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Rishabhanatha
Rushabhanatha or Rishabhanatha
Rishabhanatha
(also Ṛṣabhadeva, Rushabhadeva, Rishabhadeva, or Ṛṣabha which literally means "bull") is the first Tirthankara
Tirthankara
(ford maker) in Jainism.[5][6] Jain legends depict him as having lived millions of years ago.[7][4] He was the first of twenty four lords in the present half cycle of time in Jain cosmology, and called a ford maker because his teachings helped one across the sea of interminable rebirths and deaths (saṃsāra)
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Dharma (Jainism)
Dharma
Dharma
(/ˈdɑːrmə/;[8] Sanskrit: धर्म, translit. dharma, pronounced [dʱəɾmə] ( listen); Pali: धम्म, translit. dhamma, translit
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Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh[6] (MP; /ˈmʌdjə prəˈdɛʃ/ ( listen); meaning Central Province) is a state in central India. Its capital is Bhopal
Bhopal
and the largest city is Indore
Indore
with Jabalpur, Gwalior, and Ujjain
Ujjain
being the other major cities. Nicknamed the "Heart of India" due to its geographical location in India, Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
is the second-largest state in the country by area. With over 75 million inhabitants, it is the fifth-largest state in India
India
by population. It borders the states of Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
to the northeast, Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
to the southeast, Maharashtra
Maharashtra
to the south, Gujarat
Gujarat
to the west, and Rajasthan
Rajasthan
to the northwest. Its total area is 308,252 km2
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Ell
An ell (from Proto-Germanic *alinō, cognate with Latin
Latin
ulna)[1] is a unit of measurement, originally a cubit, i.e., approximating the length of a man's arm from the elbow (elbow literally meant the bend (bow) of the arm (ell)) to the tip of the middle finger, or about 18 inches (457 mm); in later usage, any of several longer units.[2][3] In English-speaking countries, these included (until the 19th century) the Flemish ell (​3⁄4 of a yard), English ell (​1 1⁄4 yards) and French ell (​1 1⁄2 yards), some of which are thought to derive from a "double ell".[4][5] An ell-wand or ellwand was a rod of length one ell used for official measurement. Edward I of England
Edward I of England
required that every town have one
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Ficus Benghalensis
Ficus
Ficus
benghalensis, commonly known as the banyan, banyan fig and Indian banyan,[2] is a tree native to the Indian Subcontinent. Specimens in India
India
are among the largest trees in the world by canopy coverage.Contents1 Ecology 2 Cultural significance 3 Notable specimens 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksEcology[edit]Nature printed leaves, showing shape and venation Ficus
Ficus
benghalensis produces propagating roots which grow downwards as aerial roots. Once these roots reach the ground they grow into woody trunks. The figs produced by the tree are eaten by birds such as the Indian myna
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Siddhasena
Siddhasēna Divākara (Jain Prakrit: सिद्दसेन दिवाकर) was an Digambara
Digambara
monk in the fifth century CE who wrote works on Jain philosophy
Jain philosophy
and epistemology.[1] He was like the illuminating lamp of the Jain order and therefore came to be known as Divākara "Lamp-Maker". He is credited with the authorship of many books, most of which are not available. Sanmatitarka (‘The Logic of the True Doctrine’) is the first major Jain work on logic written in Sanskrit.[2][3]Contents1 Life 2 Thought 3 Works 4 Notes 5 ReferencesLife[edit] Siddhasena
Siddhasena
Divakara is said to have lived from 500 CE to 610 CE. He was a Brahmin by birth and a scholar. He was initiated by Acharya Vruddhavadi.[4] According to the tradition, Siddhasena
Siddhasena
Divakara once planned to translate all the Jaina works from prakrit to Sanskrit
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Tattva (Jainism)
Jain philosophy
Jain philosophy
explains that seven tattva (truths or fundamental principles) constitute reality.[1] These are:[2]—jīva- the soul which is characterized by consciousness ajīva- the non-soul āsrava (influx)- inflow of auspicious and evil karmic matter into the soul. bandha (bondage)- mutual intermingling of the soul and karmas. samvara (stoppage)- obstruction of the inflow of karmic matter into the soul. nirjara (gradual dissociation)- separation or falling-off of part of karmic matter from the soul. mokṣha (liberation)- complete annihilation of all karmic matter (bound with any particular soul
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Brahmacharya
ArtsBharatanatyam Kathak Kathakali Kuchipudi Manipuri Mohiniyattam Odissi Sattriya Bhagavata Mela Yakshagana Dandiya Raas Carnatic musicRites of passageGarbhadhana Pumsavana Simantonayana Jatakarma Namakarana Nishkramana Annaprashana Chudakarana Karnavedha Vidyarambha Upanayana Keshanta Ritushuddhi Samavartana Vivaha AntyeshtiAshrama DharmaAshrama: Brahmacharya Grihastha Vanaprastha SannyasaFestivalsDiwali Holi Shivaratri Navaratri Durga
Durga
Puja Ramlila Vijayadashami-DussehraRaksha Bandhan Ganesh Chat
