The Paradiso of Dante Alighieri
Dante Alighieri
(fifth ed.). J.M. Dent and Company. p. 129.  ^ Jay Ruud (2008). Critical Companion to Dante. Infobase Publishing. p. 138. ISBN 9781438108414.  ^ "Guelphs and Ghibellines". Dante Alighieri
Dante Alighieri
Society of Massachusetts. Archived from the original on December 12, 2015. Retrieved December 30, 2015.  ^ Dino Compagni, Cronica delle cose occorrenti ne' tempi suoi ^ Robert Harrison, "Dante on Trial", NY Review of Books, 19 Feb 2015, pp. 36–37 ^ Harrison, p. 36. ^ Malcolm Moore "Dante's infernal crimes forgiven", Daily Telegraph, June 17, 2008. Retrieved on June 18, 2008. ^ See Bookrags.com and Tigerstedt, E.N. 1967, Dante; Tiden Mannen Verket (Dante; The Age, the Man, the Work), Bonniers, Stockholm, 1967.[dead link] ^ Fabio M. Bertolo (2003). "L′Officiolum ritrovato di Francesco da Barberino". Spolia – Journal of Medieval Studies. Retrieved August 18, 2012.  ^ "Aquinatis: Vida de Santo Tomás de Aquino". Aquinatis.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2017-03-27.  ^ "Le famiglie Brunacci". Brunacci.it. Retrieved 2017-03-27.  ^ Eugenio Garin. History of Italian Philosophy: VIBS. Books.google.com. p. 85. Retrieved 2017-03-27.  ^ "Frater Nicolaus Brunatii [† 1322] sacerdos et predicator gratiosus, fuit lector castellanus, arectinus, perusinus, urbevetanus et romanus apud Sanctam Sabinam tempore quo papa erat in Urbe, viterbiensis et florentinus in studio generali legens ibidem annis tribus (Cr Pg 37v). Cuius sollicita procuratione conventus perusinus meruit habere gratiam a summo pontifice papa Benedicto XI ecclesiam scilicet et parrochiam Sancti Stephani tempore quo [maggio 13041 ipse prior actu in Perusio erat (Cr Pg 38r)". E-theca.net. Retrieved May 9, 2011.  ^ "Dante Alighieri". The Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved May 2, 2010.  ^ Vauchez, André; Dobson, Richard Barrie; Lapidge, Michael (2000). Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers. p. 1517. ; Caesar, Michael (1989). Dante, the Critical Heritage, 1314(?)–1870. London: Routledge. p. xi.  ^ "In praeclara summorum: Encyclical of Pope Benedict XV
Benedict XV
on Dante". The Holy See. Retrieved Nov. 7, 2014. ^ Pullella, Philip (January 12, 2007). "Dante gets posthumous nose job – 700 years on". Statesman. Reuters. Retrieved November 5, 2007.  ^ Benazzi, S (2009). "The Face of the Poet
Poet
Dante Alighieri, Reconstructed by Virtual Modeling and Forensic Anthropology Techniques". Journal of Archaeological Science. 36 (2): 278–283. doi:10.1016/j.jas.2008.09.006.  ^ Florence
Florence
sorry for banishing Dante ^ "Messaggio del Santo Padre al Presidente del Pontificio Consiglio della Cultura in occasione della celebrazione del 750° anniversario della nascita di Dante Alighieri". Press.vatican.va. Archived from the original on 2015-05-04. Retrieved 2015-10-21.  ^ "Translator". Microsofttranslator.com. Retrieved 2015-10-21.  ^ Dante at Encyclopædia Britannica ^ "Banquet". Dante online. Retrieved September 2, 2008.  ^ "Monarchia". Dante online. Retrieved September 2, 2008.  ^ Anthony K. Cassell The Monarchia Controversy. The Monarchia stayed on the Index Librorum Prohibitorum
Index Librorum Prohibitorum
from its inception until 1881. ^ Giuseppe Cappelli, La divina commedia di Dante Alighieri, in Italian. ^ "De vulgari Eloquentia". Dante online. Retrieved September 2, 2008.  ^ "New Life". Dante online. Retrieved September 2, 2008. 

References[edit]

De vulgari eloquentia, 1577

Allitt, John Stewart (2011). Dante, il Pellegrino (in Italian) (Edizioni Villadiseriane ed.). Villa di Serio (BG).  Teodolinda Barolini (ed.). Dante's Lyric Poetry: Poems of Youth and of the 'Vita Nuova'. University of Toronto Press, 2014. Gardner, Edmund Garratt (1921). Dante. London: Oxford
Oxford
University Press. OCLC 690699123. Retrieved 2016-03-07.  Hede, Jesper (2007). Reading Dante: The Pursuit of Meaning. Lanham: Lexington Books. ISBN 9780739121962.  Miles, Thomas (2008). "Dante: Tours of Hell: Mapping the Landscape of Sin
Sin
and Despair". In Stewart, Jon. Kierkegaard and the Patristic and Medieval Traditions. Ashgate. pp. 223–236. ISBN 9780754663911.  Raffa, Guy P. (2009). The Complete Danteworlds: A Reader's Guide to the Divine Comedy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226702704.  Scartazzini, Giovanni Andrea (1874–1890). La Divina Commedia riveduta e commentata (4 volumes). OCLC 558999245.  Scartazzini, Giovanni Andrea (1896–1898). Enciclopedia dantesca: dizionario critico e ragionato di quanto concerne la vita e le opere di Dante Alighieri
Dante Alighieri
(2 volumes). OCLC 12202483.  Scott, John A. (1996). Dante's Political Purgatory. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 9780585127248.  Seung, T. K. (1962). The Fragile Leaves of the Sibyl: Dante's Master Plan. Westminster, MD: Newman Press. OCLC 1426455.  Toynbee, Paget (1898). A Dictionary of the Proper Names and Notable Matters in the Works of Dante. London: The Clarendon Press. OCLC 343895. Retrieved 2016-03-07.  Whiting, Mary Bradford (1922). Dante the Man and the Poet. Cambridge: W. Heffer & Sons. OCLC 224789.  Guénon, René (1925). The Esoterism of Dante, trans. by C. B. Berhill, in the Perennial Wisdom Series. Ghent, N.Y.: Sophia Perennis et Universalis, 1996. viii, 72 p. N.B.: Originally published in French, entitled L'Esoterisme de Danté, in 1925. ISBN 0-900588-02-0

External links[edit]

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at The Virtual Library (Works in English, Italian, Latin, Arabic, German, French and Spanish) Wetherbee, Winthrop. "Dante Alighieri". In Zalta, Edward N. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.  The Dante Museum in Florence: his life, his books and a history & literature blog about Dante The World of Dante multimedia, texts, maps, gallery, searchable database, music, teacher resources, timeline The Princeton Dante Project texts and multimedia The Dartmouth Dante Project searchable database of commentary Dante Online manuscripts of works, images and text transcripts by Società Dantesca Italiana Digital Dante – Divine Comedy
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Dante's Divine Comedy

Characters and locations

Inferno

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Purgatorio

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Paradiso

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Verses

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Adaptations

Classical music

Après une Lecture de Dante: Fantasia quasi Sonata (Liszt, 1849) Dante Symphony
Dante Symphony
(Liszt, 1857) Francesca da Rimini
Francesca da Rimini
(Tchaikovsky, 1876) Francesca da Rimini
Francesca da Rimini
(Rachmaninoff, 1904) Francesca da Rimini
Francesca da Rimini
(Zandonai, 1914) Gianni Schicchi
Gianni Schicchi
(Puccini, 1918) The Divine Comedy
Divine Comedy
(Smith, 1996)

Paintings

The Barque of Dante
The Barque of Dante
(Delacroix, 1822) The Wood of the Self-Murderers: The Harpies and the Suicides (Blake, 1827) Francesca da Rimini
Francesca da Rimini
and Paolo Malatesta
Paolo Malatesta
appraised by Dante and Virgil (Scheffer, 1835) Pia de' Tolomei (Rossetti, 1868) Paolo and Francesca da Rimini
Francesca da Rimini
(Rossetti, 1885) La barca de Aqueronte
La barca de Aqueronte
(Hidalgo, 1887) La Laguna Estigia
La Laguna Estigia
(Hidalgo, 1887)

Sculptures

The Kiss (Rodin, 1882) The Thinker
The Thinker
(Rodin, 1904) The Gates of Hell
Hell
(Rodin, 1917)

Architecture

Danteum (Terragni, 1938)

Modern music

Inferno (1973 album) "Dante's Inferno" (1995 song) Dante XXI
Dante XXI
(2006 album) A Place Where the Sun Is Silent
A Place Where the Sun Is Silent
(2011 album)

Film

L'Inferno (1911) Dante's Inferno
Dante's Inferno
(1924) Dante's Inferno
Dante's Inferno
(1935) The Dante Quartet
The Dante Quartet
(1987) A TV Dante (1989) Dante's Inferno
Dante's Inferno
(2007) Dante's Inferno: An Animated Epic (2010) Dante's Inferno
Dante's Inferno
Animated (2010)