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Aparigraha
In Hinduism
Hinduism
and Jainism, aparigraha (Sanskrit: अपरिग्रह) is the virtue of non-possessiveness, non-grasping or non-greediness.[1] Aparigrah is the opposite of parigrah, and refers to keeping the desire for possessions to what is necessary or important, depending on one's life stage and context
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Gunasthana
Guṇasthāna (Sanskrit: "levels of virtue") are the fourteen stages of spiritual development and growth through which a soul gradually passes before it attains moksha (liberation).[1] According to Jainism, it is a state of soul from a complete dependence on karma to the state of complete dissociation from it. Here the word virtue does not mean an ordinary moral quality, but it stands for the nature of soul — knowledge, belief and conduct.Contents1 Overview 2 The Fourteen stages 3 The destruction of causes of bondage 4 The destruction of karmas 5 See also 6 References 7 ReferencesOverview[edit] The fourteen Gunasthāna represents the soul's gradual manifestation of the innate qualities of knowledge, belief and conduct in a more and more perfect form.[2][3] Following are the stages of spiritual development:[4][5][6]Head Gunasthāna MeaningBelief (Rationality in perception) 1. Mithyātva The stage of wrong believer (Gross ignorance)2
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Saṃsāra (Jainism)
Saṃsāra
Saṃsāra
(transmigration) in Jain philosophy, refers to the worldly life characterized by continuous rebirths and reincarnations in various realms of existence. Saṃsāra
Saṃsāra
is described as mundane existence, full of suffering and misery and hence is considered undesirable and worth renunciation. The Saṃsāra
Saṃsāra
is without any beginning and the soul finds itself in bondage with its karma since the beginning-less time
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Ethics Of Jainism
Jain ethical code prescribes two dharmas or rules of conduct. One for those who wish to become ascetic and another for the śrāvaka (householders). Five fundamental vows are prescribed for both votaries. These vows are observed by śrāvakas (householders) partially and are termed as anuvratas (small vows). Ascetics observe these fives vows more strictly and therefore observe complete abstinence. These five vows are:-Ahiṃsā (Non-violence) Satya
Satya
(Truth) Asteya
Asteya
(Non-stealing) Brahmacharya
Brahmacharya
(Chastity) Aparigraha
Aparigraha
(Non-possession)According to Jain text, Puruşārthasiddhyupāya:[1]All these subdivisions (injury, falsehood, stealing, unchastity, and attachment) are hiṃsā as indulgence in these sullies the pure nature of the soul. Falsehood etc
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Sallekhana
Sallekhana
Sallekhana
(IAST: sallekhanā), also known as Samlehna, Santhara, Samadhi-marana or Sanyasana-marana;[1] is a supplementary vow to the ethical code of conduct of Jainism
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Kundakunda
Acharya
Acharya
Kundakunda
Kundakunda
is a revered Digambara
Digambara
Jain monk and philosopher. He authored many Jain texts
Jain texts
such as: Samayasara, Niyamasara, Pancastikayasara, Pravachanasara, Atthapahuda and Barasanuvekkha. He occupies the highest place in the tradition of the Digambara
Digambara
Jain acharyas, a position comparable to Christ in Christianity and Muhammad in Islam. All Digambara
Digambara
Jains say his name before starting to read the scripture
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Kalpa Sūtra
The Kalpa Sūtra
Kalpa Sūtra
(Sanskrit: कल्पसूत्र) is a Jain text containing the biographies of the Jain
Jain
Tirthankaras, notably Parshvanatha
Parshvanatha
and Mahavira.[1] Traditionally ascribed to Bhadrabahu, which would place it in the 4th century BCE.[2], it was probably put to writing only after 980 or 993 years after the Nirvana(Moksha) of Mahavira.Contents1 History 2 Importance 3 See also 4 References4.1 Citations 4.2 Sources5 External linksHistory[edit] Within the six sections of the Jain
Jain
literary corpus belonging to the Svetambara
Svetambara
school, it is classed as one of the Cheda Sūtras. This Sutra contains detailed life histories and, from the mid-15th century, was frequently illustrated with miniature painting
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Samantabhadra (Jain Monk)
Samantabhadra was a Digambara
Digambara
acharya (head of the monastic order) who lived about the later part of the second century CE[1][2] He was a proponent of the Jaina doctrine of Anekantavada. The Ratnakaranda śrāvakācāra is the most popular work of Samantabhadra. Samantabhadra lived after Umaswami
Umaswami
but before Pujyapada.Contents1 Life 2 Thought 3 Works 4 Praise 5 References 6 SourcesLife[edit] Samantabhadra is said to have lived from 150 CE to 250 CE. He was from southern India during the time of Chola dynasty. He was a poet, logician, eulogist and an accomplished linguist.[3] He is credited with spreading Jainism
Jainism
in southern India.[4] Samantabhadra, in his early stage of asceticism, was attacked with a disease known as bhasmaka (the condition of insatiable hunger).[5] As, digambara monks don't eat more than once in a day, he endured great pain
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