Literature

The Story of Rimini (1816) La Comédie humaine
La Comédie humaine
(1830–1850) Earth Inferno (1905) The Cantos
The Cantos
(1917–1962) As I Was Going Down Sackville Street (1937) The System of Dante's Hell
Hell
(1965) Demon Lord Dante
Demon Lord Dante
(1971) Inferno (1976) The Dante Club
The Dante Club
(2003) Jimbo's Inferno (2006) Inferno (2013)

Video games

Tamashii no Mon (1994) Devil May Cry
Devil May Cry
series (2001) Bayonetta
Bayonetta
(2009) Dante's Inferno
Dante's Inferno
(2010) The Lost (cancelled)

Related

Cultural references in Divina Commedia Dante Alighiere and the Divine Comedy
Divine Comedy
in popular culture English translations Divine Comedy
Divine Comedy
Illustrated by Botticelli

Botticelli Inferno, 2016 documentary

Category

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Constantine to Pope Gregory I

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Early Middle Ages

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High Middle Ages

Roscellinus Gregory of Narek Berengar of Tours Peter Damian Anselm of Canterbury Joachim of Fiore Peter Abelard Decretum Gratiani Bernard of Clairvaux Peter Lombard Anselm of Laon Hildegard of Bingen Hugh of Saint Victor Dominic de Guzmán Robert Grosseteste Francis of Assisi Anthony of Padua Beatrice of Nazareth Bonaventure Albertus Magnus Boetius of Dacia Henry of Ghent Thomas Aquinas Siger of Brabant Thomism Roger Bacon

Mysticism
Mysticism
and reforms

Ramon Llull Duns Scotus Dante Alighieri William of Ockham Richard Rolle John of Ruusbroec Catherine of Siena Brigit of Sweden Meister Eckhart Johannes Tauler Walter Hilton The Cloud of Unknowing Heinrich Seuse Geert Groote Devotio Moderna Julian of Norwich Thomas à Kempis Nicholas of Cusa Marsilio Ficino Girolamo Savonarola Giovanni Pico della Mirandola

Reformation Counter-Reformation

Erasmus Thomas Cajetan Thomas More John Fisher Johann Eck Francisco de Vitoria Thomas of Villanova Ignatius of Loyola Francisco de Osuna John of Ávila Francis Xavier Teresa of Ávila Luis de León John of the Cross Peter Canisius Luis de Molina
Luis de Molina
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Baroque
Baroque
period to French Revolution

Tommaso Campanella Pierre de Bérulle Pierre Gassendi René Descartes Mary of Jesus of Ágreda António Vieira Jean-Jacques Olier Louis Thomassin Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet François Fénelon Cornelius Jansen
Cornelius Jansen
(Jansenism) Blaise Pascal Nicolas Malebranche Giambattista Vico Alphonsus Liguori Louis de Montfort Maria Gaetana Agnesi Alfonso Muzzarelli Johann Michael Sailer Clement Mary Hofbauer Bruno Lanteri

19th century

Joseph Görres Felicité de Lamennais Luigi Taparelli Antonio Rosmini Ignaz von Döllinger John Henry Newman Henri Lacordaire Jaime Balmes Gaetano Sanseverino Giovanni Maria Cornoldi Wilhelm Emmanuel Freiherr von Ketteler Giuseppe Pecci Joseph Hergenröther Tommaso Maria Zigliara Matthias Joseph Scheeben Émile Boutroux Modernism Léon Bloy Désiré-Joseph Mercier Friedrich von Hügel Vladimir Solovyov Marie-Joseph Lagrange George Tyrrell Maurice Blondel Thérèse of Lisieux

20th century

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21st century

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Seven deadly sins

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Persons who categorized and described the sins

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In art and culture

Divine Comedy

Inferno Purgatorio

The Seven Deadly Sins (1585 play) The Seven Deadly Sins and the Four Last Things
The Seven Deadly Sins and the Four Last Things
(painting) The Seven Deadly Sins (1933 ballet) The Seven Deadly Sins (1952 film) The Seven Deadly Sins (1962 film) The Muppet Show: Sex and Violence (1975) Seven (1995 film) Fullmetal Alchemist
Fullmetal Alchemist
(manga series) The Seven Deadly Sins (manga series) The Seven Deadly Sins of Modern Times
The Seven Deadly Sins of Modern Times
(painting) House of Anubis: The Re-Awakening (2013) Jack (webcomic) Evillious Chronicles (song and book series)

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Authority control

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